Provided by: youtube-dl_2020.09.14-1_all bug


       youtube-dl - download videos from or other video platforms


       youtube-dl [OPTIONS] URL [URL...]


       youtube-dl  is  a  command-line program to download videos from and a few more
       sites.  It requires the Python interpreter, version 2.6, 2.7,  or  3.2+,  and  it  is  not
       platform  specific.   It  should  work  on  your  Unix box, on Windows or on macOS.  It is
       released to the public domain, which means you can modify it, redistribute it  or  use  it
       however you like.


       -h, --help
              Print this help text and exit

              Print program version and exit

       -i, --ignore-errors
              Continue on download errors, for example to skip unavailable videos in a playlist

              Abort  downloading  of  further  videos (in the playlist or the command line) if an
              error occurs

              Display the current browser identification

              List all supported extractors

              Output descriptions of all supported extractors

              Force extraction to use the generic extractor

       --default-search PREFIX
              Use this prefix for unqualified  URLs.   For  example  "gvsearch2:"  downloads  two
              videos  from  google  videos for youtube-dl "large apple".  Use the value "auto" to
              let youtube-dl guess ("auto_warning" to emit a  warning  when  guessing).   "error"
              just  throws  an  error.   The default value "fixup_error" repairs broken URLs, but
              emits an error if this is not possible instead of searching.

              Do not read configuration files.  When  given  in  the  global  configuration  file
              /etc/youtube-dl.conf:  Do  not  read  the  user configuration in ~/.config/youtube-
              dl/config (%APPDATA%/youtube-dl/config.txt on Windows)

       --config-location PATH
              Location of the configuration file; either the path to the config or its containing

              Do not extract the videos of a playlist, only list them.

              Mark videos watched (YouTube only)

              Do not mark videos watched (YouTube only)

              Do not emit color codes in output

   Network Options:
       --proxy URL
              Use  the specified HTTP/HTTPS/SOCKS proxy.  To enable SOCKS proxy, specify a proper
              scheme.  For example socks5://  Pass in an  empty  string  (--proxy
              "") for direct connection

       --socket-timeout SECONDS
              Time to wait before giving up, in seconds

       --source-address IP
              Client-side IP address to bind to

       -4, --force-ipv4
              Make all connections via IPv4

       -6, --force-ipv6
              Make all connections via IPv6

   Geo Restriction:
       --geo-verification-proxy URL
              Use this proxy to verify the IP address for some geo-restricted sites.  The default
              proxy specified by --proxy (or none, if the option is not present) is used for  the
              actual downloading.

              Bypass geographic restriction via faking X-Forwarded-For HTTP header

              Do not bypass geographic restriction via faking X-Forwarded-For HTTP header

       --geo-bypass-country CODE
              Force  bypass geographic restriction with explicitly provided two-letter ISO 3166-2
              country code

       --geo-bypass-ip-block IP_BLOCK
              Force bypass geographic restriction with  explicitly  provided  IP  block  in  CIDR

   Video Selection:
       --playlist-start NUMBER
              Playlist video to start at (default is 1)

       --playlist-end NUMBER
              Playlist video to end at (default is last)

       --playlist-items ITEM_SPEC
              Playlist  video  items  to download.  Specify indices of the videos in the playlist
              separated by commas like: "--playlist-items 1,2,5,8" if you want to download videos
              indexed  1,  2,  5,  8  in  the playlist.  You can specify range: "--playlist-items
              1-3,7,10-13", it will download the videos at index 1, 2, 3, 7, 10, 11, 12 and 13.

       --match-title REGEX
              Download only matching titles (regex or caseless sub-string)

       --reject-title REGEX
              Skip download for matching titles (regex or caseless sub-string)

       --max-downloads NUMBER
              Abort after downloading NUMBER files

       --min-filesize SIZE
              Do not download any videos smaller than SIZE (e.g.  50k or 44.6m)

       --max-filesize SIZE
              Do not download any videos larger than SIZE (e.g.  50k or 44.6m)

       --date DATE
              Download only videos uploaded in this date

       --datebefore DATE
              Download only videos uploaded on or before this date (i.e.  inclusive)

       --dateafter DATE
              Download only videos uploaded on or after this date (i.e.  inclusive)

       --min-views COUNT
              Do not download any videos with less than COUNT views

       --max-views COUNT
              Do not download any videos with more than COUNT views

       --match-filter FILTER
              Generic video filter.  Specify any key (see the "OUTPUT TEMPLATE"  for  a  list  of
              available  keys)  to  match  if the key is present, !key to check if the key is not
              present, key > NUMBER (like "comment_count > 12", also works with >=, <, <=, !=, =)
              to  compare against a number, key = 'LITERAL' (like "uploader = 'Mike Smith'", also
              works with !=) to match against a string literal and & to require multiple matches.
              Values  which  are  not known are excluded unless you put a question mark (?) after
              the operator.  For example, to only match videos that have been liked more than 100
              times  and  disliked  less  than  50  times  (or  the  dislike functionality is not
              available at the given service), but who also  have  a  description,  use  --match-
              filter "like_count > 100 & dislike_count <?  50 & description" .

              Download only the video, if the URL refers to a video and a playlist.

              Download the playlist, if the URL refers to a video and a playlist.

       --age-limit YEARS
              Download only videos suitable for the given age

       --download-archive FILE
              Download  only  videos  not  listed  in  the  archive  file.  Record the IDs of all
              downloaded videos in it.

              Download advertisements as well (experimental)

   Download Options:
       -r, --limit-rate RATE
              Maximum download rate in bytes per second (e.g.  50K or 4.2M)

       -R, --retries RETRIES
              Number of retries (default is 10), or "infinite".

       --fragment-retries RETRIES
              Number of retries for a fragment (default is 10), or  "infinite"  (DASH,  hlsnative
              and ISM)

              Skip unavailable fragments (DASH, hlsnative and ISM)

              Abort downloading when some fragment is not available

              Keep  downloaded  fragments  on  disk  after downloading is finished; fragments are
              erased by default

       --buffer-size SIZE
              Size of download buffer (e.g.  1024 or 16K) (default is 1024)

              Do not automatically adjust the buffer  size.   By  default,  the  buffer  size  is
              automatically resized from an initial value of SIZE.

       --http-chunk-size SIZE
              Size  of  a chunk for chunk-based HTTP downloading (e.g.  10485760 or 10M) (default
              is disabled).  May be useful  for  bypassing  bandwidth  throttling  imposed  by  a
              webserver (experimental)

              Download playlist videos in reverse order

              Download playlist videos in random order

              Set file xattribute ytdl.filesize with expected file size

              Use the native HLS downloader instead of ffmpeg

              Use ffmpeg instead of the native HLS downloader

              Use  the  mpegts  container  for  HLS  videos,  allowing  to  play  the video while
              downloading (some players may not be able to play it)

       --external-downloader COMMAND
              Use     the     specified     external     downloader.      Currently      supports

       --external-downloader-args ARGS
              Give these arguments to the external downloader

   Filesystem Options:
       -a, --batch-file FILE
              File containing URLs to download ('-' for stdin), one URL per line.  Lines starting
              with '#', ';' or ']' are considered as comments and ignored.

       --id   Use only video ID in file name

       -o, --output TEMPLATE
              Output filename template, see the "OUTPUT TEMPLATE" for all the info

       --autonumber-start NUMBER
              Specify the start value for %(autonumber)s (default is 1)

              Restrict filenames to only ASCII characters, and avoid "&" and spaces in filenames

       -w, --no-overwrites
              Do not overwrite files

       -c, --continue
              Force resume of partially downloaded files.  By  default,  youtube-dl  will  resume
              downloads if possible.

              Do not resume partially downloaded files (restart from beginning)

              Do not use .part files - write directly into output file

              Do not use the Last-modified header to set the file modification time

              Write video description to a .description file

              Write video metadata to a .info.json file

              Write video annotations to a .annotations.xml file

       --load-info-json FILE
              JSON  file  containing  the video information (created with the "--write-info-json"

       --cookies FILE
              File to read cookies from and dump cookie jar in

       --cache-dir DIR
              Location in the filesystem where youtube-dl can store some  downloaded  information
              permanently.   By  default  $XDG_CACHE_HOME/youtube-dl or ~/.cache/youtube-dl .  At
              the moment, only YouTube player files (for videos with obfuscated  signatures)  are
              cached, but that may change.

