Provided by: findutils_4.8.0-1ubuntu2_amd64 bug

NAME

       find - search for files in a directory hierarchy

SYNOPSIS

       find [-H] [-L] [-P] [-D debugopts] [-Olevel] [starting-point...] [expression]

DESCRIPTION

       This  manual page documents the GNU version of find.  GNU find searches the directory tree
       rooted at each given starting-point by evaluating the given expression from left to right,
       according  to  the rules of precedence (see section OPERATORS), until the outcome is known
       (the left hand side is false for and operations, true for or), at which point  find  moves
       on to the next file name.  If no starting-point is specified, `.' is assumed.

       If  you  are  using find in an environment where security is important (for example if you
       are using it to search directories that are writable by other users), you should read  the
       `Security  Considerations' chapter of the findutils documentation, which is called Finding
       Files and comes with findutils.  That  document  also  includes  a  lot  more  detail  and
       discussion than this manual page, so you may find it a more useful source of information.

OPTIONS

       The -H, -L and -P options control the treatment of symbolic links.  Command-line arguments
       following these are taken to be names of files or directories to be examined,  up  to  the
       first  argument  that  begins with `-', or the argument `(' or `!'.  That argument and any
       following arguments are taken to be the expression describing what is to be searched  for.
       If  no  paths  are  given,  the current directory is used.  If no expression is given, the
       expression -print is used  (but  you  should  probably  consider  using  -print0  instead,
       anyway).

       This  manual page talks about `options' within the expression list.  These options control
       the behaviour of find but are specified immediately after the last path  name.   The  five
       `real' options -H, -L, -P, -D and -O must appear before the first path name, if at all.  A
       double dash -- could theoretically be used to signal that any remaining arguments are  not
       options,  but  this  does  not  really  work due to the way find determines the end of the
       following path arguments: it does that by  reading  until  an  expression  argument  comes
       (which also starts with a `-').  Now, if a path argument would start with a `-', then find
       would treat it as expression argument instead.  Thus, to ensure that all start points  are
       taken  as  such,  and especially to prevent that wildcard patterns expanded by the calling
       shell are not mistakenly treated as expression arguments, it is generally safer to  prefix
       wildcards  or  dubious  path names with either `./' or to use absolute path names starting
       with '/'.

       -P     Never follow symbolic links.  This is the default behaviour.  When find examines or
              prints  information  about  files, and the file is a symbolic link, the information
              used shall be taken from the properties of the symbolic link itself.

       -L     Follow symbolic links.  When find examines or prints information about  files,  the
              information  used  shall be taken from the properties of the file to which the link
              points, not from the link itself (unless it is a broken symbolic link  or  find  is
              unable  to  examine the file to which the link points).  Use of this option implies
              -noleaf.  If you later use the -P option, -noleaf will still be in effect.   If  -L
              is  in  effect  and  find  discovers  a  symbolic link to a subdirectory during its
              search, the subdirectory pointed to by the symbolic link will be searched.

              When the -L option is in effect, the -type predicate will always match against  the
              type of the file that a symbolic link points to rather than the link itself (unless
              the symbolic link is broken).  Actions that can  cause  symbolic  links  to  become
              broken  while  find  is  executing (for example -delete) can give rise to confusing
              behaviour.  Using -L causes the -lname and  -ilname  predicates  always  to  return
              false.

       -H     Do  not  follow symbolic links, except while processing the command line arguments.
              When find examines or prints information about files, the information used shall be
              taken  from the properties of the symbolic link itself.  The only exception to this
              behaviour is when a file specified on the command line is a symbolic link, and  the
              link  can  be  resolved.   For  that  situation, the information used is taken from
              whatever the link points to (that is, the link is followed).  The information about
              the  link  itself is used as a fallback if the file pointed to by the symbolic link
              cannot be examined.  If -H is in effect and one  of  the  paths  specified  on  the
              command line is a symbolic link to a directory, the contents of that directory will
              be examined (though of course -maxdepth 0 would prevent this).

       If more than one of -H, -L and -P is specified, each overrides the others;  the  last  one
       appearing on the command line takes effect.  Since it is the default, the -P option should
       be considered to be in effect unless either -H or -L is specified.

       GNU find frequently stats files during the processing of the command line  itself,  before
       any  searching  has  begun.   These options also affect how those arguments are processed.
       Specifically, there are a number of tests that compare files listed on  the  command  line
       against  a  file  we  are  currently considering.  In each case, the file specified on the
       command line will have been examined and some of its properties will have been saved.   If
       the  named  file is in fact a symbolic link, and the -P option is in effect (or if neither
       -H nor -L were specified), the information used for the comparison will be taken from  the
       properties  of  the symbolic link.  Otherwise, it will be taken from the properties of the
       file the link points to.  If find cannot follow the  link  (for  example  because  it  has
       insufficient  privileges  or  the link points to a nonexistent file) the properties of the
       link itself will be used.

       When the -H or -L options are in effect, any symbolic links  listed  as  the  argument  of
       -newer  will  be  dereferenced, and the timestamp will be taken from the file to which the
       symbolic link points.  The same consideration applies to -newerXY, -anewer and -cnewer.

       The -follow option has a similar effect to -L, though it takes effect at the  point  where
       it  appears (that is, if -L is not used but -follow is, any symbolic links appearing after
       -follow on the command line will be dereferenced, and those before it will not).

       -D debugopts
              Print diagnostic information; this can be helpful to  diagnose  problems  with  why
              find  is  not  doing  what  you  want.   The  list of debug options should be comma
              separated.  Compatibility of the debug options is not guaranteed  between  releases
              of  findutils.   For a complete list of valid debug options, see the output of find
              -D help.  Valid debug options include

              exec   Show diagnostic information relating to -exec, -execdir, -ok and -okdir

              opt    Prints diagnostic information relating to the optimisation of the expression
                     tree; see the -O option.

              rates  Prints a summary indicating how often each predicate succeeded or failed.

              search Navigate the directory tree verbosely.

              stat   Print  messages  as files are examined with the stat and lstat system calls.
                     The find program tries to minimise such calls.

              tree   Show the expression tree in its original and optimised form.

              all    Enable all of the other debug options (but help).

              help   Explain the debugging options.

       -Olevel
              Enables query optimisation.  The find program reorders tests to speed up  execution
              while  preserving the overall effect; that is, predicates with side effects are not
              reordered relative to each other.  The optimisations performed at each optimisation
              level are as follows.

              0      Equivalent to optimisation level 1.

              1      This  is  the  default optimisation level and corresponds to the traditional
                     behaviour.  Expressions are reordered so that tests based only on the  names
                     of files (for example -name and -regex) are performed first.

              2      Any  -type  or  -xtype tests are performed after any tests based only on the
                     names of files, but before any  tests  that  require  information  from  the
                     inode.   On  many  modern  versions  of  Unix,  file  types  are returned by
                     readdir() and so these predicates are faster  to  evaluate  than  predicates
                     which need to stat the file first.  If you use the -fstype FOO predicate and
                     specify a filesystem type FOO which  is  not  known  (that  is,  present  in
                     `/etc/mtab')  at  the  time  find  starts,  that  predicate is equivalent to
                     -false.

              3      At this optimisation level, the full cost-based query optimiser is  enabled.
                     The order of tests is modified so that cheap (i.e. fast) tests are performed
                     first and more expensive ones are performed  later,  if  necessary.   Within
                     each  cost  band,  predicates  are  evaluated  earlier or later according to
                     whether they are likely to succeed or not.  For  -o,  predicates  which  are
                     likely  to  succeed  are evaluated earlier, and for -a, predicates which are
                     likely to fail are evaluated earlier.

