Provided by: git-man_2.32.0-1ubuntu1_all bug


       git-add - Add file contents to the index


       git add [--verbose | -v] [--dry-run | -n] [--force | -f] [--interactive | -i] [--patch | -p]
                 [--edit | -e] [--[no-]all | --[no-]ignore-removal | [--update | -u]]
                 [--intent-to-add | -N] [--refresh] [--ignore-errors] [--ignore-missing] [--renormalize]
                 [--chmod=(+|-)x] [--pathspec-from-file=<file> [--pathspec-file-nul]]
                 [--] [<pathspec>...]


       This command updates the index using the current content found in the working tree, to
       prepare the content staged for the next commit. It typically adds the current content of
       existing paths as a whole, but with some options it can also be used to add content with
       only part of the changes made to the working tree files applied, or remove paths that do
       not exist in the working tree anymore.

       The "index" holds a snapshot of the content of the working tree, and it is this snapshot
       that is taken as the contents of the next commit. Thus after making any changes to the
       working tree, and before running the commit command, you must use the add command to add
       any new or modified files to the index.

       This command can be performed multiple times before a commit. It only adds the content of
       the specified file(s) at the time the add command is run; if you want subsequent changes
       included in the next commit, then you must run git add again to add the new content to the

       The git status command can be used to obtain a summary of which files have changes that
       are staged for the next commit.

       The git add command will not add ignored files by default. If any ignored files were
       explicitly specified on the command line, git add will fail with a list of ignored files.
       Ignored files reached by directory recursion or filename globbing performed by Git (quote
       your globs before the shell) will be silently ignored. The git add command can be used to
       add ignored files with the -f (force) option.

       Please see git-commit(1) for alternative ways to add content to a commit.


           Files to add content from. Fileglobs (e.g.  *.c) can be given to add all matching
           files. Also a leading directory name (e.g.  dir to add dir/file1 and dir/file2) can be
           given to update the index to match the current state of the directory as a whole (e.g.
           specifying dir will record not just a file dir/file1 modified in the working tree, a
           file dir/file2 added to the working tree, but also a file dir/file3 removed from the
           working tree). Note that older versions of Git used to ignore removed files; use
           --no-all option if you want to add modified or new files but ignore removed ones.

           For more details about the <pathspec> syntax, see the pathspec entry in

       -n, --dry-run
           Don’t actually add the file(s), just show if they exist and/or will be ignored.

       -v, --verbose
           Be verbose.

       -f, --force
           Allow adding otherwise ignored files.

       -i, --interactive
           Add modified contents in the working tree interactively to the index. Optional path
           arguments may be supplied to limit operation to a subset of the working tree. See
           “Interactive mode” for details.

       -p, --patch
           Interactively choose hunks of patch between the index and the work tree and add them
           to the index. This gives the user a chance to review the difference before adding
           modified contents to the index.

           This effectively runs add --interactive, but bypasses the initial command menu and
           directly jumps to the patch subcommand. See “Interactive mode” for details.

       -e, --edit
           Open the diff vs. the index in an editor and let the user edit it. After the editor
           was closed, adjust the hunk headers and apply the patch to the index.

           The intent of this option is to pick and choose lines of the patch to apply, or even
           to modify the contents of lines to be staged. This can be quicker and more flexible
           than using the interactive hunk selector. However, it is easy to confuse oneself and
           create a patch that does not apply to the index. See EDITING PATCHES below.

       -u, --update
           Update the index just where it already has an entry matching <pathspec>. This removes
           as well as modifies index entries to match the working tree, but adds no new files.

           If no <pathspec> is given when -u option is used, all tracked files in the entire
           working tree are updated (old versions of Git used to limit the update to the current
           directory and its subdirectories).

       -A, --all, --no-ignore-removal
           Update the index not only where the working tree has a file matching <pathspec> but
           also where the index already has an entry. This adds, modifies, and removes index
           entries to match the working tree.

           If no <pathspec> is given when -A option is used, all files in the entire working tree
           are updated (old versions of Git used to limit the update to the current directory and
           its subdirectories).