              Disable filesystem caching

              Delete all filesystem cache files

   Thumbnail images:
              Write thumbnail image to disk

              Write all thumbnail image formats to disk

              Simulate and list all available thumbnail formats

   Verbosity / Simulation Options:
       -q, --quiet
              Activate quiet mode

              Ignore warnings

       -s, --simulate
              Do not download the video and do not write anything to disk

              Do not download the video

       -g, --get-url
              Simulate, quiet but print URL

       -e, --get-title
              Simulate, quiet but print title

              Simulate, quiet but print id

              Simulate, quiet but print thumbnail URL

              Simulate, quiet but print video description

              Simulate, quiet but print video length

              Simulate, quiet but print output filename

              Simulate, quiet but print output format

       -j, --dump-json
              Simulate,  quiet  but  print  JSON  information.   See  the "OUTPUT TEMPLATE" for a
              description of available keys.

       -J, --dump-single-json
              Simulate, quiet but print JSON information for each command-line argument.  If  the
              URL refers to a playlist, dump the whole playlist information in a single line.

              Be quiet and print the video information as JSON (video is still being downloaded).

              Output progress bar as new lines

              Do not print progress bar

              Display progress in console titlebar

       -v, --verbose
              Print various debugging information

              Print downloaded pages encoded using base64 to debug problems (very verbose)

              Write  downloaded  intermediary  pages  to  files in the current directory to debug

              Display sent and read HTTP traffic

       -C, --call-home
              Contact the youtube-dl server for debugging

              Do NOT contact the youtube-dl server for debugging

       --encoding ENCODING
              Force the specified encoding (experimental)

              Suppress HTTPS certificate validation

              Use an unencrypted connection to retrieve information about the video.   (Currently
              supported only for YouTube)

       --user-agent UA
              Specify a custom user agent

       --referer URL
              Specify a custom referer, use if the video access is restricted to one domain

       --add-header FIELD:VALUE
              Specify  a custom HTTP header and its value, separated by a colon ':'.  You can use
              this option multiple times

              Work around terminals that lack bidirectional  text  support.   Requires  bidiv  or
              fribidi executable in PATH

       --sleep-interval SECONDS
              Number of seconds to sleep before each download when used alone or a lower bound of
              a range for randomized sleep before  each  download  (minimum  possible  number  of
              seconds to sleep) when used along with --max-sleep-interval.

       --max-sleep-interval SECONDS
              Upper  bound of a range for randomized sleep before each download (maximum possible
              number of seconds to sleep).  Must only be used along with --min-sleep-interval.

   Video Format Options:
       -f, --format FORMAT
              Video format code, see the "FORMAT SELECTION" for all the info

              Download all available video formats

              Prefer free video formats unless a specific one is requested

       -F, --list-formats
              List all available formats of requested videos

              Do not download the DASH manifests and related data on YouTube videos

       --merge-output-format FORMAT
              If a merge is required  (e.g.   bestvideo+bestaudio),  output  to  given  container
              format.  One of mkv, mp4, ogg, webm, flv.  Ignored if no merge is required

   Subtitle Options:
              Write subtitle file

              Write automatically generated subtitle file (YouTube only)

              Download all the available subtitles of the video

              List all available subtitles for the video

       --sub-format FORMAT
              Subtitle format, accepts formats preference, for example: "srt" or "ass/srt/best"

       --sub-lang LANGS
              Languages  of the subtitles to download (optional) separated by commas, use --list-
              subs for available language tags

   Authentication Options:
       -u, --username USERNAME
              Login with this account ID

       -p, --password PASSWORD
              Account password.  If this option is left out, youtube-dl will ask interactively.

       -2, --twofactor TWOFACTOR
              Two-factor authentication code

       -n, --netrc
              Use .netrc authentication data

       --video-password PASSWORD
              Video password (vimeo, smotri, youku)

   Adobe Pass Options:
       --ap-mso MSO
              Adobe Pass multiple-system operator (TV provider) identifier, use --ap-list-mso for
              a list of available MSOs

       --ap-username USERNAME
              Multiple-system operator account login

       --ap-password PASSWORD
              Multiple-system  operator account password.  If this option is left out, youtube-dl
              will ask interactively.

              List all supported multiple-system operators

   Post-processing Options:
       -x, --extract-audio
              Convert video files to audio-only files (requires ffmpeg or avconv and  ffprobe  or

       --audio-format FORMAT
              Specify  audio  format:  "best",  "aac", "flac", "mp3", "m4a", "opus", "vorbis", or
              "wav"; "best" by default; No effect without -x

       --audio-quality QUALITY
              Specify ffmpeg/avconv audio quality, insert  a  value  between  0  (better)  and  9
              (worse) for VBR or a specific bitrate like 128K (default 5)

       --recode-video FORMAT
              Encode   the   video   to   another   format  if  necessary  (currently  supported:

       --postprocessor-args ARGS
              Give these arguments to the postprocessor

       -k, --keep-video
              Keep the video file on disk after the post- processing;  the  video  is  erased  by

              Do  not overwrite post-processed files; the post-processed files are overwritten by

              Embed subtitles in the video (only for mp4, webm and mkv videos)

              Embed thumbnail in the audio as cover art

              Write metadata to the video file

       --metadata-from-title FORMAT
              Parse additional metadata like song title /  artist  from  the  video  title.   The
              format  syntax  is  the  same  as  --output.  Regular expression with named capture
              groups may also be used.  The parsed parameters replace existing values.   Example:
              --metadata-from-  title  "%(artist)s  - %(title)s" matches a title like "Coldplay -
              Paradise".  Example (regex): --metadata-from-title "(?P.+?) - (?P

              Write metadata to the video file's xattrs (using dublin core and xdg standards)

       --fixup POLICY
              Automatically correct known faults of the file.  One of never  (do  nothing),  warn
              (only  emit  a  warning),  detect_or_warn  (the  default;  fix file if we can, warn

              Prefer avconv over ffmpeg for running the postprocessors

              Prefer ffmpeg over avconv for running the postprocessors (default)

       --ffmpeg-location PATH
              Location of the ffmpeg/avconv  binary;  either  the  path  to  the  binary  or  its
              containing directory.

       --exec CMD
              Execute  a  command  on  the file after downloading and post-processing, similar to
              find's -exec syntax.  Example: --exec 'adb push {} /sdcard/Music/ && rm {}'

       --convert-subs FORMAT
              Convert the subtitles to other format (currently supported: srt|ass|vtt|lrc)


       You  can  configure  youtube-dl  by  placing  any  supported  command  line  option  to  a
       configuration  file.  On Linux and macOS, the system wide configuration file is located at
       /etc/youtube-dl.conf and the user wide configuration file at  ~/.config/youtube-dl/config.
       On Windows, the user wide configuration file locations are %APPDATA%\youtube-dl\config.txt
       or C:\Users\<user name>\youtube-dl.conf.  Note that by default configuration file may  not
       exist so you may need to create it yourself.

       For  example,  with  the  following  configuration file youtube-dl will always extract the
       audio, not copy the mtime, use a proxy and save all videos under Movies directory in  your
       home directory:

              # Lines starting with # are comments

              # Always extract audio

              # Do not copy the mtime

              # Use this proxy

              # Save all videos under Movies directory in your home directory
              -o ~/Movies/%(title)s.%(ext)s

       Note  that  options  in  configuration file are just the same options aka switches used in
       regular command line calls thus there must be no whitespace after - or  --,  e.g.   -o  or
       --proxy but not - o or -- proxy.

       You can use --ignore-config if you want to disable the configuration file for a particular
       youtube-dl run.

       You can also use --config-location if you want to use  custom  configuration  file  for  a
       particular youtube-dl run.

   Authentication with .netrc file
       You  may  also want to configure automatic credentials storage for extractors that support
       authentication (by providing login and password with --username and --password)  in  order
       not  to  pass  credentials  as  command  line  arguments on every youtube-dl execution and
       prevent tracking plain text passwords in the shell command history.  You can achieve  this
       using a .netrc file ( on a per extractor basis.
       For that you will need to create a .netrc file in your $HOME and restrict  permissions  to
       read/write by only you:

              touch $HOME/.netrc
              chmod a-rwx,u+rw $HOME/.netrc

       After  that  you  can  add  credentials  for  an  extractor in the following format, where
       extractor is the name of the extractor in lowercase:

              machine <extractor> login <login> password <password>

       For example:

              machine youtube login password my_youtube_password
              machine twitch login my_twitch_account_name password my_twitch_password

       To activate authentication with the .netrc file you should pass --netrc to  youtube-dl  or
       place it in the configuration file.

       On  Windows  you  may  also  need  to setup the %HOME% environment variable manually.  For

              set HOME=%USERPROFILE%


       The -o option allows users to indicate a template for the output file names.

       tl;dr: navigate me to examples.

