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       git-rev-list - Lists commit objects in reverse chronological order


       git rev-list [<options>] <commit>... [[--] <path>...]


       List commits that are reachable by following the parent links from the given commit(s),
       but exclude commits that are reachable from the one(s) given with a ^ in front of them.
       The output is given in reverse chronological order by default.

       You can think of this as a set operation. Commits reachable from any of the commits given
       on the command line form a set, and then commits reachable from any of the ones given with
       ^ in front are subtracted from that set. The remaining commits are what comes out in the
       command’s output. Various other options and paths parameters can be used to further limit
       the result.

       Thus, the following command:

           $ git rev-list foo bar ^baz

       means "list all the commits which are reachable from foo or bar, but not from baz".

       A special notation "<commit1>..<commit2>" can be used as a short-hand for "^<commit1>
       <commit2>". For example, either of the following may be used interchangeably:

           $ git rev-list origin..HEAD
           $ git rev-list HEAD ^origin

       Another special notation is "<commit1>...<commit2>" which is useful for merges. The
       resulting set of commits is the symmetric difference between the two operands. The
       following two commands are equivalent:

           $ git rev-list A B --not $(git merge-base --all A B)
           $ git rev-list A...B

       rev-list is a very essential Git command, since it provides the ability to build and
       traverse commit ancestry graphs. For this reason, it has a lot of different options that
       enables it to be used by commands as different as git bisect and git repack.


   Commit Limiting
       Besides specifying a range of commits that should be listed using the special notations
       explained in the description, additional commit limiting may be applied.

       Using more options generally further limits the output (e.g. --since=<date1> limits to
       commits newer than <date1>, and using it with --grep=<pattern> further limits to commits
       whose log message has a line that matches <pattern>), unless otherwise noted.

       Note that these are applied before commit ordering and formatting options, such as

       -<number>, -n <number>, --max-count=<number>
           Limit the number of commits to output.

           Skip number commits before starting to show the commit output.

       --since=<date>, --after=<date>
           Show commits more recent than a specific date.

       --until=<date>, --before=<date>
           Show commits older than a specific date.

       --max-age=<timestamp>, --min-age=<timestamp>
           Limit the commits output to specified time range.

       --author=<pattern>, --committer=<pattern>
           Limit the commits output to ones with author/committer header lines that match the
           specified pattern (regular expression). With more than one --author=<pattern>, commits
           whose author matches any of the given patterns are chosen (similarly for multiple

           Limit the commits output to ones with reflog entries that match the specified pattern
           (regular expression). With more than one --grep-reflog, commits whose reflog message
           matches any of the given patterns are chosen. It is an error to use this option unless
           --walk-reflogs is in use.

           Limit the commits output to ones with log message that matches the specified pattern
           (regular expression). With more than one --grep=<pattern>, commits whose message
           matches any of the given patterns are chosen (but see --all-match).

           Limit the commits output to ones that match all given --grep, instead of ones that
           match at least one.

           Limit the commits output to ones with log message that do not match the pattern
           specified with --grep=<pattern>.

       -i, --regexp-ignore-case
           Match the regular expression limiting patterns without regard to letter case.

           Consider the limiting patterns to be basic regular expressions; this is the default.

       -E, --extended-regexp
           Consider the limiting patterns to be extended regular expressions instead of the
           default basic regular expressions.

       -F, --fixed-strings
           Consider the limiting patterns to be fixed strings (don’t interpret pattern as a
           regular expression).

       -P, --perl-regexp
           Consider the limiting patterns to be Perl-compatible regular expressions.

           Support for these types of regular expressions is an optional compile-time dependency.
           If Git wasn’t compiled with support for them providing this option will cause it to

           Stop when a given path disappears from the tree.

           Print only merge commits. This is exactly the same as --min-parents=2.

           Do not print commits with more than one parent. This is exactly the same as

       --min-parents=<number>, --max-parents=<number>, --no-min-parents, --no-max-parents
           Show only commits which have at least (or at most) that many parent commits. In
           particular, --max-parents=1 is the same as --no-merges, --min-parents=2 is the same as
           --merges.  --max-parents=0 gives all root commits and --min-parents=3 all octopus

           --no-min-parents and --no-max-parents reset these limits (to no limit) again.
           Equivalent forms are --min-parents=0 (any commit has 0 or more parents) and
           --max-parents=-1 (negative numbers denote no upper limit).