              The cost-based optimiser has a fixed idea of  how  likely  any  given  test  is  to
              succeed.  In some cases the probability takes account of the specific nature of the
              test (for example, -type f is assumed to be more likely to succeed  than  -type c).
              The  cost-based  optimiser  is  currently being evaluated.  If it does not actually
              improve  the  performance  of  find,  it  will  be  removed   again.    Conversely,
              optimisations  that  prove  to  be reliable, robust and effective may be enabled at
              lower  optimisation  levels  over  time.   However,  the  default  behaviour  (i.e.
              optimisation  level  1)  will  not  be  changed  in  the 4.3.x release series.  The
              findutils test suite runs all the tests on find  at  each  optimisation  level  and
              ensures that the result is the same.

EXPRESSION

       The part of the command line after the list of starting points is the expression.  This is
       a kind of query specification describing how we match files and what we do with the  files
       that were matched.  An expression is composed of a sequence of things:

       Tests  Tests return a true or false value, usually on the basis of some property of a file
              we are considering.  The -empty test for example is true only when the current file
              is empty.

       Actions
              Actions  have  side effects (such as printing something on the standard output) and
              return either true or false, usually based on whether or not they  are  successful.
              The  -print  action for example prints the name of the current file on the standard
              output.

       Global options
              Global options affect the operation of tests and actions specified on any  part  of
              the  command  line.   Global  options  always  return  true.  The -depth option for
              example makes find traverse the file system in a depth-first order.

       Positional options
              Positional options affect only tests or  actions  which  follow  them.   Positional
              options  always  return  true.   The  -regextype  option for example is positional,
              specifying the regular expression dialect for regular expressions  occurring  later
              on the command line.

       Operators
              Operators  join  together  the other items within the expression.  They include for
              example -o (meaning logical OR) and -a (meaning logical AND).  Where an operator is
              missing, -a is assumed.

       The -print action is performed on all files for which the whole expression is true, unless
       it contains an action other than -prune or  -quit.   Actions  which  inhibit  the  default
       -print are -delete, -exec, -execdir, -ok, -okdir, -fls, -fprint, -fprintf, -ls, -print and
       -printf.

       The -delete action also acts like an option (since it implies -depth).

   POSITIONAL OPTIONS
       Positional options always return true.  They affect only  tests  occurring  later  on  the
       command line.

       -daystart
              Measure  times  (for  -amin,  -atime,  -cmin,  -ctime,  -mmin, and -mtime) from the
              beginning of today rather than from 24 hours ago.  This option only  affects  tests
              which appear later on the command line.

       -follow
              Deprecated;  use  the  -L  option  instead.   Dereference  symbolic links.  Implies
              -noleaf.  The -follow option affects only those tests which appear after it on  the
              command  line.   Unless the -H or -L option has been specified, the position of the
              -follow option changes the behaviour of the -newer predicate; any files  listed  as
              the  argument  of -newer will be dereferenced if they are symbolic links.  The same
              consideration applies to -newerXY,  -anewer  and  -cnewer.   Similarly,  the  -type
              predicate  will  always  match  against  the  type of the file that a symbolic link
              points to rather than the link itself.  Using -follow causes the -lname and -ilname
              predicates always to return false.

       -regextype type
              Changes  the regular expression syntax understood by -regex and -iregex tests which
              occur later on the command line.  To see which regular expression types are  known,
              use -regextype help.  The Texinfo documentation (see SEE ALSO) explains the meaning
              of and differences between the various types of regular expression.

       -warn, -nowarn
              Turn warning messages on or off.  These warnings apply only  to  the  command  line
              usage,   not  to  any  conditions  that  find  might  encounter  when  it  searches
              directories.  The default behaviour corresponds to -warn if  standard  input  is  a
              tty, and to -nowarn otherwise.  If a warning message relating to command-line usage
              is produced, the exit status of find  is  not  affected.   If  the  POSIXLY_CORRECT
              environment  variable is set, and -warn is also used, it is not specified which, if
              any, warnings will be active.

   GLOBAL OPTIONS
       Global options always return true.  Global options take effect even for tests which  occur
       earlier on the command line.  To prevent confusion, global options should specified on the
       command-line after the list of start points, just before the first test, positional option
       or  action.  If you specify a global option in some other place, find will issue a warning
       message explaining that this can be confusing.

       The global options occur after the list of start points, and so are not the same  kind  of
       option as -L, for example.

       -d     A synonym for -depth, for compatibility with FreeBSD, NetBSD, MacOS X and OpenBSD.

       -depth Process  each directory's contents before the directory itself.  The -delete action
              also implies -depth.

       -help, --help
              Print a summary of the command-line usage of find and exit.

       -ignore_readdir_race
              Normally, find will emit an error message when it fails to stat  a  file.   If  you
              give  this option and a file is deleted between the time find reads the name of the
              file from the directory and the time it tries to stat the file,  no  error  message
              will be issued.  This also applies to files or directories whose names are given on
              the command line.  This option takes effect at the time the command line  is  read,
              which  means  that you cannot search one part of the filesystem with this option on
              and part of it with this option off (if you need to do that, you will need to issue
              two find commands instead, one with the option and one without it).

              Furthermore,  find  with  the -ignore_readdir_race option will ignore errors of the
              -delete action in the case the file has disappeared since the parent directory  was
              read:  it  will  not output an error diagnostic, and the return code of the -delete
              action will be true.

       -maxdepth levels
              Descend at most levels (a non-negative integer) levels  of  directories  below  the
              starting-points.   Using  -maxdepth 0 means only apply the tests and actions to the
              starting-points themselves.

       -mindepth levels
              Do not apply any tests or actions  at  levels  less  than  levels  (a  non-negative
              integer).  Using -mindepth 1 means process all files except the starting-points.

       -mount Don't  descend  directories on other filesystems.  An alternate name for -xdev, for
              compatibility with some other versions of find.

       -noignore_readdir_race
              Turns off the effect of -ignore_readdir_race.

       -noleaf
              Do not optimize by assuming that directories contain 2  fewer  subdirectories  than
              their  hard  link  count.  This option is needed when searching filesystems that do
              not follow the Unix directory-link convention, such as CD-ROM or MS-DOS filesystems
              or  AFS  volume  mount  points.   Each directory on a normal Unix filesystem has at
              least 2 hard links: its name and its `.' entry.  Additionally,  its  subdirectories
              (if any) each have a `..' entry linked to that directory.  When find is examining a
              directory, after it has statted 2 fewer subdirectories than  the  directory's  link
              count,  it  knows that the rest of the entries in the directory are non-directories
              (`leaf' files in the directory  tree).   If  only  the  files'  names  need  to  be
              examined,  there  is  no  need  to  stat them; this gives a significant increase in
              search speed.

       -version, --version
              Print the find version number and exit.

       -xdev  Don't descend directories on other filesystems.

   TESTS
       Some tests, for  example  -newerXY  and  -samefile,  allow  comparison  between  the  file
       currently  being  examined  and  some  reference file specified on the command line.  When
       these tests are used, the interpretation of  the  reference  file  is  determined  by  the
       options  -H,  -L  and -P and any previous -follow, but the reference file is only examined
       once, at the time the command line is parsed.  If the reference file  cannot  be  examined
       (for  example, the stat(2) system call fails for it), an error message is issued, and find
       exits with a nonzero status.

       A numeric argument n can be specified to tests (like -amin, -mtime, -gid,  -inum,  -links,
       -size, -uid and -used) as

       +n     for greater than n,

       -n     for less than n,

       n      for exactly n.

       Supported tests:

       -amin n
              File was last accessed less than, more than or exactly n minutes ago.

       -anewer reference
              Time  of  the  last access of the current file is more recent than that of the last
              data modification of the reference file.  If reference is a symbolic link  and  the
              -H  option  or  the  -L  option  is  in  effect,  then  the  time  of the last data
              modification of the file it points to is always used.

       -atime n
              File was last accessed less than, more than or exactly n*24 hours ago.   When  find
              figures out how many 24-hour periods ago the file was last accessed, any fractional
              part is ignored, so to match -atime +1, a file has to have been accessed  at  least
              two days ago.

