Provided by: util-linux_2.36.1-7ubuntu2_amd64 bug


       fstrim - discard unused blocks on a mounted filesystem


       fstrim [-Aa] [-o offset] [-l length] [-m minimum-size] [-v] mountpoint


       fstrim  is used on a mounted filesystem to discard (or "trim") blocks which are not in use
       by the filesystem.  This is useful for solid-state drives  (SSDs)  and  thinly-provisioned

       By  default, fstrim will discard all unused blocks in the filesystem.  Options may be used
       to modify this behavior based on range or size, as explained below.

       The mountpoint argument is the pathname of the directory where the filesystem is mounted.

       Running fstrim frequently, or even using mount -o discard,  might  negatively  affect  the
       lifetime  of  poor-quality  SSD devices.  For most desktop and server systems a sufficient
       trimming frequency is once a week.  Note that not all devices support a  queued  trim,  so
       each trim command incurs a performance penalty on whatever else might be trying to use the
       disk at the time.


       The offset, length, and minimum-size arguments  may  be  followed  by  the  multiplicative
       suffixes KiB (=1024), MiB (=1024*1024), and so on for GiB, TiB, PiB, EiB, ZiB and YiB (the
       "iB" is optional, e.g., "K" has the same meaning as "KiB") or the suffixes KB (=1000),  MB
       (=1000*1000), and so on for GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB and YB.

       -A, --fstab
              Trim  all  mounted  filesystems mentioned in /etc/fstab on devices that support the
              discard operation.  The root filesystem is determined from kernel command  line  if
              missing  in  the  file.   The  other  supplied options, like --offset, --length and
              --minimum, are applied to all these devices.  Errors from filesystems that  do  not
              support  the  discard  operation,  read-only  devices and read-only filesystems are
              silently ignored.

       -a, --all
              Trim all mounted filesystems on devices that support the  discard  operation.   The
              other  supplied  options, like --offset, --length and --minimum, are applied to all
              these devices.  Errors from filesystems that do not support the discard  operation,
              read-only devices and read-only filesystems are silently ignored.

       -n, --dry-run
              This option does everything apart from actually call FITRIM ioctl.

       -o, --offset offset
              Byte  offset  in  the  filesystem  from which to begin searching for free blocks to
              discard.  The default value is zero, starting at the beginning of the filesystem.

       -l, --length length
              The number of bytes (after the  starting  point)  to  search  for  free  blocks  to
              discard.   If  the  specified  value extends past the end of the filesystem, fstrim
              will stop at the filesystem size boundary.  The default value extends to the end of
              the filesystem.

       -I, --listed-in list
              Specifies  a colon-separated list of files in fstab or kernel mountinfo format. All
              missing or empty files are silently ignored.  The  evaluation  of  the  list  stops
              after       first      non-empty      file.      For      example:      --listed-in

       -m, --minimum minimum-size
              Minimum contiguous free range to discard,  in  bytes.  (This  value  is  internally
              rounded  up  to a multiple of the filesystem block size.)  Free ranges smaller than
              this will be ignored and fstrim will adjust the minimum if it's  smaller  than  the
              device's  minimum,  and  report  that  (fstrim_range.minlen) back to userspace.  By
              increasing this  value,  the  fstrim  operation  will  complete  more  quickly  for
              filesystems  with  badly  fragmented  freespace,  although  not  all blocks will be
              discarded.  The default value is zero, discarding every free block.

       -v, --verbose
              Verbose execution.  With this option fstrim will output the number of bytes  passed
              from the filesystem down the block stack to the device for potential discard.  This
              number is a maximum discard amount from the storage device's  perspective,  because
              FITRIM  ioctl  called  repeated  will  keep  sending  the  same sectors for discard

              fstrim will report the same potential discard bytes each  time,  but  only  sectors
              which  had  been written to between the discards would actually be discarded by the
              storage device.  Further, the kernel block layer reserves the right to  adjust  the
              discard  ranges  to  fit  raid  stripe  geometry, non-trim capable devices in a LVM
              setup, etc.  These reductions would  not  be  reflected  in  fstrim_range.len  (the
              --length option).

              Suppress  error  messages if trim operation (ioctl) is unsupported.  This option is
              meant to be used in systemd service file or in cron scripts to hide  warnings  that
              are  result  of  known  problems, such as NTFS driver reporting Bad file descriptor
              when device is mounted read-only, or lack of file system support for  ioctl  FITRIM

       -V, --version
              Display version information and exit.

       -h, --help
              Display help text and exit.


       0      success

       1      failure

       32     all failed

       64     some filesystem discards have succeeded, some failed

       The  command  fstrim  --all returns 0 (all succeeded), 32 (all failed) or 64 (some failed,
       some succeeded).


       Lukas Czerner <>
       Karel Zak <>


       blkdiscard(8), mount(8)


       The  fstrim  command  is  part  of  the  util-linux  package   and   is   available   from