       The basic usage is not to set any template arguments when downloading a single file,  like
       in  youtube-dl  -o  funny_video.flv "https://some/video".  However, it may contain special
       sequences that will be replaced when downloading each video.  The special sequences may be
       formatted       according       to      python      string      formatting      operations
       (      For     example,
       %(NAME)s  or  %(NAME)05d.   To  clarify,  that  is  a percent symbol followed by a name in
       parentheses, followed by formatting operations.  Allowed names along  with  sequence  type

       · id (string): Video identifier

       · title (string): Video title

       · url (string): Video URL

       · ext (string): Video filename extension

       · alt_title (string): A secondary title of the video

       · display_id (string): An alternative identifier for the video

       · uploader (string): Full name of the video uploader

       · license (string): License name the video is licensed under

       · creator (string): The creator of the video

       · release_date (string): The date (YYYYMMDD) when the video was released

       · timestamp (numeric): UNIX timestamp of the moment the video became available

       · upload_date (string): Video upload date (YYYYMMDD)

       · uploader_id (string): Nickname or id of the video uploader

       · channel (string): Full name of the channel the video is uploaded on

       · channel_id (string): Id of the channel

       · location (string): Physical location where the video was filmed

       · duration (numeric): Length of the video in seconds

       · view_count (numeric): How many users have watched the video on the platform

       · like_count (numeric): Number of positive ratings of the video

       · dislike_count (numeric): Number of negative ratings of the video

       · repost_count (numeric): Number of reposts of the video

       · average_rating  (numeric):  Average  rating give by users, the scale used depends on the

       · comment_count (numeric): Number of comments on the video

       · age_limit (numeric): Age restriction for the video (years)

       · is_live (boolean): Whether this video is a live stream or a fixed-length video

       · start_time (numeric): Time in seconds where the reproduction should start, as  specified
         in the URL

       · end_time  (numeric):  Time in seconds where the reproduction should end, as specified in
         the URL

       · format (string): A human-readable description of the format

       · format_id (string): Format code specified by --format

       · format_note (string): Additional info about the format

       · width (numeric): Width of the video

       · height (numeric): Height of the video

       · resolution (string): Textual description of width and height

       · tbr (numeric): Average bitrate of audio and video in KBit/s

       · abr (numeric): Average audio bitrate in KBit/s

       · acodec (string): Name of the audio codec in use

       · asr (numeric): Audio sampling rate in Hertz

       · vbr (numeric): Average video bitrate in KBit/s

       · fps (numeric): Frame rate

       · vcodec (string): Name of the video codec in use

       · container (string): Name of the container format

       · filesize (numeric): The number of bytes, if known in advance

       · filesize_approx (numeric): An estimate for the number of bytes

       · protocol (string): The protocol that will be used for the actual download

       · extractor (string): Name of the extractor

       · extractor_key (string): Key name of the extractor

       · epoch (numeric): Unix epoch when creating the file

       · autonumber (numeric): Five-digit number that  will  be  increased  with  each  download,
         starting at zero

       · playlist (string): Name or id of the playlist that contains the video

       · playlist_index  (numeric):  Index of the video in the playlist padded with leading zeros
         according to the total length of the playlist

       · playlist_id (string): Playlist identifier

       · playlist_title (string): Playlist title

       · playlist_uploader (string): Full name of the playlist uploader

       · playlist_uploader_id (string): Nickname or id of the playlist uploader

       Available for the video that belongs to some logical chapter or section:

       · chapter (string): Name or title of the chapter the video belongs to

       · chapter_number (numeric): Number of the chapter the video belongs to

       · chapter_id (string): Id of the chapter the video belongs to

       Available for the video that is an episode of some series or programme:

       · series (string): Title of the series or programme the video episode belongs to

       · season (string): Title of the season the video episode belongs to

       · season_number (numeric): Number of the season the video episode belongs to

       · season_id (string): Id of the season the video episode belongs to

       · episode (string): Title of the video episode

       · episode_number (numeric): Number of the video episode within a season

       · episode_id (string): Id of the video episode

       Available for the media that is a track or a part of a music album:

       · track (string): Title of the track

       · track_number (numeric): Number of the track within an album or a disc

       · track_id (string): Id of the track

       · artist (string): Artist(s) of the track

       · genre (string): Genre(s) of the track

       · album (string): Title of the album the track belongs to

       · album_type (string): Type of the album

       · album_artist (string): List of all artists appeared on the album

       · disc_number (numeric): Number of the disc or other physical medium the track belongs to

       · release_year (numeric): Year (YYYY) when the album was released

       Each aforementioned sequence when referenced in an output template will be replaced by the
       actual  value corresponding to the sequence name.  Note that some of the sequences are not
       guaranteed to be present since they depend  on  the  metadata  obtained  by  a  particular
       extractor.  Such sequences will be replaced with NA.

       For  example  for  -o %(title)s-%(id)s.%(ext)s and an mp4 video with title youtube-dl test
       video and id BaW_jenozKcj, this will result in a  youtube-dl  test  video-BaW_jenozKcj.mp4
       file created in the current directory.

       For   numeric   sequences   you   can   use   numeric  related  formatting,  for  example,
       %(view_count)05d will result in a string with  view  count  padded  with  zeros  up  to  5
       characters, like in 00042.

       Output    templates   can   also   contain   arbitrary   hierarchical   path,   e.g.    -o
       '%(playlist)s/%(playlist_index)s - %(title)s.%(ext)s' which  will  result  in  downloading
       each video in a directory corresponding to this path template.  Any missing directory will
       be automatically created for you.

       To use percent literals in an output template use %%.  To output to stdout use -o -.

       The current default template is %(title)s-%(id)s.%(ext)s.

       In some cases, you don't want special characters such as 中, spaces, or &,  such  as  when
       transferring  the downloaded filename to a Windows system or the filename through an 8bit-
       unsafe channel.  In these cases, add the --restrict-filenames flag to get a shorter title:

   Output template and Windows batch files
       If you are using an output template inside a Windows batch file then you must escape plain
       percent characters (%) by doubling, so that -o "%(title)s-%(id)s.%(ext)s" should become -o
       "%%(title)s-%%(id)s.%%(ext)s".  However you should  not  touch  %'s  that  are  not  plain
       characters,   e.g.    environment   variables   for   expansion  should  stay  intact:  -o

   Output template examples
       Note that on Windows you may need to use double quotes instead of single.

              $ youtube-dl --get-filename -o '%(title)s.%(ext)s' BaW_jenozKc
              youtube-dl test video ''_ä↭𝕐.mp4    # All kinds of weird characters

              $ youtube-dl --get-filename -o '%(title)s.%(ext)s' BaW_jenozKc --restrict-filenames
              youtube-dl_test_video_.mp4          # A simple file name

              # Download YouTube playlist videos in separate directory indexed by video order in a playlist
              $ youtube-dl -o '%(playlist)s/%(playlist_index)s - %(title)s.%(ext)s'

              # Download all playlists of YouTube channel/user keeping each playlist in separate directory:
              $ youtube-dl -o '%(uploader)s/%(playlist)s/%(playlist_index)s - %(title)s.%(ext)s'

              # Download Udemy course keeping each chapter in separate directory under MyVideos directory in your home
              $ youtube-dl -u user -p password -o '~/MyVideos/%(playlist)s/%(chapter_number)s - %(chapter)s/%(title)s.%(ext)s'

              # Download entire series season keeping each series and each season in separate directory under C:/MyVideos
              $ youtube-dl -o "C:/MyVideos/%(series)s/%(season_number)s - %(season)s/%(episode_number)s - %(episode)s.%(ext)s"

              # Stream the video being downloaded to stdout
              $ youtube-dl -o - BaW_jenozKc


       By default youtube-dl tries to download the best available quality, i.e.  if you want  the
       best  quality you don't need to pass any special options, youtube-dl will guess it for you
       by default.

       But sometimes you may want to download in a different format, for example when you are  on
       a  slow  or  intermittent  connection.   The key mechanism for achieving this is so-called
       format selection based on which you can explicitly specify desired format, select  formats
       based on some criterion or criteria, setup precedence and much more.

       The  general  syntax  for  format  selection is --format FORMAT or shorter -f FORMAT where
       FORMAT is a selector expression, i.e.  an expression that describes format or formats  you
       would like to download.

       tl;dr: navigate me to examples.

       The simplest case is requesting a specific format, for example with -f 22 you can download
       the format with format code equal to 22.  You can get the list of available  format  codes
       for  particular  video  using  --list-formats  or  -F.   Note  that these format codes are
       extractor specific.