       -cmin n
              File's status was last changed less than, more than or exactly n minutes ago.

       -cnewer reference
              Time  of the last status change of the current file is more recent than that of the
              last data modification of the reference file.  If reference is a symbolic link  and
              the  -H  option  or  the  -L  option  is  in effect, then the time of the last data
              modification of the file it points to is always used.

       -ctime n
              File's status was last changed less than, more than or exactly n*24 hours ago.  See
              the  comments  for  -atime to understand how rounding affects the interpretation of
              file status change times.

       -empty File is empty and is either a regular file or a directory.

       -executable
              Matches files which are executable and directories which are searchable (in a  file
              name resolution sense) by the current user.  This takes into account access control
              lists and other permissions artefacts which the  -perm  test  ignores.   This  test
              makes  use  of the access(2) system call, and so can be fooled by NFS servers which
              do UID mapping (or root-squashing), since many systems implement access(2)  in  the
              client's  kernel  and so cannot make use of the UID mapping information held on the
              server.  Because this test is based only on the  result  of  the  access(2)  system
              call,  there  is no guarantee that a file for which this test succeeds can actually
              be executed.

       -false Always false.

       -fstype type
              File is on a filesystem of type  type.   The  valid  filesystem  types  vary  among
              different  versions  of  Unix;  an  incomplete  list  of  filesystem types that are
              accepted on some version of Unix or another is: ufs, 4.2, 4.3, nfs, tmp, mfs, S51K,
              S52K.   You  can  use  -printf  with  the  %F  directive  to  see the types of your
              filesystems.

       -gid n File's numeric group ID is less than, more than or exactly n.

       -group gname
              File belongs to group gname (numeric group ID allowed).

       -ilname pattern
              Like -lname, but the match is case insensitive.  If the -L option  or  the  -follow
              option is in effect, this test returns false unless the symbolic link is broken.

       -iname pattern
              Like -name, but the match is case insensitive.  For example, the patterns `fo*' and
              `F??' match the file names `Foo', `FOO', `foo', `fOo', etc.   The  pattern  `*foo*`
              will also match a file called '.foobar'.

       -inum n
              File  has  inode  number  smaller  than, greater than or exactly n.  It is normally
              easier to use the -samefile test instead.

       -ipath pattern
              Like -path.  but the match is case insensitive.

       -iregex pattern
              Like -regex, but the match is case insensitive.

       -iwholename pattern
              See -ipath.  This alternative is less portable than -ipath.

       -links n
              File has less than, more than or exactly n hard links.

       -lname pattern
              File  is  a  symbolic  link  whose  contents  match  shell  pattern  pattern.   The
              metacharacters  do not treat `/' or `.' specially.  If the -L option or the -follow
              option is in effect, this test returns false unless the symbolic link is broken.

       -mmin n
              File's data was last modified less than, more than or exactly n minutes ago.

       -mtime n
              File's data was last modified less than, more than or exactly n*24 hours ago.   See
              the  comments  for  -atime to understand how rounding affects the interpretation of
              file modification times.

       -name pattern
              Base of file name (the path with the leading  directories  removed)  matches  shell
              pattern  pattern.   Because  the  leading  directories  are removed, the file names
              considered for a match with -name will never include a slash, so `-name  a/b'  will
              never match anything (you probably need to use -path instead).  A warning is issued
              if you try to do this, unless the environment variable POSIXLY_CORRECT is set.  The
              metacharacters (`*', `?', and `[]') match a `.' at the start of the base name (this
              is a change in findutils-4.2.2;  see  section  STANDARDS  CONFORMANCE  below).   To
              ignore  a  directory  and the files under it, use -prune rather than checking every
              file in the tree; see an example in the description of that action.  Braces are not
              recognised as being special, despite the fact that some shells including Bash imbue
              braces with a  special  meaning  in  shell  patterns.   The  filename  matching  is
              performed with the use of the fnmatch(3) library function.  Don't forget to enclose
              the pattern in quotes in order to protect it from expansion by the shell.

       -newer reference
              Time of the last data modification of the current file is more recent than that  of
              the  last data modification of the reference file.  If reference is a symbolic link
              and the -H option or the -L option is in effect, then the time  of  the  last  data
              modification of the file it points to is always used.

       -newerXY reference
              Succeeds  if  timestamp X of the file being considered is newer than timestamp Y of
              the file reference.  The letters X and Y can be any of the following letters:

              a   The access time of the file reference
              B   The birth time of the file reference
              c   The inode status change time of reference
              m   The modification time of the file reference
              t   reference is interpreted directly as a time

              Some combinations are invalid; for example, it is invalid for  X  to  be  t.   Some
              combinations  are not implemented on all systems; for example B is not supported on
              all systems.  If an invalid or unsupported combination of XY is specified, a  fatal
              error  results.   Time specifications are interpreted as for the argument to the -d
              option of GNU date.  If you try to use the birth time of a reference file, and  the
              birth  time  cannot be determined, a fatal error message results.  If you specify a
              test which refers to the birth time of files being examined, this  test  will  fail
              for any files where the birth time is unknown.

       -nogroup
              No group corresponds to file's numeric group ID.

       -nouser
              No user corresponds to file's numeric user ID.

       -path pattern
              File  name  matches  shell pattern pattern.  The metacharacters do not treat `/' or
              `.' specially; so, for example,
                  find . -path "./sr*sc"
              will print an entry for a directory called ./src/misc (if one exists).  To ignore a
              whole directory tree, use -prune rather than checking every file in the tree.  Note
              that the pattern match test applies to the whole file name, starting  from  one  of
              the  start  points  named  on the command line.  It would only make sense to use an
              absolute path name here if the relevant start point is also an absolute path.  This
              means that this command will never match anything:
                  find bar -path /foo/bar/myfile -print
              Find compares the -path argument with the concatenation of a directory name and the
              base name of the file it's examining.  Since the concatenation will never end  with
              a  slash,  -path  arguments  ending in a slash will match nothing (except perhaps a
              start point specified on the command line).  The predicate -path is also  supported
              by HP-UX find and is part of the POSIX 2008 standard.

       -perm mode
              File's  permission bits are exactly mode (octal or symbolic).  Since an exact match
              is required, if you want to use this form for  symbolic  modes,  you  may  have  to
              specify  a  rather  complex  mode  string.  For example `-perm g=w' will only match
              files which have mode 0020 (that is, ones for which group write permission  is  the
              only  permission  set).  It is more likely that you will want to use the `/' or `-'
              forms,  for  example  `-perm  -g=w',  which  matches  any  file  with  group  write
              permission.  See the EXAMPLES section for some illustrative examples.

       -perm -mode
              All  of the permission bits mode are set for the file.  Symbolic modes are accepted
              in this form, and this is usually the way in which you would want to use them.  You
              must  specify `u', `g' or `o' if you use a symbolic mode.  See the EXAMPLES section
              for some illustrative examples.

       -perm /mode
              Any of the permission bits mode are set for the file.  Symbolic modes are  accepted
              in  this  form.   You must specify `u', `g' or `o' if you use a symbolic mode.  See
              the EXAMPLES section for some illustrative examples.  If no permission bits in mode
              are  set,  this  test  matches any file (the idea here is to be consistent with the
              behaviour of -perm -000).

       -perm +mode
              This is no longer supported (and has been deprecated since 2005).  Use -perm  /mode
              instead.

       -readable
              Matches  files  which  are  readable  by the current user.  This takes into account
              access control lists and other permissions artefacts which the -perm test  ignores.
              This  test  makes  use  of  the  access(2) system call, and so can be fooled by NFS
              servers which do UID mapping (or  root-squashing),  since  many  systems  implement
              access(2)  in  the  client's  kernel  and  so  cannot  make  use of the UID mapping
              information held on the server.

