Provided by: freebsd-buildutils_10.3~svn296373-7_amd64 bug


     mtree — map a directory hierarchy


     mtree [-LPUcdeinqruxw] [-f spec] [-K keywords] [-k keywords] [-p path] [-s seed]
           [-X exclude-list]


     The mtree utility compares the file hierarchy rooted in the current directory against a
     specification read from the standard input.  Messages are written to the standard output for
     any files whose characteristics do not match the specifications, or which are missing from
     either the file hierarchy or the specification.

     The options are as follows:

     -L    Follow all symbolic links in the file hierarchy.

     -P    Do not follow symbolic links in the file hierarchy, instead consider the symbolic link
           itself in any comparisons.  This is the default.

     -U    Modify the owner, group, permissions, and modification time of existing files to match
           the specification and create any missing directories or symbolic links.  User, group
           and permissions must all be specified for missing directories to be created.
           Corrected mismatches are not considered errors.

     -c    Print a specification for the file hierarchy to the standard output.

     -d    Ignore everything except directory type files.

     -e    Do not complain about files that are in the file hierarchy, but not in the

     -i    Indent the output 4 spaces each time a directory level is descended when creating a
           specification with the -c option.  This does not affect either the /set statements or
           the comment before each directory.  It does however affect the comment before the
           close of each directory.

     -n    Do not emit pathname comments when creating a specification.  Normally a comment is
           emitted before each directory and before the close of that directory when using the -c

     -q    Quiet mode.  Do not complain when a “missing” directory cannot be created because it
           already exists.  This occurs when the directory is a symbolic link.

     -r    Remove any files in the file hierarchy that are not described in the specification.

     -u    Same as -U except a status of 2 is returned if the file hierarchy did not match the

     -w    Make some errors non-fatal warnings.

     -x    Do not descend below mount points in the file hierarchy.

     -f file
           Read the specification from file, instead of from the standard input.

           If this option is specified twice, the two specifications are compared to each other
           rather than to the file hierarchy.  The specifications will be sorted like output
           generated using -c.  The output format in this case is somewhat remniscent of comm(1),
           having "in first spec only", "in second spec only", and "different" columns, prefixed
           by zero, one and two TAB characters respectively.  Each entry in the "different"
           column occupies two lines, one from each specification.

     -K keywords
           Add the specified (whitespace or comma separated) keywords to the current set of

     -k keywords
           Use the ``type'' keyword plus the specified (whitespace or comma separated) keywords
           instead of the current set of keywords.

     -p path
           Use the file hierarchy rooted in path, instead of the current directory.

     -s seed
           Display a single checksum to the standard error output that represents all of the
           files for which the keyword cksum was specified.  The checksum is seeded with the
           specified value.

     -X exclude-list
           The specified file contains fnmatch(3) patterns matching files to be excluded from the
           specification, one to a line.  If the pattern contains a ‘/’ character, it will be
           matched against entire pathnames (relative to the starting directory); otherwise, it
           will be matched against basenames only.  No comments are allowed in the exclude-list

     Specifications are mostly composed of ``keywords'', i.e., strings that specify values
     relating to files.  No keywords have default values, and if a keyword has no value set, no
     checks based on it are performed.

     Currently supported keywords are as follows:

     cksum       The checksum of the file using the default algorithm specified by the cksum(1)

     flags       The file flags as a symbolic name.  See chflags(1) for information on these
                 names.  If no flags are to be set the string “none” may be used to override the
                 current default.

     ignore      Ignore any file hierarchy below this file.

     gid         The file group as a numeric value.

     gname       The file group as a symbolic name.

     md5digest   The MD5 message digest of the file.

     sha1digest  The FIPS 160-1 (“SHA-1”) message digest of the file.

                 The FIPS 180-2 (“SHA-256”) message digest of the file.

                 The RIPEMD160 message digest of the file.

     mode        The current file's permissions as a numeric (octal) or symbolic value.

     nlink       The number of hard links the file is expected to have.

     nochange    Make sure this file or directory exists but otherwise ignore all attributes.

     optional    The file is optional; do not complain about the file if it is not in the file

     uid         The file owner as a numeric value.

     uname       The file owner as a symbolic name.

     size        The size, in bytes, of the file.

     link        The file the symbolic link is expected to reference.

     time        The last modification time of the file, in seconds and nanoseconds.  The value
                 should include a period character and exactly nine digits after the period.

     type        The type of the file; may be set to any one of the following:

                 block       block special device
                 char        character special device
                 dir         directory
                 fifo        fifo
                 file        regular file
                 link        symbolic link
                 socket      socket

     The default set of keywords are flags, gid, link, mode, nlink, size, time, and uid.

     There are four types of lines in a specification.

     The first type of line sets a global value for a keyword, and consists of the string
     ``/set'' followed by whitespace, followed by sets of keyword/value pairs, separated by
     whitespace.  Keyword/value pairs consist of a keyword, followed by an equals sign (``=''),
     followed by a value, without whitespace characters.  Once a keyword has been set, its value
     remains unchanged until either reset or unset.

     The second type of line unsets keywords and consists of the string ``/unset'', followed by
     whitespace, followed by one or more keywords, separated by whitespace.

     The third type of line is a file specification and consists of a file name, followed by
     whitespace, followed by zero or more whitespace separated keyword/value pairs.  The file
     name may be preceded by whitespace characters.  The file name may contain any of the
     standard file name matching characters (``['', ``]'', ``?'' or ``*''), in which case files
     in the hierarchy will be associated with the first pattern that they match.

     Each of the keyword/value pairs consist of a keyword, followed by an equals sign (``=''),
     followed by the keyword's value, without whitespace characters.  These values override,
     without changing, the global value of the corresponding keyword.

     All paths are relative.  Specifying a directory will cause subsequent files to be searched
     for in that directory hierarchy.  Which brings us to the last type of line in a
     specification: a line containing only the string “..” causes the current directory path to
     ascend one level.

     Empty lines and lines whose first non-whitespace character is a hash mark (``#'') are

     The mtree utility exits with a status of 0 on success, 1 if any error occurred, and 2 if the
     file hierarchy did not match the specification.  A status of 2 is converted to a status of 0
     if the -U option is used.


     /etc/mtree  system specification directory


     The mtree utility exits 0 on success, and >0 if an error occurs.


     To detect system binaries that have been ``trojan horsed'', it is recommended that mtree -K
     sha256digest be run on the file systems, and a copy of the results stored on a different
     machine, or, at least, in encrypted form.  The output file itself should be digested using
     the sha256(1) utility.  Then, periodically, mtree and sha256(1) should be run against the
     on-line specifications.  While it is possible for the bad guys to change the on-line
     specifications to conform to their modified binaries, it is believed to be impractical for
     them to create a modified specification which has the same SHA-256 digest as the original.

     The -d and -u options can be used in combination to create directory hierarchies for
     distributions and other such things; the files in /etc/mtree were used to create almost all
     directories in this FreeBSD distribution.

     To create an /etc/mtree style BSD.*.dist file, use mtree -c -d -i -n -k


     chflags(1), chgrp(1), chmod(1), cksum(1), md5(1), stat(2), fts(3), md5(3), chown(8)


     The mtree utility appeared in 4.3BSD-Reno.  The MD5 digest capability was added in
     FreeBSD 2.1, in response to the widespread use of programs which can spoof cksum(1).  The
     SHA-1 and RIPEMD160 digests were added in FreeBSD 4.0, as new attacks have demonstrated
     weaknesses in MD5.  The SHA-256 digest was added in FreeBSD 6.0.  Support for file flags was
     added in FreeBSD 4.0, and mostly comes from NetBSD.