       You can also use a file extension (currently 3gp, aac, flv, m4a, mp3, mp4, ogg, wav,  webm
       are  supported)  to download the best quality format of a particular file extension served
       as a single file, e.g.  -f webm will download  the  best  quality  format  with  the  webm
       extension served as a single file.

       You can also use special names to select particular edge case formats:

       · best: Select the best quality format represented by a single file with video and audio.

       · worst:  Select  the  worst  quality  format  represented by a single file with video and

       · bestvideo: Select the best quality video-only format (e.g.  DASH  video).   May  not  be

       · worstvideo: Select the worst quality video-only format.  May not be available.

       · bestaudio: Select the best quality audio only-format.  May not be available.

       · worstaudio: Select the worst quality audio only-format.  May not be available.

       For example, to download the worst quality video-only format you can use -f worstvideo.

       If  you  want  to download multiple videos and they don't have the same formats available,
       you can specify the  order  of  preference  using  slashes.   Note  that  slash  is  left-
       associative,  i.e.   formats  on the left hand side are preferred, for example -f 22/17/18
       will download format 22 if it's available, otherwise it will download format  17  if  it's
       available,  otherwise  it  will  download  format  18 if it's available, otherwise it will
       complain that no suitable formats are available for download.

       If you want to download several formats of the same video use a comma as a separator, e.g.
       -f  22,17,18 will download all these three formats, of course if they are available.  Or a
       more   sophisticated    example    combined    with    the    precedence    feature:    -f

       You  can  also  filter  the  video  formats  by  putting a condition in brackets, as in -f
       "best[height=720]" (or -f "[filesize>10M]").

       The following numeric meta fields can be used with comparisons <, <=, >, >=,  =  (equals),
       != (not equals):

       · filesize: The number of bytes, if known in advance

       · width: Width of the video, if known

       · height: Height of the video, if known

       · tbr: Average bitrate of audio and video in KBit/s

       · abr: Average audio bitrate in KBit/s

       · vbr: Average video bitrate in KBit/s

       · asr: Audio sampling rate in Hertz

       · fps: Frame rate

       Also  filtering  work  for  comparisons  =  (equals), ^= (starts with), $= (ends with), *=
       (contains) and following string meta fields:

       · ext: File extension

       · acodec: Name of the audio codec in use

       · vcodec: Name of the video codec in use

       · container: Name of the container format

       · protocol: The protocol that will be used for  the  actual  download,  lower-case  (http,
         https, rtsp, rtmp, rtmpe, mms, f4m, ism, http_dash_segments, m3u8, or m3u8_native)

       · format_id: A short description of the format

       Any  string  comparison  may  be  prefixed with negation ! in order to produce an opposite
       comparison, e.g.  !*= (does not contain).

       Note that none of the aforementioned meta fields are guaranteed to be present  since  this
       solely  depends  on  the  metadata  obtained  by  particular extractor, i.e.  the metadata
       offered by the video hoster.

       Formats for which the value is not known are excluded unless you put a question  mark  (?)
       after  the  operator.   You  can combine format filters, so -f "[height <=? 720][tbr>500]"
       selects up to 720p videos (or videos where the height is not known) with a bitrate  of  at
       least 500 KBit/s.

       You  can  merge  the  video  and  audio of two formats into a single file using -f <video-
       format>+<audio-format>  (requires  ffmpeg   or   avconv   installed),   for   example   -f
       bestvideo+bestaudio  will  download the best video-only format, the best audio-only format
       and mux them together with ffmpeg/avconv.

       Format selectors can also be grouped  using  parentheses,  for  example  if  you  want  to
       download  the  best  mp4  and  webm  formats  with  a height lower than 480 you can use -f

       Since  the  end   of   April   2015   and   version   2015.04.26,   youtube-dl   uses   -f
       bestvideo+bestaudio/best     as     the    default    format    selection    (see    #5447
       (,   #5456    (
       org/youtube-dl/issues/5456)).    If  ffmpeg  or  avconv  are  installed  this  results  in
       downloading bestvideo and bestaudio separately and muxing them together into a single file
       giving the best overall quality available.  Otherwise it falls back to best and results in
       downloading the best available quality served as a single file.  best is also  needed  for
       videos  that don't come from YouTube because they don't provide the audio and video in two
       different files.  If you want to only download some DASH formats (for example if  you  are
       not  interested  in  getting  videos  with a resolution higher than 1080p), you can add -f
       bestvideo[height<=?1080]+bestaudio/best to your configuration file.  Note that if you  use
       youtube-dl  to  stream  to  stdout (and most likely to pipe it to your media player then),
       i.e.  you explicitly specify output template as -o -, youtube-dl still uses -f best format
       selection  in  order  to start content delivery immediately to your player and not to wait
       until bestvideo and bestaudio are downloaded and muxed.

       If  you  want  to  preserve  the  old  format  selection  behavior  (prior  to  youtube-dl
       2015.04.26),  i.e.   you  want  to  download  the best available quality media served as a
       single file, you should explicitly specify your choice with -f best.  You may want to  add
       it to the configuration file in order not to type it every time you run youtube-dl.

   Format selection examples
       Note that on Windows you may need to use double quotes instead of single.

              # Download best mp4 format available or any other best if no mp4 available
              $ youtube-dl -f 'bestvideo[ext=mp4]+bestaudio[ext=m4a]/best[ext=mp4]/best'

              # Download best format available but no better than 480p
              $ youtube-dl -f 'bestvideo[height<=480]+bestaudio/best[height<=480]'

              # Download best video only format but no bigger than 50 MB
              $ youtube-dl -f 'best[filesize<50M]'

              # Download best format available via direct link over HTTP/HTTPS protocol
              $ youtube-dl -f '(bestvideo+bestaudio/best)[protocol^=http]'

              # Download the best video format and the best audio format without merging them
              $ youtube-dl -f 'bestvideo,bestaudio' -o '%(title)s.f%(format_id)s.%(ext)s'

       Note  that  in  the  last  example,  an  output  template  is recommended as bestvideo and
       bestaudio may have the same file name.


       Videos can be filtered by their upload date using  the  options  --date,  --datebefore  or
       --dateafter.  They accept dates in two formats:

       · Absolute dates: Dates in the format YYYYMMDD.

       · Relative dates: Dates in the format (now|today)[+-][0-9](day|week|month|year)(s)?


              # Download only the videos uploaded in the last 6 months
              $ youtube-dl --dateafter now-6months

              # Download only the videos uploaded on January 1, 1970
              $ youtube-dl --date 19700101

              $ # Download only the videos uploaded in the 200x decade
              $ youtube-dl --dateafter 20000101 --datebefore 20091231


   How do I update youtube-dl?
       If    you've    followed    our    manual    installation    instructions   (https://ytdl-, you can simply run youtube-dl -U (or,  on  Linux,
       sudo youtube-dl -U).

       If you have used pip, a simple sudo pip install -U youtube-dl is sufficient to update.

       If  you  have  installed  youtube-dl  using a package manager like apt-get or yum, use the
       standard system update mechanism to update.  Note that  distribution  packages  are  often
       outdated.  As a rule of thumb, youtube-dl releases at least once a month, and often weekly
       or even  daily.   Simply  go  to  to  find  out  the  current  version.
       Unfortunately,  there  is  nothing  we  youtube-dl  developers can do if your distribution
       serves a really outdated version.  You can (and should) complain to your  distribution  in
       their bugtracker or support forum.

       As a last resort, you can also uninstall the version installed by your package manager and
       follow our manual installation instructions.  For that, remove the distribution's package,
       with a line like

              sudo apt-get remove -y youtube-dl

       Afterwards,   simply   follow   our   manual   installation   instructions  (https://ytdl-

              sudo wget -O /usr/local/bin/youtube-dl
              sudo chmod a+rx /usr/local/bin/youtube-dl
              hash -r

       Again, from then on you'll be able to update with sudo youtube-dl -U.

   youtube-dl is extremely slow to start on Windows
       Add a file exclusion for youtube-dl.exe in Windows Defender settings.

   I'm getting an error Unable to extract OpenGraph title on YouTube playlists
       YouTube changed their playlist format in March 2014 and later on, so you'll need at  least
       youtube-dl 2014.07.25 to download all YouTube videos.

       If  you  have  installed  youtube-dl  with  a package manager, pip, or a tarball,
       please use that to update.  Note that Ubuntu packages do not seem to get updated  anymore.
       Since  we  are not affiliated with Ubuntu, there is little we can do.  Feel free to report
       bugs   (   to   the   Ubuntu
       packaging                              people                              (mailto:ubuntu- - all they have to  do
       is update the package to a somewhat recent version.  See above for a way to update.