       -regex pattern
              File name matches regular expression pattern.  This is a match on the  whole  path,
              not a search.  For example, to match a file named ./fubar3, you can use the regular
              expression  `.*bar.'  or  `.*b.*3',  but  not  `f.*r3'.   The  regular  expressions
              understood  by  find  are  by  default  Emacs  Regular Expressions (except that `.'
              matches newline), but this can be changed with the -regextype option.

       -samefile name
              File refers to the same inode as name.  When -L is  in  effect,  this  can  include
              symbolic links.

       -size n[cwbkMG]
              File  uses  less  than,  more  than  or exactly n units of space, rounding up.  The
              following suffixes can be used:

              `b'    for 512-byte blocks (this is the default if no suffix is used)

              `c'    for bytes

              `w'    for two-byte words

              `k'    for kibibytes (KiB, units of 1024 bytes)

              `M'    for mebibytes (MiB, units of 1024 * 1024 = 1048576 bytes)

              `G'    for gibibytes (GiB, units of 1024 * 1024 * 1024 = 1073741824 bytes)

              The size is simply the st_size member of the struct stat populated by the lstat (or
              stat) system call, rounded up as shown above.  In other words, it's consistent with
              the result you get for  ls -l.   Bear  in  mind  that  the  `%k'  and  `%b'  format
              specifiers  of  -printf  handle  sparse  files  differently.  The `b' suffix always
              denotes 512-byte blocks and never 1024-byte  blocks,  which  is  different  to  the
              behaviour of -ls.

              The  +  and - prefixes signify greater than and less than, as usual; i.e., an exact
              size of n units does not match.  Bear in mind that the size is rounded  up  to  the
              next  unit.   Therefore -size -1M is not equivalent to -size -1048576c.  The former
              only matches empty files, the latter matches files from 0 to 1,048,575 bytes.

       -true  Always true.

       -type c
              File is of type c:

              b      block (buffered) special

              c      character (unbuffered) special

              d      directory

              p      named pipe (FIFO)

              f      regular file

              l      symbolic link; this is never true if the -L option or the -follow option  is
                     in  effect,  unless  the symbolic link is broken.  If you want to search for
                     symbolic links when -L is in effect, use -xtype.

              s      socket

              D      door (Solaris)

              To search for more than one type at once, you can supply the combined list of  type
              letters separated by a comma `,' (GNU extension).

       -uid n File's numeric user ID is less than, more than or exactly n.

       -used n
              File  was last accessed less than, more than or exactly n days after its status was
              last changed.

       -user uname
              File is owned by user uname (numeric user ID allowed).

       -wholename pattern
              See -path.  This alternative is less portable than -path.

       -writable
              Matches files which are writable by the current  user.   This  takes  into  account
              access  control lists and other permissions artefacts which the -perm test ignores.
              This test makes use of the access(2) system call, and  so  can  be  fooled  by  NFS
              servers  which  do  UID  mapping  (or root-squashing), since many systems implement
              access(2) in the client's kernel  and  so  cannot  make  use  of  the  UID  mapping
              information held on the server.

       -xtype c
              The  same  as -type unless the file is a symbolic link.  For symbolic links: if the
              -H or -P option was specified, true if the file is a link to a file of type  c;  if
              the  -L  option  has  been  given,  true if c is `l'.  In other words, for symbolic
              links, -xtype checks the type of the file that -type does not check.

       -context pattern
              (SELinux only) Security context of the file matches glob pattern.

   ACTIONS
       -delete
              Delete files; true if removal succeeded.  If the removal failed, an  error  message
              is  issued.   If  -delete  fails,  find's  exit  status  will  be  nonzero (when it
              eventually exits).  Use of -delete automatically turns on the `-depth' option.

              Warnings: Don't forget that the find command line is evaluated as an expression, so
              putting  -delete  first  will make find try to delete everything below the starting
              points you specified.  When testing a find command line that you  later  intend  to
              use  with  -delete,  you  should  explicitly specify -depth in order to avoid later
              surprises.  Because -delete implies -depth, you  cannot  usefully  use  -prune  and
              -delete together.

              Together  with  the  -ignore_readdir_race  option,  find  will ignore errors of the
              -delete action in the case the file has disappeared since the parent directory  was
              read:  it  will  not output an error diagnostic, and the return code of the -delete
              action will be true.

       -exec command ;
              Execute command; true if 0 status is returned.  All following arguments to find are
              taken  to  be  arguments  to  the  command  until  an argument consisting of `;' is
              encountered.  The string `{}' is replaced by the current file name being  processed
              everywhere  it  occurs in the arguments to the command, not just in arguments where
              it is alone, as in some versions of find.  Both of these constructions  might  need
              to  be  escaped (with a `\') or quoted to protect them from expansion by the shell.
              See the EXAMPLES section for  examples  of  the  use  of  the  -exec  option.   The
              specified  command  is  run once for each matched file.  The command is executed in
              the starting directory.  There are unavoidable security problems surrounding use of
              the -exec action; you should use the -execdir option instead.

       -exec command {} +
              This  variant of the -exec action runs the specified command on the selected files,
              but the command line is built by appending each selected file name at the end;  the
              total  number  of  invocations  of the command will be much less than the number of
              matched files.  The command line is built in much the same way  that  xargs  builds
              its command lines.  Only one instance of `{}' is allowed within the command, and it
              must appear at the end, immediately before the `+'; it needs to be escaped (with  a
              `\')  or  quoted  to  protect  it from interpretation by the shell.  The command is
              executed in the starting directory.  If any invocation with the `+' form returns  a
              non-zero  value  as exit status, then find returns a non-zero exit status.  If find
              encounters an error, this can sometimes cause an immediate exit,  so  some  pending
              commands  may  not  be run at all.  For this reason -exec my-command ... {} + -quit
              may not result in my-command actually being run.   This  variant  of  -exec  always
              returns true.

       -execdir command ;

       -execdir command {} +
              Like  -exec,  but the specified command is run from the subdirectory containing the
              matched file, which is not normally the directory in which you  started  find.   As
              with  -exec, the {} should be quoted if find is being invoked from a shell.  This a
              much more secure method for invoking commands, as it avoids race conditions  during
              resolution  of  the  paths to the matched files.  As with the -exec action, the `+'
              form of -execdir will build a command line to process more than one  matched  file,
              but  any  given  invocation  of command will only list files that exist in the same
              subdirectory.  If you use this option, you must ensure that your $PATH  environment
              variable  does  not reference `.'; otherwise, an attacker can run any commands they
              like by leaving an appropriately-named file in a directory in which  you  will  run
              -execdir.  The same applies to having entries in $PATH which are empty or which are
              not absolute directory names.  If any invocation with the `+' form returns  a  non-
              zero  value  as  exit  status,  then  find returns a non-zero exit status.  If find
              encounters an error, this can sometimes cause an immediate exit,  so  some  pending
              commands  may not be run at all.  The result of the action depends on whether the +
              or the ; variant is being used; -execdir command {} + always  returns  true,  while
              -execdir command {} ; returns true only if command returns 0.

       -fls file
              True;  like -ls but write to file like -fprint.  The output file is always created,
              even if the predicate is never matched.  See  the  UNUSUAL  FILENAMES  section  for
              information about how unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -fprint file
              True; print the full file name into file file.  If file does not exist when find is
              run, it is created; if it does exist, it is truncated.  The file names  /dev/stdout
              and  /dev/stderr  are  handled  specially;  they  refer  to the standard output and
              standard error output, respectively.  The output file is always  created,  even  if
              the  predicate is never matched.  See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information
              about how unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -fprint0 file
              True; like -print0 but write to file like  -fprint.   The  output  file  is  always
              created, even if the predicate is never matched.  See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section
              for information about how unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -fprintf file format
              True; like -printf but write to file like  -fprint.   The  output  file  is  always
              created, even if the predicate is never matched.  See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section
              for information about how unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -ls    True; list current file in ls -dils format on standard output.   The  block  counts
              are  of  1 KB  blocks,  unless  the environment variable POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, in
              which case 512-byte blocks  are  used.   See  the  UNUSUAL  FILENAMES  section  for
              information about how unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -ok command ;
              Like -exec but ask the user first.  If the user agrees, run the command.  Otherwise
              just return false.  If the command is run, its standard input  is  redirected  from
              /dev/null.