           Follow only the first parent commit upon seeing a merge commit. This option can give a
           better overview when viewing the evolution of a particular topic branch, because
           merges into a topic branch tend to be only about adjusting to updated upstream from
           time to time, and this option allows you to ignore the individual commits brought in
           to your history by such a merge.

           Reverses the meaning of the ^ prefix (or lack thereof) for all following revision
           specifiers, up to the next --not.

           Pretend as if all the refs in refs/, along with HEAD, are listed on the command line
           as <commit>.

           Pretend as if all the refs in refs/heads are listed on the command line as <commit>.
           If <pattern> is given, limit branches to ones matching given shell glob. If pattern
           lacks ?, *, or [, /* at the end is implied.

           Pretend as if all the refs in refs/tags are listed on the command line as <commit>. If
           <pattern> is given, limit tags to ones matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks ?,
           *, or [, /* at the end is implied.

           Pretend as if all the refs in refs/remotes are listed on the command line as <commit>.
           If <pattern> is given, limit remote-tracking branches to ones matching given shell
           glob. If pattern lacks ?, *, or [, /* at the end is implied.

           Pretend as if all the refs matching shell glob <glob-pattern> are listed on the
           command line as <commit>. Leading refs/, is automatically prepended if missing. If
           pattern lacks ?, *, or [, /* at the end is implied.

           Do not include refs matching <glob-pattern> that the next --all, --branches, --tags,
           --remotes, or --glob would otherwise consider. Repetitions of this option accumulate
           exclusion patterns up to the next --all, --branches, --tags, --remotes, or --glob
           option (other options or arguments do not clear accumulated patterns).

           The patterns given should not begin with refs/heads, refs/tags, or refs/remotes when
           applied to --branches, --tags, or --remotes, respectively, and they must begin with
           refs/ when applied to --glob or --all. If a trailing /* is intended, it must be given

           Pretend as if all objects mentioned by reflogs are listed on the command line as

           Pretend as if all objects mentioned as ref tips of alternate repositories were listed
           on the command line. An alternate repository is any repository whose object directory
           is specified in objects/info/alternates. The set of included objects may be modified
           by core.alternateRefsCommand, etc. See git-config(1).

           By default, all working trees will be examined by the following options when there are
           more than one (see git-worktree(1)): --all, --reflog and --indexed-objects. This
           option forces them to examine the current working tree only.

           Upon seeing an invalid object name in the input, pretend as if the bad input was not

           In addition to the <commit> listed on the command line, read them from the standard
           input. If a -- separator is seen, stop reading commits and start reading paths to
           limit the result.

           Don’t print anything to standard output. This form is primarily meant to allow the
           caller to test the exit status to see if a range of objects is fully connected (or
           not). It is faster than redirecting stdout to /dev/null as the output does not have to
           be formatted.

           Suppress normal output; instead, print the sum of the bytes used for on-disk storage
           by the selected commits or objects. This is equivalent to piping the output into git
           cat-file --batch-check='%(objectsize:disk)', except that it runs much faster
           (especially with --use-bitmap-index). See the CAVEATS section in git-cat-file(1) for
           the limitations of what "on-disk storage" means.

           Like --cherry-pick (see below) but mark equivalent commits with = rather than omitting
           them, and inequivalent ones with +.

           Omit any commit that introduces the same change as another commit on the “other side”
           when the set of commits are limited with symmetric difference.

           For example, if you have two branches, A and B, a usual way to list all commits on
           only one side of them is with --left-right (see the example below in the description
           of the --left-right option). However, it shows the commits that were cherry-picked
           from the other branch (for example, “3rd on b” may be cherry-picked from branch A).
           With this option, such pairs of commits are excluded from the output.

       --left-only, --right-only
           List only commits on the respective side of a symmetric difference, i.e. only those
           which would be marked < resp.  > by --left-right.

           For example, --cherry-pick --right-only A...B omits those commits from B which are in
           A or are patch-equivalent to a commit in A. In other words, this lists the + commits
           from git cherry A B. More precisely, --cherry-pick --right-only --no-merges gives the
           exact list.

           A synonym for --right-only --cherry-mark --no-merges; useful to limit the output to
           the commits on our side and mark those that have been applied to the other side of a
           forked history with git log --cherry upstream...mybranch, similar to git cherry
           upstream mybranch.

       -g, --walk-reflogs
           Instead of walking the commit ancestry chain, walk reflog entries from the most recent
           one to older ones. When this option is used you cannot specify commits to exclude
           (that is, ^commit, commit1..commit2, and commit1...commit2 notations cannot be used).