   I'm  getting  an  error  when  trying  to  use  output  template: error: using output template
       conflicts with using title, video ID or auto number
       Make sure you are not using -o with any of these options -t, --title, --id, -A or  --auto-
       number set in command line or in a configuration file.  Remove the latter if any.

   Do I always have to pass -citw?
       By  default,  youtube-dl  intends  to  have  the best options (incidentally, if you have a
       convincing case that these should be different, please file an  issue  where  you  explain
       that (  Therefore, it is unnecessary and sometimes harmful to copy
       long option strings from webpages.  In particular, the only option out of  -citw  that  is
       regularly useful is -i.

   Can you please put the -b option back?
       Most people asking this question are not aware that youtube-dl now defaults to downloading
       the highest available quality as reported by YouTube, which will be 1080p or 720p in  some
       cases,  so you no longer need the -b option.  For some specific videos, maybe YouTube does
       not report them to be available in a specific high quality format  you're  interested  in.
       In that case, simply request it with the -f option and youtube-dl will try to download it.

   I get HTTP error 402 when trying to download a video. What's this?
       Apparently  YouTube  requires  you to pass a CAPTCHA test if you download too much.  We're
       considering to provide a way  to  let  you  solve  the  CAPTCHA  (
       org/youtube-dl/issues/154),  but  at  the moment, your best course of action is pointing a
       web browser to the youtube URL, solving the CAPTCHA, and restart youtube-dl.

   Do I need any other programs?
       youtube-dl works fine on its  own  on  most  sites.   However,  if  you  want  to  convert
       video/audio,  you'll need avconv ( or ffmpeg (
       On some sites - most notably YouTube - videos can be retrieved in a higher quality  format
       without  sound.  youtube-dl will detect whether avconv/ffmpeg is present and automatically
       pick the best option.

       Videos or video formats streamed via RTMP protocol can only be  downloaded  when  rtmpdump
       (  is  installed.  Downloading MMS and RTSP videos requires
       either mplayer ( or mpv ( to be installed.

   I have downloaded a video but how can I play it?
       Once the video is fully downloaded, use any video player, such as  mpv  (,
       vlc ( or mplayer (

   I extracted a video URL with -g, but it does not play on another machine / in my web browser.
       It  depends a lot on the service.  In many cases, requests for the video (to download/play
       it) must come from the same IP address and with the same cookies and/or HTTP headers.  Use
       the --cookies option to write the required cookies into a file, and advise your downloader
       to read cookies from that file.  Some sites also require a common user agent to  be  used,
       use  --dump-user-agent  to  see  the one in use by youtube-dl.  You can also get necessary
       cookies and HTTP headers from JSON output obtained with --dump-json.

       It may be beneficial to use IPv6; in some cases, the  restrictions  are  only  applied  to
       IPv4.  Some services (sometimes only for a subset of videos) do not restrict the video URL
       by IP address, cookie, or user-agent, but these are the exception rather than the rule.

       Please bear in mind that some URL protocols are not supported by browsers out of the  box,
       including RTMP.  If you are using -g, your own downloader must support these as well.

       If  you  want to play the video on a machine that is not running youtube-dl, you can relay
       the video content from the machine that runs youtube-dl.  You can use -o - to let youtube-
       dl  stream  a video to stdout, or simply allow the player to download the files written by
       youtube-dl in turn.

   ERROR: no fmt_url_map or conn information found in video info
       YouTube has switched to a new video info format in July 2011 which is not supported by old
       versions of youtube-dl.  See above for how to update youtube-dl.

   ERROR: unable to download video
       YouTube  requires  an  additional signature since September 2012 which is not supported by
       old versions of youtube-dl.  See above for how to update youtube-dl.

   Video URL contains an ampersand and I'm getting some strange output [1] 2839  or  'v'  is  not
       recognized as an internal or external command
       That's  actually  the output from your shell.  Since ampersand is one of the special shell
       characters it's interpreted by the shell preventing you from  passing  the  whole  URL  to
       youtube-dl.   To disable your shell from interpreting the ampersands (or any other special
       characters) you have to either put the whole URL in quotes or escape them with a backslash
       (which approach will work depends on your shell).

       For  example if your URL is you should end
       up with following command:

       youtube-dl ''



       For Windows you have to use the double quotes:

       youtube-dl ""

   ExtractorError: Could not find JS function u'OF'
       In February 2015, the new YouTube player contained a character sequence in a  string  that
       was misinterpreted by old versions of youtube-dl.  See above for how to update youtube-dl.

   HTTP Error 429: Too Many Requests or 402: Payment Required
       These  two  error  codes  indicate that the service is blocking your IP address because of
       overuse.  Usually this is a soft block meaning  that  you  can  gain  access  again  after
       solving  CAPTCHA.   Just  open  a browser and solve a CAPTCHA the service suggests you and
       after that pass cookies to youtube-dl.  Note that if your machine  has  multiple  external
       IPs  then  you  should  also pass exactly the same IP you've used for solving CAPTCHA with
       --source-address.  Also you may need to pass a User-Agent HTTP header of your browser with

       If  this  is  not  the  case  (no  CAPTCHA suggested to solve by the service) then you can
       contact the service and ask them to unblock your IP address, or - if you have  acquired  a
       whitelisted  IP  address  already  - use the --proxy or --source-address options to select
       another IP address.

   SyntaxError: Non-ASCII character
       The error

              File "youtube-dl", line 2
              SyntaxError: Non-ASCII character '\x93' ...

       means you're using an outdated version of Python.  Please update to Python 2.6 or 2.7.

   What is this binary file? Where has the code gone?
       Since June 2012 (#342 (  youtube-dl  is
       packed  as  an  executable zipfile, simply unzip it (might need renaming to
       first on some systems) or clone the git repository, as laid out above.  If you modify  the
       code,  you can run it by executing the file.  To recompile the executable, run
       make youtube-dl.

   The exe throws an error due to missing MSVCR100.dll
       To run the exe you need to install first the Microsoft  Visual  C++  2010  Redistributable
       Package (x86) (

   On Windows, how should I set up ffmpeg and youtube-dl? Where should I put the exe files?
       If  you  put  youtube-dl  and ffmpeg in the same directory that you're running the command
       from, it will work, but that's rather cumbersome.

       To make a different directory work - either for ffmpeg, or for youtube-dl, or for  both  -
       simply  create  the  directory  (say,  C:\bin,  or  C:\Users\<User name>\bin), put all the
       executables  directly  in  there,  and   then   set   your   PATH   environment   variable
       ( to include that directory.

       From  then on, after restarting your shell, you will be able to access both youtube-dl and
       ffmpeg (and youtube-dl will be able to find ffmpeg) by simply typing youtube-dl or ffmpeg,
       no matter what directory you're in.

   How do I put downloads into a specific folder?
       Use     the     -o     to     specify    an    output    template,    for    example    -o
       "/home/user/videos/%(title)s-%(id)s.%(ext)s".  If you want this for all of your downloads,
       put the option into your configuration file.

   How do I download a video starting with a -?
       Either  prepend or separate the ID from the options with

              youtube-dl -- -wNyEUrxzFU
              youtube-dl ""

   How do I pass cookies to youtube-dl?
       Use the --cookies option, for example --cookies /path/to/cookies/file.txt.

       In order to extract  cookies  from  browser  use  any  conforming  browser  extension  for
       exporting             cookies.              For            example,            cookies.txt
       (for  Chrome) or cookies.txt (
       (for Firefox).

       Note that the cookies file must be in Mozilla/Netscape format and the first  line  of  the
       cookies  file must be either # HTTP Cookie File or # Netscape HTTP Cookie File.  Make sure
       you have correct newline format  (  in  the  cookies
       file  and convert newlines if necessary to correspond with your OS, namely CRLF (\r\n) for
       Windows and LF (\n) for Unix and Unix-like systems (Linux, macOS, etc.).  HTTP Error  400:
       Bad Request when using --cookies is a good sign of invalid newline format.

       Passing  cookies  to  youtube-dl  is  a  good  way  to  workaround login when a particular
       extractor does not implement it explicitly.  Another use case is  working  around  CAPTCHA
       (  some  websites require you to solve in particular
       cases in order to get access (e.g.  YouTube, CloudFlare).

   How do I stream directly to media player?
       You will first need to tell youtube-dl to stream media to stdout with -o -, and also  tell
       your  media  player to read from stdin (it must be capable of this for streaming) and then
       pipe former to latter.  For example, streaming to vlc (  can  be
       achieved with:

              youtube-dl -o - "" | vlc -

   How do I download only new videos from a playlist?
       Use  download-archive  feature.   With  this  feature  you  should  initially download the
       complete playlist with  --download-archive  /path/to/download/archive/file.txt  that  will
       record identifiers of all the videos in a special file.  Each subsequent run with the same
       --download-archive will download only new videos  and  skip  all  videos  that  have  been
       downloaded before.  Note that only successful downloads are recorded in the file.