              The  response  to  the  prompt  is matched against a pair of regular expressions to
              determine if it is an affirmative or negative response.  This regular expression is
              obtained  from  the system if the `POSIXLY_CORRECT' environment variable is set, or
              otherwise from  find's  message  translations.   If  the  system  has  no  suitable
              definition, find's own definition will be used.  In either case, the interpretation
              of the regular expression itself will be  affected  by  the  environment  variables
              'LC_CTYPE'  (character  classes) and 'LC_COLLATE' (character ranges and equivalence
              classes).

       -okdir command ;
              Like -execdir but ask the user first in the same way as for -ok.  If the user  does
              not  agree,  just  return  false.   If  the  command  is run, its standard input is
              redirected from /dev/null.

       -print True; print the full file name on the standard output, followed by a  newline.   If
              you  are  piping  the output of find into another program and there is the faintest
              possibility that the files which you are searching for  might  contain  a  newline,
              then you should seriously consider using the -print0 option instead of -print.  See
              the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for  information  about  how  unusual  characters  in
              filenames are handled.

       -print0
              True; print the full file name on the standard output, followed by a null character
              (instead of the newline character that -print uses).  This allows file  names  that
              contain  newlines  or  other  types  of  white space to be correctly interpreted by
              programs that process the find output.  This option corresponds to the -0 option of
              xargs.

       -printf format
              True;  print  format  on  the  standard  output,  interpreting  `\' escapes and `%'
              directives.  Field widths and precisions can be specified as with the  printf(3)  C
              function.   Please  note  that many of the fields are printed as %s rather than %d,
              and this may mean that flags don't work as you might expect.  This also means  that
              the  `-'  flag  does  work  (it  forces fields to be left-aligned).  Unlike -print,
              -printf does not add a  newline  at  the  end  of  the  string.   The  escapes  and
              directives are:

              \a     Alarm bell.

              \b     Backspace.

              \c     Stop printing from this format immediately and flush the output.

              \f     Form feed.

              \n     Newline.

              \r     Carriage return.

              \t     Horizontal tab.

              \v     Vertical tab.

              \0     ASCII NUL.

              \\     A literal backslash (`\').

              \NNN   The character whose ASCII code is NNN (octal).

              A  `\'  character  followed  by  any  other  character  is  treated  as an ordinary
              character, so they both are printed.

              %%     A literal percent sign.

              %a     File's last access time in the format returned by the C ctime(3) function.

              %Ak    File's last access time in the format specified by k, which is either `@' or
                     a  directive  for  the  C  strftime(3)  function.   The  following  shows an
                     incomplete list of possible values for k.  Please refer to the documentation
                     of  strftime(3)  for  the  full  list.  Some of the conversion specification
                     characters might not be available on all systems, due to differences in  the
                     implementation of the strftime(3) library function.

                     @      seconds since Jan. 1, 1970, 00:00 GMT, with fractional part.

                     Time fields:

                     H      hour (00..23)

                     I      hour (01..12)

                     k      hour ( 0..23)

                     l      hour ( 1..12)

                     M      minute (00..59)

                     p      locale's AM or PM

                     r      time, 12-hour (hh:mm:ss [AP]M)

                     S      Second (00.00 .. 61.00).  There is a fractional part.

                     T      time, 24-hour (hh:mm:ss.xxxxxxxxxx)

                     +      Date and time, separated by `+', for example `2004-04-28+22:22:05.0'.
                            This is a GNU extension.  The time is given in the  current  timezone
                            (which  may be affected by setting the TZ environment variable).  The
                            seconds field includes a fractional part.

                     X      locale's time representation (H:M:S).  The seconds field  includes  a
                            fractional part.

                     Z      time zone (e.g., EDT), or nothing if no time zone is determinable

                     Date fields:

                     a      locale's abbreviated weekday name (Sun..Sat)

                     A      locale's full weekday name, variable length (Sunday..Saturday)

                     b      locale's abbreviated month name (Jan..Dec)

                     B      locale's full month name, variable length (January..December)

                     c      locale's date and time (Sat Nov 04 12:02:33 EST 1989).  The format is
                            the same as for ctime(3) and so to preserve compatibility  with  that
                            format, there is no fractional part in the seconds field.

                     d      day of month (01..31)

                     D      date (mm/dd/yy)

                     F      date (yyyy-mm-dd)

                     h      same as b

                     j      day of year (001..366)

                     m      month (01..12)

                     U      week number of year with Sunday as first day of week (00..53)

                     w      day of week (0..6)

                     W      week number of year with Monday as first day of week (00..53)

                     x      locale's date representation (mm/dd/yy)

                     y      last two digits of year (00..99)

                     Y      year (1970...)

              %b     The  amount of disk space used for this file in 512-byte blocks.  Since disk
                     space is allocated in multiples of the filesystem block size this is usually
                     greater  than  %s/512,  but  it  can also be smaller if the file is a sparse
                     file.

              %c     File's last status change time in the format  returned  by  the  C  ctime(3)
                     function.

              %Ck    File's  last  status  change time in the format specified by k, which is the
                     same as for %A.

              %d     File's depth in the directory tree; 0 means the file is a starting-point.

              %D     The device number on which the file  exists  (the  st_dev  field  of  struct
                     stat), in decimal.

              %f     Print  the  basename;  the  file's name with any leading directories removed
                     (only the last element).  For /,  the  result  is  `/'.   See  the  EXAMPLES
                     section for an example.

              %F     Type of the filesystem the file is on; this value can be used for -fstype.

              %g     File's group name, or numeric group ID if the group has no name.

              %G     File's numeric group ID.

              %h     Dirname;  the  Leading  directories  of  the  file's  name (all but the last
                     element).  If the file name contains no slashes (since it is in the  current
                     directory)  the %h specifier expands to `.'.  For files which are themselves
                     directories and contain a slash (including  /),  %h  expands  to  the  empty
                     string.  See the EXAMPLES section for an example.

              %H     Starting-point under which file was found.

              %i     File's inode number (in decimal).

              %k     The  amount  of  disk  space  used for this file in 1 KB blocks.  Since disk
                     space is allocated in multiples of the filesystem block size this is usually
                     greater  than  %s/1024,  but  it can also be smaller if the file is a sparse
                     file.

              %l     Object of symbolic link (empty string if file is not a symbolic link).

              %m     File's permission bits (in  octal).   This  option  uses  the  `traditional'
                     numbers  which  most  Unix  implementations  use,  but  if  your  particular
                     implementation uses an unusual ordering of octal permissions bits, you  will
                     see  a difference between the actual value of the file's mode and the output
                     of %m.  Normally you will want to have a leading zero on this number, and to
                     do this, you should use the # flag (as in, for example, `%#m').

              %M     File's  permissions  (in  symbolic  form,  as  for  ls).   This directive is
                     supported in findutils 4.2.5 and later.

              %n     Number of hard links to file.

              %p     File's name.

              %P     File's name with the name of the starting-point under  which  it  was  found
                     removed.

              %s     File's size in bytes.

              %S     File's  sparseness.   This is calculated as (BLOCKSIZE*st_blocks / st_size).
                     The exact value you will get for an ordinary file of  a  certain  length  is
                     system-dependent.  However, normally sparse files will have values less than
                     1.0, and files which use indirect blocks may have a value which  is  greater
                     than  1.0.   In  general  the number of blocks used by a file is file system
                     dependent.  The value used for BLOCKSIZE is system-dependent, but is usually
                     512  bytes.   If  the file size is zero, the value printed is undefined.  On
                     systems which lack support for st_blocks, a file's sparseness is assumed  to
                     be 1.0.