       --no-all, --ignore-removal
           Update the index by adding new files that are unknown to the index and files modified
           in the working tree, but ignore files that have been removed from the working tree.
           This option is a no-op when no <pathspec> is used.

           This option is primarily to help users who are used to older versions of Git, whose
           "git add <pathspec>..." was a synonym for "git add --no-all <pathspec>...", i.e.
           ignored removed files.

       -N, --intent-to-add
           Record only the fact that the path will be added later. An entry for the path is
           placed in the index with no content. This is useful for, among other things, showing
           the unstaged content of such files with git diff and committing them with git commit

           Don’t add the file(s), but only refresh their stat() information in the index.

           If some files could not be added because of errors indexing them, do not abort the
           operation, but continue adding the others. The command shall still exit with non-zero
           status. The configuration variable add.ignoreErrors can be set to true to make this
           the default behaviour.

           This option can only be used together with --dry-run. By using this option the user
           can check if any of the given files would be ignored, no matter if they are already
           present in the work tree or not.

           By default, git add will warn when adding an embedded repository to the index without
           using git submodule add to create an entry in .gitmodules. This option will suppress
           the warning (e.g., if you are manually performing operations on submodules).

           Apply the "clean" process freshly to all tracked files to forcibly add them again to
           the index. This is useful after changing core.autocrlf configuration or the text
           attribute in order to correct files added with wrong CRLF/LF line endings. This option
           implies -u.

           Override the executable bit of the added files. The executable bit is only changed in
           the index, the files on disk are left unchanged.

           Pathspec is passed in <file> instead of commandline args. If <file> is exactly - then
           standard input is used. Pathspec elements are separated by LF or CR/LF. Pathspec
           elements can be quoted as explained for the configuration variable core.quotePath (see
           git-config(1)). See also --pathspec-file-nul and global --literal-pathspecs.

           Only meaningful with --pathspec-from-file. Pathspec elements are separated with NUL
           character and all other characters are taken literally (including newlines and

           This option can be used to separate command-line options from the list of files,
           (useful when filenames might be mistaken for command-line options).


       •   Adds content from all *.txt files under Documentation directory and its

               $ git add Documentation/\*.txt

           Note that the asterisk * is quoted from the shell in this example; this lets the
           command include the files from subdirectories of Documentation/ directory.

       •   Considers adding content from all git-*.sh scripts:

               $ git add git-*.sh

           Because this example lets the shell expand the asterisk (i.e. you are listing the
           files explicitly), it does not consider subdir/


       When the command enters the interactive mode, it shows the output of the status
       subcommand, and then goes into its interactive command loop.

       The command loop shows the list of subcommands available, and gives a prompt "What now> ".
       In general, when the prompt ends with a single >, you can pick only one of the choices
       given and type return, like this:

               *** Commands ***
                 1: status       2: update       3: revert       4: add untracked
                 5: patch        6: diff         7: quit         8: help
               What now> 1

       You also could say s or sta or status above as long as the choice is unique.

       The main command loop has 6 subcommands (plus help and quit).

           This shows the change between HEAD and index (i.e. what will be committed if you say
           git commit), and between index and working tree files (i.e. what you could stage
           further before git commit using git add) for each path. A sample output looks like

                             staged     unstaged path
                    1:       binary      nothing foo.png
                    2:     +403/-35        +1/-1 git-add--interactive.perl

           It shows that foo.png has differences from HEAD (but that is binary so line count
           cannot be shown) and there is no difference between indexed copy and the working tree
           version (if the working tree version were also different, binary would have been shown
           in place of nothing). The other file, git-add--interactive.perl, has 403 lines added
           and 35 lines deleted if you commit what is in the index, but working tree file has
           further modifications (one addition and one deletion).

           This shows the status information and issues an "Update>>" prompt. When the prompt
           ends with double >>, you can make more than one selection, concatenated with
           whitespace or comma. Also you can say ranges. E.g. "2-5 7,9" to choose 2,3,4,5,7,9
           from the list. If the second number in a range is omitted, all remaining patches are
           taken. E.g. "7-" to choose 7,8,9 from the list. You can say * to choose everything.