       For example, at first,

              youtube-dl --download-archive archive.txt ""

       will  download  the complete PLwiyx1dc3P2JR9N8gQaQN_BCvlSlap7re playlist and create a file
       archive.txt.  Each subsequent run will only download new videos if any:

              youtube-dl --download-archive archive.txt ""

   Should I add --hls-prefer-native into my config?
       When youtube-dl detects an HLS  video,  it  can  download  it  either  with  the  built-in
       downloader  or  ffmpeg.  Since many HLS streams are slightly invalid and ffmpeg/youtube-dl
       each handle some invalid cases better than the other, there is an  option  to  switch  the
       downloader if needed.

       When  youtube-dl  knows  that  one particular downloader works better for a given website,
       that downloader will be picked.  Otherwise, youtube-dl will pick the best  downloader  for
       general  compatibility,  which at the moment happens to be ffmpeg.  This choice may change
       in future versions of youtube-dl, with improvements  of  the  built-in  downloader  and/or

       In  particular,  the  generic  extractor  (used  when  your  website is not in the list of
       supported sites by youtube-dl  (
       cannot mandate one specific downloader.

       If  you  put  either --hls-prefer-native or --hls-prefer-ffmpeg into your configuration, a
       different subset of videos will fail to download correctly.  Instead, it is much better to
       file  an  issue  ( or a pull request which details why the native or
       the ffmpeg HLS downloader is a better choice for your use case.

   Can you add support for this anime video site, or site which shows current movies for free?
       As a matter of policy (as well as legality),  youtube-dl  does  not  include  support  for
       services  that  specialize  in  infringing  copyright.   As a rule of thumb, if you cannot
       easily find a video that the service is quite obviously allowed to distribute (i.e.   that
       has  been uploaded by the creator, the creator's distributor, or is published under a free
       license), the service is probably unfit for inclusion to youtube-dl.

       A note on the service that they don't host the infringing content, but just link to  those
       who  do,  is  evidence  that the service should not be included into youtube-dl.  The same
       goes for any DMCA note when the whole front page of the service is filled with videos they
       are  not  allowed to distribute.  A "fair use" note is equally unconvincing if the service
       shows copyright-protected videos in full without authorization.

       Support requests for services that do purchase the rights to distribute their content  are
       perfectly  fine  though.   If  in doubt, you can simply include a source that mentions the
       legitimate purchase of content.

   How can I speed up work on my issue?
       (Also known as: Help, my important issue not being solved!) The youtube-dl core  developer
       team  is quite small.  While we do our best to solve as many issues as possible, sometimes
       that can take quite a while.  To speed up your issue, here's what you can do:

       First of all, please do report the issue at our  issue  tracker  (
       That  allows us to coordinate all efforts by users and developers, and serves as a unified
       point.  Unfortunately, the youtube-dl project has grown too large to use personal email as
       an effective communication channel.

       Please  read  the  bug reporting instructions below.  A lot of bugs lack all the necessary
       information.  If you can, offer proxy, VPN, or shell access to the youtube-dl  developers.
       If  you  are  able  to,  test  the  issue from multiple computers in multiple countries to
       exclude local censorship or misconfiguration issues.

       If nobody is interested in solving your issue, you are welcome to take matters  into  your
       own hands and submit a pull request (or coerce/pay somebody else to do so).

       Feel  free to bump the issue from time to time by writing a small comment ("Issue is still
       present in youtube-dl version ...from France, but fixed from  Belgium"),  but  please  not
       more than once a month.  Please do not declare your issue as important or urgent.

   How can I detect whether a given URL is supported by youtube-dl?
       For  one,  have  a look at the list of supported sites.  Note that it can sometimes happen
       that the site changes its  URL  scheme  (say,  from  to ) and youtube-dl reports an URL of a service in that list as
       unsupported.  In that case, simply report a bug.

       It is not possible to detect whether a URL is supported or not.  That's because youtube-dl
       contains  a  generic  extractor  which  matches  all URLs.  You may be tempted to disable,
       exclude, or remove the generic extractor, but the generic extractor not only allows  users
       to  extract  videos from lots of websites that embed a video from another service, but may
       also be used to extract video from a service that  it's  hosting  itself.   Therefore,  we
       neither recommend nor support disabling, excluding, or removing the generic extractor.

       If  you want to find out whether a given URL is supported, simply call youtube-dl with it.
       If you get no videos back, chances are the URL is either  not  referring  to  a  video  or
       unsupported.  You can find out which by examining the output (if you run youtube-dl on the
       console) or catching an UnsupportedError exception if you run it from a Python program.

Why do I need to go through that much red tape when filing bugs?

       Before we had the issue template, despite our extensive bug reporting instructions,  about
       80%  of  the  issue  reports we got were useless, for instance because people used ancient
       versions hundreds of releases old, because of simple syntactic errors (not  in  youtube-dl
       but  in  general  shell  usage),  because  the problem was already reported multiple times
       before, because people did not actually read an error message, even  if  it  said  "please
       install  ffmpeg",  because people did not mention the URL they were trying to download and
       many more simple, easy-to-avoid problems, many of whom were totally unrelated to  youtube-

       youtube-dl  is  an  open-source project manned by too few volunteers, so we'd rather spend
       time fixing bugs where we are certain none of those simple problems apply,  and  where  we
       can  be reasonably confident to be able to reproduce the issue without asking the reporter
       repeatedly.  As such, the output of youtube-dl  -v  YOUR_URL_HERE  is  really  all  that's
       required  to  file  an issue.  The issue template also guides you through some basic steps
       you can do, such as checking that your version of youtube-dl is current.


       Most users do not need to build youtube-dl and  can  download  the  builds  (https://ytdl- or get them from their distribution.

       To run youtube-dl as a developer, you don't need to build anything either.  Simply execute

              python -m youtube_dl

       To run the test, simply invoke your favorite test runner, or execute a test file directly;
       any of the following work:

              python -m unittest discover
              python test/

       See item 6 of new extractor tutorial for how to run extractor specific test cases.

       If you want to create a build of youtube-dl yourself, you'll need

       · python

       · make (only GNU make is supported)

       · pandoc

       · zip

       · nosetests

   Adding support for a new site
       If you want to add support for a new site, first  of  all  make  sure  this  site  is  not
       dedicated  to  copyright  infringement.   youtube-dl does not support such sites thus pull
       requests adding support for them will be rejected.

       After you have ensured this site is distributing its content legally, you can follow  this
       quick list (assuming your service is called yourextractor):

        1. Fork this repository (

        2. Check out the source code with:

                   git clone

        3. Start a new git branch with

                   cd youtube-dl
                   git checkout -b yourextractor

        4. Start with this simple template and save it to youtube_dl/extractor/

                  # coding: utf-8
                  from __future__ import unicode_literals

                  from .common import InfoExtractor

                  class YourExtractorIE(InfoExtractor):
                      _VALID_URL = r'https?://(?:www\.)?yourextractor\.com/watch/(?P<id>[0-9]+)'
                      _TEST = {
                          'url': '',
                          'md5': 'TODO: md5 sum of the first 10241 bytes of the video file (use --test)',
                          'info_dict': {
                              'id': '42',
                              'ext': 'mp4',
                              'title': 'Video title goes here',
                              'thumbnail': r're:^https?://.*\.jpg$',
                              # TODO more properties, either as:
                              # * A value
                              # * MD5 checksum; start the string with md5:
                              # * A regular expression; start the string with re:
                              # * Any Python type (for example int or float)

                      def _real_extract(self, url):
                          video_id = self._match_id(url)
                          webpage = self._download_webpage(url, video_id)

                          # TODO more code goes here, for example ...
                          title = self._html_search_regex(r'<h1>(.+?)</h1>', webpage, 'title')

                          return {
                              'id': video_id,
                              'title': title,
                              'description': self._og_search_description(webpage),
                              'uploader': self._search_regex(r'<div[^>]+id="uploader"[^>]*>([^<]+)<', webpage, 'uploader', fatal=False),
                              # TODO more properties (see youtube_dl/extractor/

        5. Add   an   import   in   youtube_dl/extractor/  (

        6. Run python test/ TestDownload.test_YourExtractor.  This should fail at
           first, but you can continually re-run it until you're done.  If you decide to add more
           than one test, then rename _TEST to _TESTS and make it into a  list  of  dictionaries.
           The      tests     will     then     be     named     TestDownload.test_YourExtractor,
           TestDownload.test_YourExtractor_1, TestDownload.test_YourExtractor_2, etc.  Note  that
           tests with only_matching key in test's dict are not counted in.