           With --pretty format other than oneline and reference (for obvious reasons), this
           causes the output to have two extra lines of information taken from the reflog. The
           reflog designator in the output may be shown as ref@{Nth} (where Nth is the
           reverse-chronological index in the reflog) or as ref@{timestamp} (with the timestamp
           for that entry), depending on a few rules:

            1. If the starting point is specified as ref@{Nth}, show the index format.

            2. If the starting point was specified as ref@{now}, show the timestamp format.

            3. If neither was used, but --date was given on the command line, show the timestamp
               in the format requested by --date.

            4. Otherwise, show the index format.

           Under --pretty=oneline, the commit message is prefixed with this information on the
           same line. This option cannot be combined with --reverse. See also git-reflog(1).

           Under --pretty=reference, this information will not be shown at all.

           After a failed merge, show refs that touch files having a conflict and don’t exist on
           all heads to merge.

           Output excluded boundary commits. Boundary commits are prefixed with -.

           Try to speed up the traversal using the pack bitmap index (if one is available). Note
           that when traversing with --objects, trees and blobs will not have their associated
           path printed.

           Show progress reports on stderr as objects are considered. The <header> text will be
           printed with each progress update.

   History Simplification
       Sometimes you are only interested in parts of the history, for example the commits
       modifying a particular <path>. But there are two parts of History Simplification, one part
       is selecting the commits and the other is how to do it, as there are various strategies to
       simplify the history.

       The following options select the commits to be shown:

           Commits modifying the given <paths> are selected.

           Commits that are referred by some branch or tag are selected.

       Note that extra commits can be shown to give a meaningful history.

       The following options affect the way the simplification is performed:

       Default mode
           Simplifies the history to the simplest history explaining the final state of the tree.
           Simplest because it prunes some side branches if the end result is the same (i.e.
           merging branches with the same content)

           Include all commits from the default mode, but also any merge commits that are not
           TREESAME to the first parent but are TREESAME to a later parent. This mode is helpful
           for showing the merge commits that "first introduced" a change to a branch.

           Same as the default mode, but does not prune some history.

           Only the selected commits are shown, plus some to have a meaningful history.

           All commits in the simplified history are shown.

           Additional option to --full-history to remove some needless merges from the resulting
           history, as there are no selected commits contributing to this merge.

           When given a range of commits to display (e.g.  commit1..commit2 or commit2 ^commit1),
           only display commits that exist directly on the ancestry chain between the commit1 and
           commit2, i.e. commits that are both descendants of commit1, and ancestors of commit2.

       A more detailed explanation follows.

       Suppose you specified foo as the <paths>. We shall call commits that modify foo !TREESAME,
       and the rest TREESAME. (In a diff filtered for foo, they look different and equal,

       In the following, we will always refer to the same example history to illustrate the
       differences between simplification settings. We assume that you are filtering for a file
       foo in this commit graph:

                    /     /   /   /   /   /
                   I     B   C   D   E   Y
                    \   /   /   /   /   /
                     `-------------'   X

       The horizontal line of history A---Q is taken to be the first parent of each merge. The
       commits are:

       •   I is the initial commit, in which foo exists with contents “asdf”, and a file quux
           exists with contents “quux”. Initial commits are compared to an empty tree, so I is

       •   In A, foo contains just “foo”.

       •   B contains the same change as A. Its merge M is trivial and hence TREESAME to all

       •   C does not change foo, but its merge N changes it to “foobar”, so it is not TREESAME
           to any parent.

       •   D sets foo to “baz”. Its merge O combines the strings from N and D to “foobarbaz”;
           i.e., it is not TREESAME to any parent.

       •   E changes quux to “xyzzy”, and its merge P combines the strings to “quux xyzzy”.  P is
           TREESAME to O, but not to E.

       •   X is an independent root commit that added a new file side, and Y modified it.  Y is
           TREESAME to X. Its merge Q added side to P, and Q is TREESAME to P, but not to Y.

       rev-list walks backwards through history, including or excluding commits based on whether
       --full-history and/or parent rewriting (via --parents or --children) are used. The
       following settings are available.

       Default mode
           Commits are included if they are not TREESAME to any parent (though this can be
           changed, see --sparse below). If the commit was a merge, and it was TREESAME to one
           parent, follow only that parent. (Even if there are several TREESAME parents, follow
           only one of them.) Otherwise, follow all parents.

           This results in:

                        /     /   /

           Note how the rule to only follow the TREESAME parent, if one is available, removed B
           from consideration entirely.  C was considered via N, but is TREESAME. Root commits
           are compared to an empty tree, so I is !TREESAME.