              %t     File's  last  modification  time  in  the  format returned by the C ctime(3)
                     function.

              %Tk    File's last modification time in the format specified by  k,  which  is  the
                     same as for %A.

              %u     File's user name, or numeric user ID if the user has no name.

              %U     File's numeric user ID.

              %y     File's type (like in ls -l), U=unknown type (shouldn't happen)

              %Y     File's   type   (like   %y),   plus   follow   symbolic   links:   `L'=loop,
                     `N'=nonexistent, `?' for any other error when determining the  type  of  the
                     target of a symbolic link.

              %Z     (SELinux only) file's security context.

              %{ %[ %(
                     Reserved for future use.

              A  `%'  character  followed  by  any  other  character  is discarded, but the other
              character is printed (don't rely on this,  as  further  format  characters  may  be
              introduced).   A  `%'  at the end of the format argument causes undefined behaviour
              since there is no following character.  In some locales,  it  may  hide  your  door
              keys, while in others it may remove the final page from the novel you are reading.

              The  %m and %d directives support the #, 0 and + flags, but the other directives do
              not, even if they print numbers.  Numeric directives  that  do  not  support  these
              flags  include  G,  U, b, D, k and n.  The `-' format flag is supported and changes
              the alignment of a field from right-justified  (which  is  the  default)  to  left-
              justified.

              See  the  UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information about how unusual characters in
              filenames are handled.

       -prune True; if the file is a directory, do not descend into it.  If -depth is given, then
              -prune  has  no  effect.   Because  -delete implies -depth, you cannot usefully use
              -prune and -delete together.  For example, to skip the directory src/emacs and  all
              files  and  directories  under it, and print the names of the other files found, do
              something like this:
                  find . -path ./src/emacs -prune -o -print

       -quit  Exit immediately (with return value zero if no  errors  have  occurred).   This  is
              different  to  -prune  because  -prune  only  applies  to  the  contents  of pruned
              directories, while -quit simply makes find stop immediately.   No  child  processes
              will  be  left  running.  Any command lines which have been built by -exec ... + or
              -execdir ... + are invoked before the program is exited.  After -quit is  executed,
              no  more  files  specified  on  the  command  line will be processed.  For example,
              `find /tmp/foo /tmp/bar -print -quit` will print only `/tmp/foo`.
              One common use of -quit is to stop searching the file system  once  we  have  found
              what we want.  For example, if we want to find just a single file we can do this:
                  find / -name needle -print -quit

   OPERATORS
       Listed in order of decreasing precedence:

       ( expr )
              Force  precedence.   Since  parentheses are special to the shell, you will normally
              need to quote them.  Many of the examples in this manual page use  backslashes  for
              this purpose: `\(...\)' instead of `(...)'.

       ! expr True  if  expr  is  false.   This  character will also usually need protection from
              interpretation by the shell.

       -not expr
              Same as ! expr, but not POSIX compliant.

       expr1 expr2
              Two expressions in a row are taken to be joined with an implied -a;  expr2  is  not
              evaluated if expr1 is false.

       expr1 -a expr2
              Same as expr1 expr2.

       expr1 -and expr2
              Same as expr1 expr2, but not POSIX compliant.

       expr1 -o expr2
              Or; expr2 is not evaluated if expr1 is true.

       expr1 -or expr2
              Same as expr1 -o expr2, but not POSIX compliant.

       expr1 , expr2
              List;  both expr1 and expr2 are always evaluated.  The value of expr1 is discarded;
              the value of the list is the value of expr2.  The comma operator can be useful  for
              searching  for  several  different  types  of  thing, but traversing the filesystem
              hierarchy only once.  The -fprintf action can be used to list the  various  matched
              items into several different output files.

       Please  note that -a when specified implicitly (for example by two tests appearing without
       an explicit operator between them) or explicitly has  higher  precedence  than  -o.   This
       means that find . -name afile -o -name bfile -print will never print afile.

UNUSUAL FILENAMES

       Many  of  the actions of find result in the printing of data which is under the control of
       other users.  This includes file names, sizes, modification  times  and  so  forth.   File
       names  are  a  potential problem since they can contain any character except `\0' and `/'.
       Unusual characters in file names can do unexpected and often undesirable  things  to  your
       terminal  (for  example,  changing  the settings of your function keys on some terminals).
       Unusual characters are handled differently by various actions, as described below.

       -print0, -fprint0
              Always print the exact filename, unchanged, even  if  the  output  is  going  to  a
              terminal.

       -ls, -fls
              Unusual  characters  are  always escaped.  White space, backslash, and double quote
              characters are printed using C-style escaping  (for  example  `\f',  `\"').   Other
              unusual  characters  are printed using an octal escape.  Other printable characters
              (for -ls and -fls these are the characters between octal 041 and 0176) are  printed
              as-is.

       -printf, -fprintf
              If  the  output  is  not  going to a terminal, it is printed as-is.  Otherwise, the
              result depends on which directive is in use.  The directives %D, %F,  %g,  %G,  %H,
              %Y,  and  %y  expand to values which are not under control of files' owners, and so
              are printed as-is.  The directives %a, %b, %c, %d, %i, %k, %m, %M, %n, %s,  %t,  %u
              and %U have values which are under the control of files' owners but which cannot be
              used to send arbitrary data to the terminal, and so these are printed  as-is.   The
              directives %f, %h, %l, %p and %P are quoted.  This quoting is performed in the same
              way as for GNU ls.  This is not the same quoting mechanism as the one used for  -ls
              and -fls.  If you are able to decide what format to use for the output of find then
              it is normally better to use `\0' as a terminator than  to  use  newline,  as  file
              names  can  contain  white  space  and  newline  characters.   The  setting  of the
              `LC_CTYPE' environment variable is used to determine which characters  need  to  be
              quoted.

       -print, -fprint
              Quoting  is  handled in the same way as for -printf and -fprintf.  If you are using
              find in a script or in a situation where the matched  files  might  have  arbitrary
              names, you should consider using -print0 instead of -print.

       The  -ok and -okdir actions print the current filename as-is.  This may change in a future
       release.

STANDARDS CONFORMANCE

       For closest  compliance  to  the  POSIX  standard,  you  should  set  the  POSIXLY_CORRECT
       environment variable.  The following options are specified in the POSIX standard (IEEE Std
       1003.1-2008, 2016 Edition):

       -H     This option is supported.

       -L     This option is supported.

       -name  This option is supported, but POSIX conformance depends on the POSIX conformance of
              the   system's   fnmatch(3)   library   function.   As  of  findutils-4.2.2,  shell
              metacharacters (`*', `?' or `[]' for example) match a  leading  `.',  because  IEEE
              PASC  interpretation 126 requires this.  This is a change from previous versions of
              findutils.

       -type  Supported.  POSIX specifies `b', `c', `d', `l', `p', `f' and `s'.   GNU  find  also
              supports  `D',  representing a Door, where the OS provides these.  Furthermore, GNU
              find allows multiple types to be specified at once in a comma-separated list.

       -ok    Supported.  Interpretation of the response is  according  to  the  `yes'  and  `no'
              patterns  selected  by  setting  the  `LC_MESSAGES' environment variable.  When the
              `POSIXLY_CORRECT' environment variable is set, these patterns  are  taken  system's
              definition  of  a  positive  (yes)  or  negative  (no)  response.  See the system's
              documentation  for  nl_langinfo(3),  in  particular  YESEXPR  and   NOEXPR.    When
              `POSIXLY_CORRECT'  is  not  set,  the  patterns  are  instead taken from find's own
              message catalogue.

       -newer Supported.  If the file specified is a symbolic link, it  is  always  dereferenced.
              This is a change from previous behaviour, which used to take the relevant time from
              the symbolic link; see the HISTORY section below.