        7. Have  a  look  at youtube_dl/extractor/ (
           dl/blob/master/youtube_dl/extractor/  for  possible  helper  methods  and  a
           detailed    description    of    what   your   extractor   should   and   may   return
           Add tests and code for as many as you want.

        8. Make sure your code follows youtube-dl coding conventions  and  check  the  code  with
           flake8 (

                   $ flake8 youtube_dl/extractor/

        9. Make  sure your code works under all Python ( versions claimed
           supported by youtube-dl, namely 2.6, 2.7, and 3.2+.

       10. When the tests pass, add ( the new files  and  commit
           (  them  and  push  (
           push) the result, like this:

                  $ git add youtube_dl/extractor/
                  $ git add youtube_dl/extractor/
                  $ git commit -m '[yourextractor] Add new extractor'
                  $ git push origin yourextractor

       11. Finally,  create  a  pull  request  (
           request).  We'll then review and merge it.

       In any case, thank you very much for your contributions!

   youtube-dl coding conventions
       This  section  introduces  a  guide  lines  for writing idiomatic, robust and future-proof
       extractor code.

       Extractors are very fragile by nature since they depend on the layout of the  source  data
       provided  by  3rd party media hosters out of your control and this layout tends to change.
       As an extractor implementer your task is not only to write code that  will  extract  media
       links  and  metadata  correctly but also to minimize dependency on the source's layout and
       even to make the code foresee potential future changes and be ready  for  that.   This  is
       important  because  it  will allow the extractor not to break on minor layout changes thus
       keeping old youtube-dl versions working.  Even though this breakage issue is easily  fixed
       by emitting a new version of youtube-dl with a fix incorporated, all the previous versions
       become broken in all repositories and distros' packages that  may  not  be  so  prompt  in
       fetching  the update from us.  Needless to say, some non rolling release distros may never
       receive an update at all.

   Mandatory and optional metafields
       For extraction to work youtube-dl relies on metadata your extractor extracts and  provides
       to youtube-dl expressed by an information dictionary (
       or  simply  info  dict.   Only  the  following meta fields in the info dict are considered
       mandatory for a successful extraction process by youtube-dl:

       · id (media identifier)

       · title (media title)

       · url (media download URL) or formats

       In fact only the last option is technically mandatory (i.e.  if you can't figure  out  the
       download location of the media the extraction does not make any sense).  But by convention
       youtube-dl also treats id and title as mandatory.  Thus the aforementioned metafields  are
       the  critical  data that the extraction does not make any sense without and if any of them
       fail to be extracted then the extractor is considered completely broken.

       Any                      field                       (
       apart from the aforementioned ones are considered optional.  That  means  that  extraction
       should  be  tolerant  to  situations  when  sources  for  these  fields can potentially be
       unavailable (even if they are always available at the moment) and  future-proof  in  order
       not to break the extraction of general purpose mandatory fields.

       Say you have some source dictionary meta that you've fetched as JSON with HTTP request and
       it has a key summary:

              meta = self._download_json(url, video_id)

       Assume at this point meta's layout is:

                  "summary": "some fancy summary text",

       Assume you want to extract summary and put it into the resulting info dict as description.
       Since  description  is  an  optional  meta  field you should be ready that this key may be
       missing from the meta dict, so that you should extract it like:

              description = meta.get('summary')  # correct

       and not like:

              description = meta['summary']  # incorrect

       The latter will break extraction process with KeyError if summary disappears from meta  at
       some  later  time  but  with  the  former  approach  extraction  will  just  go ahead with
       description set to None which is perfectly  fine  (remember  None  is  equivalent  to  the
       absence of data).

       Similarly,  you  should pass fatal=False when extracting optional data from a webpage with
       _search_regex, _html_search_regex or similar methods, for instance:

              description = self._search_regex(
                  webpage, 'description', fatal=False)

       With fatal set to False if _search_regex fails to  extract  description  it  will  emit  a
       warning and continue extraction.

       You can also pass default=<some fallback value>, for example:

              description = self._search_regex(
                  webpage, 'description', default=None)

       On  failure  this code will silently continue the extraction with description set to None.
       That is useful for metafields that may or may not be present.

   Provide fallbacks
       When extracting metadata try to do so from multiple sources.   For  example  if  title  is
       present  in several places, try extracting from at least some of them.  This makes it more
       future-proof in case some of the sources become unavailable.

       Say meta from the previous example has a title and you are about  to  extract  it.   Since
       title is a mandatory meta field you should end up with something like:

              title = meta['title']

       If  title  disappears  from  meta  in  future due to some changes on the hoster's side the
       extraction would fail since title is mandatory.  That's expected.

       Assume that you have some another source you can extract title from, for example  og:title
       HTML meta of a webpage.  In this case you can provide a fallback scenario:

              title = meta.get('title') or self._og_search_title(webpage)

       This  code  will  try  to  extract  from meta first and if it fails it will try extracting
       og:title from a webpage.

   Regular expressions
   Don't capture groups you don't use
       Capturing group must be an indication that it's used somewhere in  the  code.   Any  group
       that is not used must be non capturing.

       Don't capture id attribute name here since you can't use it for anything anyway.





   Make regular expressions relaxed and flexible
       When  using  regular  expressions  try to write them fuzzy, relaxed and flexible, skipping
       insignificant parts that are more likely to change, allowing both single and double quotes
       for quoted values and so on.

       Say you need to extract title from the following HTML code:

              <span style="position: absolute; left: 910px; width: 90px; float: right; z-index: 9999;" class="title">some fancy title</span>

       The code for that task should look similar to:

              title = self._search_regex(
                  r'<span[^>]+class="title"[^>]*>([^<]+)', webpage, 'title')

       Or even better:

              title = self._search_regex(
                  webpage, 'title', group='title')

       Note  how  you  tolerate  potential  changes in the style attribute's value or switch from
       using double quotes to single for class attribute:

       The code definitely should not look like:

              title = self._search_regex(
                  r'<span style="position: absolute; left: 910px; width: 90px; float: right; z-index: 9999;" class="title">(.*?)</span>',
                  webpage, 'title', group='title')

   Long lines policy
       There is a soft limit to keep lines of code under  80  characters  long.   This  means  it
       should  be  respected if possible and if it does not make readability and code maintenance

       For example, you should never split long string literals like URLs  or  some  other  often
       copied entities over multiple lines to fit this limit:





   Inline values
       Extracting variables is acceptable for reducing code duplication and improving readability
       of complex expressions.  However, you should avoid extracting variables used only once and
       moving  them  to opposite parts of the extractor file, which makes reading the linear flow


              title = self._html_search_regex(r'<title>([^<]+)</title>', webpage, 'title')


              TITLE_RE = r'<title>([^<]+)</title>'
              # ...some lines of code...
              title = self._html_search_regex(TITLE_RE, webpage, 'title')

   Collapse fallbacks
       Multiple fallback values can quickly become unwieldy.  Collapse multiple  fallback  values
       into a single expression via a list of patterns.


              description = self._html_search_meta(
                  ['og:description', 'description', 'twitter:description'],
                  webpage, 'description', default=None)


              description = (
                  self._og_search_description(webpage, default=None)
                  or self._html_search_meta('description', webpage, default=None)
                  or self._html_search_meta('twitter:description', webpage, default=None))

       Methods    supporting   list   of   patterns   are:   _search_regex,   _html_search_regex,
       _og_search_property, _html_search_meta.

   Trailing parentheses
       Always move trailing parentheses after the last argument.


                  lambda x: x['ResultSet']['Result'][0]['VideoUrlSet']['VideoUrl'],


                  lambda x: x['ResultSet']['Result'][0]['VideoUrlSet']['VideoUrl'],

   Use convenience conversion and parsing functions
       Wrap  all  extracted  numeric  data   into   safe   functions   from   youtube_dl/
       (     int_or_none,
       float_or_none.  Use them for string to number conversions as well.

       Use url_or_none for safe URL processing.

       Use try_get for safe metadata extraction from parsed JSON.

       Use unified_strdate for  uniform  upload_date  or  any  YYYYMMDD  meta  field  extraction,
       unified_timestamp   for   uniform   timestamp   extraction,  parse_filesize  for  filesize
       extraction, parse_count for count meta fields extraction, parse_resolution, parse_duration
       for duration extraction, parse_age_limit for age_limit extraction.