           Parent/child relations are only visible with --parents, but that does not affect the
           commits selected in default mode, so we have shown the parent lines.

       --full-history without parent rewriting
           This mode differs from the default in one point: always follow all parents of a merge,
           even if it is TREESAME to one of them. Even if more than one side of the merge has
           commits that are included, this does not imply that the merge itself is! In the
           example, we get

                       I  A  B  N  D  O  P  Q

           M was excluded because it is TREESAME to both parents.  E, C and B were all walked,
           but only B was !TREESAME, so the others do not appear.

           Note that without parent rewriting, it is not really possible to talk about the
           parent/child relationships between the commits, so we show them disconnected.

       --full-history with parent rewriting
           Ordinary commits are only included if they are !TREESAME (though this can be changed,
           see --sparse below).

           Merges are always included. However, their parent list is rewritten: Along each
           parent, prune away commits that are not included themselves. This results in

                        /     /   /   /   /
                       I     B   /   D   /
                        \   /   /   /   /

           Compare to --full-history without rewriting above. Note that E was pruned away because
           it is TREESAME, but the parent list of P was rewritten to contain E's parent I. The
           same happened for C and N, and X, Y and Q.

       In addition to the above settings, you can change whether TREESAME affects inclusion:

           Commits that are walked are included if they are not TREESAME to any parent.

           All commits that are walked are included.

           Note that without --full-history, this still simplifies merges: if one of the parents
           is TREESAME, we follow only that one, so the other sides of the merge are never

           First, build a history graph in the same way that --full-history with parent rewriting
           does (see above).

           Then simplify each commit C to its replacement C' in the final history according to
           the following rules:

           •   Set C' to C.

           •   Replace each parent P of C' with its simplification P'. In the process, drop
               parents that are ancestors of other parents or that are root commits TREESAME to
               an empty tree, and remove duplicates, but take care to never drop all parents that
               we are TREESAME to.

           •   If after this parent rewriting, C' is a root or merge commit (has zero or >1
               parents), a boundary commit, or !TREESAME, it remains. Otherwise, it is replaced
               with its only parent.

           The effect of this is best shown by way of comparing to --full-history with parent
           rewriting. The example turns into:

                        /     /       /
                       I     B       D
                        \   /       /

           Note the major differences in N, P, and Q over --full-history:

           •   N's parent list had I removed, because it is an ancestor of the other parent M.
               Still, N remained because it is !TREESAME.

           •   P's parent list similarly had I removed.  P was then removed completely, because
               it had one parent and is TREESAME.

           •   Q's parent list had Y simplified to X.  X was then removed, because it was a
               TREESAME root.  Q was then removed completely, because it had one parent and is

       There is another simplification mode available:

           Limit the displayed commits to those directly on the ancestry chain between the “from”
           and “to” commits in the given commit range. I.e. only display commits that are
           ancestor of the “to” commit and descendants of the “from” commit.

           As an example use case, consider the following commit history:

                          /     \       \
                        /                     \

           A regular D..M computes the set of commits that are ancestors of M, but excludes the
           ones that are ancestors of D. This is useful to see what happened to the history
           leading to M since D, in the sense that “what does M have that did not exist in D”.
           The result in this example would be all the commits, except A and B (and D itself, of

           When we want to find out what commits in M are contaminated with the bug introduced by
           D and need fixing, however, we might want to view only the subset of D..M that are
           actually descendants of D, i.e. excluding C and K. This is exactly what the
           --ancestry-path option does. Applied to the D..M range, it results in:

                                \       \

       Before discussing another option, --show-pulls, we need to create a new example history.

       A common problem users face when looking at simplified history is that a commit they know
       changed a file somehow does not appear in the file’s simplified history. Let’s demonstrate
       a new example and show how options such as --full-history and --simplify-merges works in
       that case:

                    /     / \  \  \/   /   /
                   I     B   \  R-'`-Z'   /
                    \   /     \/         /
                     \ /      /\        /
                      `---X--'  `---Y--'

       For this example, suppose I created file.txt which was modified by A, B, and X in
       different ways. The single-parent commits C, Z, and Y do not change file.txt. The merge
       commit M was created by resolving the merge conflict to include both changes from A and B
       and hence is not TREESAME to either. The merge commit R, however, was created by ignoring
       the contents of file.txt at M and taking only the contents of file.txt at X. Hence, R is
       TREESAME to X but not M. Finally, the natural merge resolution to create N is to take the
       contents of file.txt at R, so N is TREESAME to R but not C. The merge commits O and P are
       TREESAME to their first parents, but not to their second parents, Z and Y respectively.