           What you chose are then highlighted with *, like this:

                          staged     unstaged path
                 1:       binary      nothing foo.png
               * 2:     +403/-35        +1/-1 git-add--interactive.perl

           To remove selection, prefix the input with - like this:

               Update>> -2

           After making the selection, answer with an empty line to stage the contents of working
           tree files for selected paths in the index.

           This has a very similar UI to update, and the staged information for selected paths
           are reverted to that of the HEAD version. Reverting new paths makes them untracked.

       add untracked
           This has a very similar UI to update and revert, and lets you add untracked paths to
           the index.

           This lets you choose one path out of a status like selection. After choosing the path,
           it presents the diff between the index and the working tree file and asks you if you
           want to stage the change of each hunk. You can select one of the following options and
           type return:

               y - stage this hunk
               n - do not stage this hunk
               q - quit; do not stage this hunk or any of the remaining ones
               a - stage this hunk and all later hunks in the file
               d - do not stage this hunk or any of the later hunks in the file
               g - select a hunk to go to
               / - search for a hunk matching the given regex
               j - leave this hunk undecided, see next undecided hunk
               J - leave this hunk undecided, see next hunk
               k - leave this hunk undecided, see previous undecided hunk
               K - leave this hunk undecided, see previous hunk
               s - split the current hunk into smaller hunks
               e - manually edit the current hunk
               ? - print help

           After deciding the fate for all hunks, if there is any hunk that was chosen, the index
           is updated with the selected hunks.

           You can omit having to type return here, by setting the configuration variable
           interactive.singleKey to true.

           This lets you review what will be committed (i.e. between HEAD and index).


       Invoking git add -e or selecting e from the interactive hunk selector will open a patch in
       your editor; after the editor exits, the result is applied to the index. You are free to
       make arbitrary changes to the patch, but note that some changes may have confusing
       results, or even result in a patch that cannot be applied. If you want to abort the
       operation entirely (i.e., stage nothing new in the index), simply delete all lines of the
       patch. The list below describes some common things you may see in a patch, and which
       editing operations make sense on them.

       added content
           Added content is represented by lines beginning with "+". You can prevent staging any
           addition lines by deleting them.

       removed content
           Removed content is represented by lines beginning with "-". You can prevent staging
           their removal by converting the "-" to a " " (space).

       modified content
           Modified content is represented by "-" lines (removing the old content) followed by
           "+" lines (adding the replacement content). You can prevent staging the modification
           by converting "-" lines to " ", and removing "+" lines. Beware that modifying only
           half of the pair is likely to introduce confusing changes to the index.

       There are also more complex operations that can be performed. But beware that because the
       patch is applied only to the index and not the working tree, the working tree will appear
       to "undo" the change in the index. For example, introducing a new line into the index that
       is in neither the HEAD nor the working tree will stage the new line for commit, but the
       line will appear to be reverted in the working tree.

       Avoid using these constructs, or do so with extreme caution.

       removing untouched content
           Content which does not differ between the index and working tree may be shown on
           context lines, beginning with a " " (space). You can stage context lines for removal
           by converting the space to a "-". The resulting working tree file will appear to
           re-add the content.

       modifying existing content
           One can also modify context lines by staging them for removal (by converting " " to
           "-") and adding a "+" line with the new content. Similarly, one can modify "+" lines
           for existing additions or modifications. In all cases, the new modification will
           appear reverted in the working tree.

       new content
           You may also add new content that does not exist in the patch; simply add new lines,
           each starting with "+". The addition will appear reverted in the working tree.

       There are also several operations which should be avoided entirely, as they will make the
       patch impossible to apply:

       •   adding context (" ") or removal ("-") lines

       •   deleting context or removal lines

       •   modifying the contents of context or removal lines


       git-status(1) git-rm(1) git-reset(1) git-mv(1) git-commit(1) git-update-index(1)


       Part of the git(1) suite