       -perm  Supported.  If the POSIXLY_CORRECT environment  variable  is  not  set,  some  mode
              arguments  (for  example  +a+x)  which  are  not  valid  in POSIX are supported for
              backward-compatibility.

       Other primaries
              The primaries -atime, -ctime, -depth,  -exec,  -group,  -links,  -mtime,  -nogroup,
              -nouser, -ok, -path, -print, -prune, -size, -user and -xdev are all supported.

       The  POSIX  standard  specifies  parentheses `(', `)', negation `!' and the logical AND/OR
       operators -a and -o.

       All other options, predicates, expressions and so forth are extensions  beyond  the  POSIX
       standard.  Many of these extensions are not unique to GNU find, however.

       The POSIX standard requires that find detects loops:

              The  find  utility  shall  detect  infinite  loops;  that is, entering a previously
              visited directory that is an ancestor  of  the  last  file  encountered.   When  it
              detects  an  infinite loop, find shall write a diagnostic message to standard error
              and shall either recover its position in the hierarchy or terminate.

       GNU find complies with these requirements.  The link count of  directories  which  contain
       entries which are hard links to an ancestor will often be lower than they otherwise should
       be.  This can mean  that  GNU  find  will  sometimes  optimise  away  the  visiting  of  a
       subdirectory  which is actually a link to an ancestor.  Since find does not actually enter
       such a subdirectory, it is allowed to avoid emitting a diagnostic message.  Although  this
       behaviour  may be somewhat confusing, it is unlikely that anybody actually depends on this
       behaviour.  If the leaf optimisation has been turned off with -noleaf, the directory entry
       will always be examined and the diagnostic message will be issued where it is appropriate.
       Symbolic links cannot be used to create filesystem cycles as such, but if the -L option or
       the  -follow  option is in use, a diagnostic message is issued when find encounters a loop
       of symbolic links.  As with loops containing hard links, the leaf optimisation will  often
       mean  that find knows that it doesn't need to call stat() or chdir() on the symbolic link,
       so this diagnostic is frequently not necessary.

       The -d option is supported for compatibility with various BSD systems, but you should  use
       the POSIX-compliant option -depth instead.

       The  POSIXLY_CORRECT  environment  variable does not affect the behaviour of the -regex or
       -iregex tests because those tests aren't specified in the POSIX standard.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

       LANG   Provides a default value for the internationalization variables that are  unset  or
              null.

       LC_ALL If  set  to  a  non-empty  string  value,  override  the  values  of  all the other
              internationalization variables.

       LC_COLLATE
              The POSIX standard specifies that this variable affects the pattern matching to  be
              used  for  the -name option.  GNU find uses the fnmatch(3) library function, and so
              support for `LC_COLLATE' depends on the system library.  This variable also affects
              the interpretation of the response to -ok; while the `LC_MESSAGES' variable selects
              the actual pattern used to interpret the response to -ok, the interpretation of any
              bracket expressions in the pattern will be affected by `LC_COLLATE'.

       LC_CTYPE
              This   variable  affects  the  treatment  of  character  classes  used  in  regular
              expressions and also with the  -name  test,  if  the  system's  fnmatch(3)  library
              function  supports  this.   This  variable  also  affects the interpretation of any
              character classes in the regular expressions used to interpret the response to  the
              prompt  issued  by -ok.  The `LC_CTYPE' environment variable will also affect which
              characters are considered to be unprintable when filenames  are  printed;  see  the
              section UNUSUAL FILENAMES.

       LC_MESSAGES
              Determines   the  locale  to  be  used  for  internationalised  messages.   If  the
              `POSIXLY_CORRECT'  environment  variable  is  set,   this   also   determines   the
              interpretation of the response to the prompt made by the -ok action.

       NLSPATH
              Determines the location of the internationalisation message catalogues.

       PATH   Affects  the  directories  which  are  searched  to find the executables invoked by
              -exec, -execdir, -ok and -okdir.

       POSIXLY_CORRECT
              Determines the block size used by -ls and -fls.  If POSIXLY_CORRECT is set,  blocks
              are units of 512 bytes.  Otherwise they are units of 1024 bytes.

              Setting this variable also turns off warning messages (that is, implies -nowarn) by
              default, because POSIX requires that apart from the output for  -ok,  all  messages
              printed on stderr are diagnostics and must result in a non-zero exit status.

              When POSIXLY_CORRECT is not set, -perm +zzz is treated just like -perm /zzz if +zzz
              is not a valid symbolic mode.  When POSIXLY_CORRECT is  set,  such  constructs  are
              treated as an error.

              When  POSIXLY_CORRECT  is set, the response to the prompt made by the -ok action is
              interpreted according to the system's message catalogue, as opposed to according to
              find's own message translations.

       TZ     Affects  the  time  zone  used  for  some  of the time-related format directives of
              -printf and -fprintf.

EXAMPLES

   Simple `find|xargs` approach
       •      Find files named core in or below the directory /tmp and delete them.

                  $ find /tmp -name core -type f -print | xargs /bin/rm -f

              Note that this  will  work  incorrectly  if  there  are  any  filenames  containing
              newlines, single or double quotes, or spaces.

   Safer `find -print0 | xargs -0` approach
       •      Find  files  named  core in or below the directory /tmp and delete them, processing
              filenames in such a way that file or directory names containing  single  or  double
              quotes, spaces or newlines are correctly handled.

                  $ find /tmp -name core -type f -print0 | xargs -0 /bin/rm -f

              The -name test comes before the -type test in order to avoid having to call stat(2)
              on every file.

       Note that there is still a race between the time find traverses the hierarchy printing the
       matching filenames, and the time the process executed by xargs works with that file.

   Executing a command for each file
       •      Run file on every file in or below the current directory.

                  $ find . -type f -exec file '{}' \;

              Notice  that  the  braces  are  enclosed in single quote marks to protect them from
              interpretation as shell script punctuation.  The semicolon is  similarly  protected
              by  the  use of a backslash, though single quotes could have been used in that case
              also.

       In many cases, one might prefer the `-exec ... +` or better  the  `-execdir ... +`  syntax
       for performance and security reasons.

   Traversing the filesystem just once - for 2 different actions
       •      Traverse  the  filesystem just once, listing set-user-ID files and directories into
              /root/suid.txt and large files into /root/big.txt.

                  $ find / \
                      \( -perm -4000 -fprintf /root/suid.txt '%#m %u %p\n' \) , \
                      \( -size +100M -fprintf /root/big.txt '%-10s %p\n' \)

              This example uses the line-continuation character '\' on the  first  two  lines  to
              instruct the shell to continue reading the command on the next line.

   Searching files by age
       •      Search  for  files  in  your  home  directory  which have been modified in the last
              twenty-four hours.

                  $ find $HOME -mtime 0

              This command works this way because the time since each file was last  modified  is
              divided  by  24  hours  and  any  remainder is discarded.  That means that to match
              -mtime 0, a file will have to have a modification in the past which is less than 24
              hours ago.

   Searching files by permissions
       •      Search for files which are executable but not readable.

                  $ find /sbin /usr/sbin -executable \! -readable -print

       •      Search  for  files which have read and write permission for their owner, and group,
              but which other users can read but not write to.

                  $ find . -perm 664

              Files which meet these criteria but have other permissions bits set (for example if
              someone can execute the file) will not be matched.

       •      Search  for  files  which have read and write permission for their owner and group,
              and which other users can read,  without  regard  to  the  presence  of  any  extra
              permission bits (for example the executable bit).

                  $ find . -perm -664

              This will match a file which has mode 0777, for example.

       •      Search  for  files  which are writable by somebody (their owner, or their group, or
              anybody else).

                  $ find . -perm /222

       •      Search for files which are writable by either their owner or their group.