       Explore              youtube_dl/             (
       dl/blob/master/youtube_dl/ for more useful convenience functions.

   More examples
   Safely extract optional description from parsed JSON
              description = try_get(response, lambda x: x['result']['video'][0]['summary'], compat_str)

   Safely extract more optional metadata
              video = try_get(response, lambda x: x['result']['video'][0], dict) or {}
              description = video.get('summary')
              duration = float_or_none(video.get('durationMs'), scale=1000)
              view_count = int_or_none(video.get('views'))


       youtube-dl makes the best effort to be a good command-line program,  and  thus  should  be
       callable from any programming language.  If you encounter any problems parsing its output,
       feel free to create a report (

       From a Python program, you can embed youtube-dl in a more powerful fashion, like this:

              from __future__ import unicode_literals
              import youtube_dl

              ydl_opts = {}
              with youtube_dl.YoutubeDL(ydl_opts) as ydl:

       Most likely, you'll want to use various options.  For a list of options available, have  a
       look        at        youtube_dl/        (
       dl/blob/3e4cedf9e8cd3157df2457df7274d0c842421945/youtube_dl/   For
       a start, if you want to intercept youtube-dl's output, set a logger object.

       Here's  a more complete example of a program that outputs only errors (and a short message
       after the download is finished), and downloads/converts the video to an mp3 file:

              from __future__ import unicode_literals
              import youtube_dl

              class MyLogger(object):
                  def debug(self, msg):

                  def warning(self, msg):

                  def error(self, msg):

              def my_hook(d):
                  if d['status'] == 'finished':
                      print('Done downloading, now converting ...')

              ydl_opts = {
                  'format': 'bestaudio/best',
                  'postprocessors': [{
                      'key': 'FFmpegExtractAudio',
                      'preferredcodec': 'mp3',
                      'preferredquality': '192',
                  'logger': MyLogger(),
                  'progress_hooks': [my_hook],
              with youtube_dl.YoutubeDL(ydl_opts) as ydl:


       Bugs  and  suggestions  should  be  reported   at:   <
       dl/issues>.   Unless  you  were  prompted  to  or  there is another pertinent reason (e.g.
       GitHub fails to accept the bug report), please do not send bug reports via personal email.
       For discussions, join us in the IRC channel #youtube-dl (irc://
       dl)  on  freenode  (webchat  (

       Please  include  the full output of youtube-dl when run with -v, i.e.  add -v flag to your
       command line, copy the whole output and post it in the  issue  body  wrapped  in  ```  for
       better formatting.  It should look similar to this:

              $ youtube-dl -v <your command line>
              [debug] System config: []
              [debug] User config: []
              [debug] Command-line args: [u'-v', u'']
              [debug] Encodings: locale cp1251, fs mbcs, out cp866, pref cp1251
              [debug] youtube-dl version 2015.12.06
              [debug] Git HEAD: 135392e
              [debug] Python version 2.6.6 - Windows-2003Server-5.2.3790-SP2
              [debug] exe versions: ffmpeg N-75573-g1d0487f, ffprobe N-75573-g1d0487f, rtmpdump 2.4
              [debug] Proxy map: {}

       Do not post screenshots of verbose logs; only plain text is acceptable.

       The  output  (including the first lines) contains important debugging information.  Issues
       without the full output are often not reproducible and therefore  do  not  get  solved  in
       short order, if ever.

       Please  re-read  your  issue  once again to avoid a couple of common mistakes (you can and
       should use this as a checklist):

   Is the description of the issue itself sufficient?
       We often get issue reports that we  cannot  really  decipher.   While  in  most  cases  we
       eventually  get  the  required information after asking back multiple times, this poses an
       unnecessary drain on our resources.  Many contributors, including  myself,  are  also  not
       native speakers, so we may misread some parts.

       So  please elaborate on what feature you are requesting, or what bug you want to be fixed.
       Make sure that it's obvious

       · What the problem is

       · How it could be fixed

       · How your proposed solution would look like

       If your report is shorter than two lines, it is almost certainly missing  some  of  these,
       which  makes  it  hard for us to respond to it.  We're often too polite to close the issue
       outright, but the missing info makes misinterpretation likely.  As a committer  myself,  I
       often  get  frustrated by these issues, since the only possible way for me to move forward
       on them is to ask for clarification over and over.

       For bug reports, this means that  your  report  should  contain  the  complete  output  of
       youtube-dl  when  called with the -v flag.  The error message you get for (most) bugs even
       says so, but you would not believe how many  of  our  bug  reports  do  not  contain  this

       If  your  server  has  multiple IPs or you suspect censorship, adding --call-home may be a
       good idea to get more diagnostics.  If the error is ERROR: Unable to extract ...  and  you
       cannot  reproduce it from multiple countries, add --dump-pages (warning: this will yield a
       rather large output, redirect it to the file log.txt  by  adding  >log.txt  2>&1  to  your
       command-line)  or  upload  the  .dump  files  you get when you add --write-pages somewhere

       Site support requests must contain an example URL.  An example URL is a URL you might want
       to download, like  There should be an obvious
       video present.  Except under very special circumstances, the main page of a video  service
       (e.g. is not an example URL.

   Are you using the latest version?
       Before  reporting  any  issue,  type youtube-dl -U.  This should report that you're up-to-
       date.  About 20% of the reports we  receive  are  already  fixed,  but  people  are  using
       outdated versions.  This goes for feature requests as well.

   Is the issue already documented?
       Make  sure that someone has not already opened the issue you're trying to open.  Search at
       the top of the window or browse the  GitHub  Issues  (
       dl/search?type=Issues)  of  this  repository.   If  there  is an issue, feel free to write
       something along the lines of "This affects me as well, with version 2015.01.01.   Here  is
       some  more  information on the issue: ...".  While some issues may be old, a new post into
       them often spurs rapid activity.

   Why are existing options not enough?
       Before requesting a new feature, please have a quick peek at the list of supported options
       (     Many   feature
       requests are for features that actually exist already!  Please,  absolutely  do  show  off
       your  work  in  the  issue report and detail how the existing similar options do not solve
       your problem.

   Is there enough context in your bug report?
       People want to solve problems, and often think they do us a favor by breaking  down  their
       larger  problems  (e.g.   wanting  to skip already downloaded files) to a specific request
       (e.g.  requesting us to look whether the file exists before downloading  the  info  page).
       However,  what  often  happens  is  that  they  break down the problem into two steps: One
       simple, and one impossible (or extremely complicated one).

       We are then presented with a very complicated request when the original problem  could  be
       solved  far  easier,  e.g.   by recording the downloaded video IDs in a separate file.  To
       avoid this, you must include the greater context where it is non-obvious.  In  particular,
       every  feature  request  that  does  not  consist  of adding support for a new site should
       contain a use case scenario that explains in what situation the missing feature  would  be

   Does the issue involve one problem, and one problem only?
       Some of our users seem to think there is a limit of issues they can or should open.  There
       is no limit of issues they can or should open.  While it may seem appealing to be able  to
       dump  all  your  issues  into  one  ticket, that means that someone who solves one of your
       issues cannot mark the issue as closed.  Typically, reporting a bunch of issues  leads  to
       the  ticket lingering since nobody wants to attack that behemoth, until someone mercifully
       splits the issue into multiple ones.

       In particular, every site support request issue should only pertain  to  services  at  one
       site  (generally under a common domain, but always using the same backend technology).  Do
       not request support for vimeo user videos, White house podcasts, and Google Plus pages  in
       the  same  issue.   Also,  make  sure  that  you  don't post bug reports alongside feature
       requests.  As a rule of thumb, a feature request does not include  outputs  of  youtube-dl
       that are not immediately related to the feature at hand.  Do not post reports of a network
       error alongside the request for a new video service.

   Is anyone going to need the feature?
       Only post features that you (or an  incapacitated  friend  you  can  personally  talk  to)
       require.   Do  not  post  features because they seem like a good idea.  If they are really
       useful, they will be requested by someone who requires them.

   Is your question about youtube-dl?
       It may sound strange, but some bug reports we receive are completely unrelated to youtube-
       dl  and  relate to a different, or even the reporter's own, application.  Please make sure
       that you are actually using youtube-dl.  If you are using a UI for youtube-dl, report  the
       bug  to  the maintainer of the actual application providing the UI.  On the other hand, if
       your UI for youtube-dl fails in some way you believe is  related  to  youtube-dl,  by  all
       means, go ahead and report the bug.


       youtube-dl is released into the public domain by the copyright holders.

       This README file was originally written by Daniel Bolton ( and
       is likewise released into the public domain.