                  $ find . -perm /220
                  $ find . -perm /u+w,g+w
                  $ find . -perm /u=w,g=w

              All three of these commands do the same thing, but the first  one  uses  the  octal
              representation  of  the  file  mode,  and the other two use the symbolic form.  The
              files don't have to be writable by both the owner and group to be  matched;  either
              will do.

       •      Search for files which are writable by both their owner and their group.

                  $ find . -perm -220
                  $ find . -perm -g+w,u+w

              Both these commands do the same thing.

       •      A more elaborate search on permissions.

                  $ find . -perm -444 -perm /222 \! -perm /111
                  $ find . -perm -a+r -perm /a+w \! -perm /a+x

              These  two  commands  both  search for files that are readable for everybody (-perm
              -444 or -perm -a+r), have at least one write bit set (-perm /222 or -perm /a+w) but
              are not executable for anybody (! -perm /111 or ! -perm /a+x respectively).

   Pruning - omitting files and subdirectories
       •      Copy the contents of /source-dir to /dest-dir, but omit files and directories named
              .snapshot (and anything in them).  It also omits files or  directories  whose  name
              ends in '~', but not their contents.

                  $ cd /source-dir
                  $ find . -name .snapshot -prune -o \( \! -name '*~' -print0 \) \
                      | cpio -pmd0 /dest-dir

              The  construct  -prune -o \( ... -print0 \) is quite common.  The idea here is that
              the expression before -prune matches things which are to be pruned.   However,  the
              -prune  action itself returns true, so the following -o ensures that the right hand
              side is evaluated only for those directories which didn't get pruned (the  contents
              of  the pruned directories are not even visited, so their contents are irrelevant).
              The expression on the right hand side of the -o is in parentheses only for clarity.
              It  emphasises that the -print0 action takes place only for things that didn't have
              -prune applied to them.  Because the default `and' condition  between  tests  binds
              more  tightly than -o, this is the default anyway, but the parentheses help to show
              what is going on.

       •      Given the following directory of projects and their associated  SCM  administrative
              directories, perform an efficient search for the projects' roots:

                  $ find repo/ \
                      \( -exec test -d '{}/.svn' \; \
                      -or -exec test -d '{}/.git' \; \
                      -or -exec test -d '{}/CVS' \; \
                      \) -print -prune

              Sample output:

                  repo/project1/CVS
                  repo/gnu/project2/.svn
                  repo/gnu/project3/.svn
                  repo/gnu/project3/src/.svn
                  repo/project4/.git

              In  this  example,  -prune  prevents unnecessary descent into directories that have
              already been discovered (for example we  do  not  search  project3/src  because  we
              already  found  project3/.svn),  but  ensures  sibling  directories  (project2  and
              project3) are found.

   Other useful examples
       •      Search for several file types.

                  $ find /tmp -type f,d,l

              Search for files, directories, and symbolic links in  the  directory  /tmp  passing
              these  types  as  a  comma-separated  list  (GNU  extension),  which  is  otherwise
              equivalent to the longer, yet more portable:

                  $ find /tmp \( -type f -o -type d -o -type l \)

       •      Search for files with the particular name needle and stop immediately when we  find
              the first one.

                  $ find / -name needle -print -quit

       •      Demonstrate  the  interpretation  of the %f and %h format directives of the -printf
              action for some corner-cases.  Here is an example including some output.

                  $ find . .. / /tmp /tmp/TRACE compile compile/64/tests/find -maxdepth 0 -printf '[%h][%f]\n'
                  [.][.]
                  [.][..]
                  [][/]
                  [][tmp]
                  [/tmp][TRACE]
                  [.][compile]
                  [compile/64/tests][find]

EXIT STATUS

       find exits with status 0 if all files are processed successfully, greater than 0 if errors
       occur.   This  is  deliberately  a very broad description, but if the return value is non-
       zero, you should not rely on the correctness of the results of find.

       When some error occurs, find may stop immediately,  without  completing  all  the  actions
       specified.   For  example, some starting points may not have been examined or some pending
       program invocations for -exec ... {} + or -execdir ... {} + may not have been performed.

HISTORY

       As of findutils-4.2.2, shell metacharacters  (`*',  `?'  or  `[]'  for  example)  used  in
       filename  patterns  match  a  leading  `.', because IEEE POSIX interpretation 126 requires
       this.

       As of findutils-4.3.3, -perm /000 now matches all files instead of none.

       Nanosecond-resolution timestamps were implemented in findutils-4.3.3.

       As of findutils-4.3.11, the -delete action sets find's exit status to a nonzero value when
       it  fails.   However,  find will not exit immediately.  Previously, find's exit status was
       unaffected by the failure of -delete.

       Feature                Added in   Also occurs in
       -newerXY               4.3.3      BSD
       -D                     4.3.1
       -O                     4.3.1
       -readable              4.3.0
       -writable              4.3.0
       -executable            4.3.0
       -regextype             4.2.24
       -exec ... +            4.2.12     POSIX
       -execdir               4.2.12     BSD
       -okdir                 4.2.12
       -samefile              4.2.11
       -H                     4.2.5      POSIX
       -L                     4.2.5      POSIX
       -P                     4.2.5      BSD
       -delete                4.2.3
       -quit                  4.2.3
       -d                     4.2.3      BSD
       -wholename             4.2.0
       -iwholename            4.2.0
       -ignore_readdir_race   4.2.0
       -fls                   4.0
       -ilname                3.8
       -iname                 3.8
       -ipath                 3.8
       -iregex                3.8

       The syntax -perm +MODE was removed in findutils-4.5.12, in favour  of  -perm  /MODE.   The
       +MODE syntax had been deprecated since findutils-4.2.21 which was released in 2005.

NON-BUGS

   Operator precedence surprises
       The  command  find . -name afile -o -name bfile -print will never print afile because this
       is actually equivalent to find . -name afile -o \( -name bfile  -a  -print  \).   Remember
       that  the  precedence  of  -a  is  higher  than  that  of -o and when there is no operator
       specified between tests, -a is assumed.

   “paths must precede expression” error message
       $ find . -name *.c -print
       find: paths must precede expression
       find: possible unquoted pattern after predicate `-name'?

       This happens when the shell could expand the pattern  *.c  to  more  than  one  file  name
       existing  in  the  current  directory, and passing the resulting file names in the command
       line to find like this:
       find . -name frcode.c locate.c word_io.c -print
       That command is of course not going to work, because the -name  predicate  allows  exactly
       only  one  pattern  as argument.  Instead of doing things this way, you should enclose the
       pattern in quotes or escape the wildcard, thus allowing find to use the pattern  with  the
       wildcard  during  the  search for file name matching instead of file names expanded by the
       parent shell:
       $ find . -name '*.c' -print
       $ find . -name \*.c -print

BUGS

       There are security problems inherent in the behaviour that the  POSIX  standard  specifies
       for  find,  which  therefore cannot be fixed.  For example, the -exec action is inherently
       insecure, and -execdir should be used instead.

       The environment variable LC_COLLATE has no effect on the -ok action.

REPORTING BUGS

       GNU findutils online help: <https://www.gnu.org/software/findutils/#get-help>
       Report any translation bugs to <https://translationproject.org/team/>

       Report any other issue via the form at the GNU Savannah bug tracker:
              <https://savannah.gnu.org/bugs/?group=findutils>
       General topics about the GNU findutils package are discussed at the bug-findutils  mailing
       list:
              <https://lists.gnu.org/mailman/listinfo/bug-findutils>

COPYRIGHT

       Copyright © 1990-2021 Free Software Foundation, Inc.  License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or
       later <https://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>.
       This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.  There is NO  WARRANTY,
       to the extent permitted by law.

SEE ALSO

       chmod(1), locate(1), ls(1), updatedb(1), xargs(1), lstat(2), stat(2), ctime(3) fnmatch(3),
       printf(3), strftime(3), locatedb(5), regex(7)

       Full documentation <https://www.gnu.org/software/findutils/find>
       or available locally via: info find

                                                                                          FIND(1)