       When using the default mode, N and R both have a TREESAME parent, so those edges are
       walked and the others are ignored. The resulting history graph is:


       When using --full-history, Git walks every edge. This will discover the commits A and B
       and the merge M, but also will reveal the merge commits O and P. With parent rewriting,
       the resulting graph is:

                    /     / \  \  \/   /   /
                   I     B   \  R-'`--'   /
                    \   /     \/         /
                     \ /      /\        /
                      `---X--'  `------'

       Here, the merge commits O and P contribute extra noise, as they did not actually
       contribute a change to file.txt. They only merged a topic that was based on an older
       version of file.txt. This is a common issue in repositories using a workflow where many
       contributors work in parallel and merge their topic branches along a single trunk: manu
       unrelated merges appear in the --full-history results.

       When using the --simplify-merges option, the commits O and P disappear from the results.
       This is because the rewritten second parents of O and P are reachable from their first
       parents. Those edges are removed and then the commits look like single-parent commits that
       are TREESAME to their parent. This also happens to the commit N, resulting in a history
       view as follows:

                    /     /    \
                   I     B      R
                    \   /      /
                     \ /      /

       In this view, we see all of the important single-parent changes from A, B, and X. We also
       see the carefully-resolved merge M and the not-so-carefully-resolved merge R. This is
       usually enough information to determine why the commits A and B "disappeared" from history
       in the default view. However, there are a few issues with this approach.

       The first issue is performance. Unlike any previous option, the --simplify-merges option
       requires walking the entire commit history before returning a single result. This can make
       the option difficult to use for very large repositories.

       The second issue is one of auditing. When many contributors are working on the same
       repository, it is important which merge commits introduced a change into an important
       branch. The problematic merge R above is not likely to be the merge commit that was used
       to merge into an important branch. Instead, the merge N was used to merge R and X into the
       important branch. This commit may have information about why the change X came to override
       the changes from A and B in its commit message.

           In addition to the commits shown in the default history, show each merge commit that
           is not TREESAME to its first parent but is TREESAME to a later parent.

           When a merge commit is included by --show-pulls, the merge is treated as if it
           "pulled" the change from another branch. When using --show-pulls on this example (and
           no other options) the resulting graph is:


           Here, the merge commits R and N are included because they pulled the commits X and R
           into the base branch, respectively. These merges are the reason the commits A and B do
           not appear in the default history.

           When --show-pulls is paired with --simplify-merges, the graph includes all of the
           necessary information:

                         .-A---M--.   N
                        /     /    \ /
                       I     B      R
                        \   /      /
                         \ /      /

           Notice that since M is reachable from R, the edge from N to M was simplified away.
           However, N still appears in the history as an important commit because it "pulled" the
           change R into the main branch.

       The --simplify-by-decoration option allows you to view only the big picture of the
       topology of the history, by omitting commits that are not referenced by tags. Commits are
       marked as !TREESAME (in other words, kept after history simplification rules described
       above) if (1) they are referenced by tags, or (2) they change the contents of the paths
       given on the command line. All other commits are marked as TREESAME (subject to be
       simplified away).

   Bisection Helpers
           Limit output to the one commit object which is roughly halfway between included and
           excluded commits. Note that the bad bisection ref refs/bisect/bad is added to the
           included commits (if it exists) and the good bisection refs refs/bisect/good-* are
           added to the excluded commits (if they exist). Thus, supposing there are no refs in
           refs/bisect/, if

                       $ git rev-list --bisect foo ^bar ^baz

           outputs midpoint, the output of the two commands

                       $ git rev-list foo ^midpoint
                       $ git rev-list midpoint ^bar ^baz

           would be of roughly the same length. Finding the change which introduces a regression
           is thus reduced to a binary search: repeatedly generate and test new 'midpoint’s until
           the commit chain is of length one.

           This calculates the same as --bisect, except that refs in refs/bisect/ are not used,
           and except that this outputs text ready to be eval’ed by the shell. These lines will
           assign the name of the midpoint revision to the variable bisect_rev, and the expected
           number of commits to be tested after bisect_rev is tested to bisect_nr, the expected
           number of commits to be tested if bisect_rev turns out to be good to bisect_good, the
           expected number of commits to be tested if bisect_rev turns out to be bad to
           bisect_bad, and the number of commits we are bisecting right now to bisect_all.

           This outputs all the commit objects between the included and excluded commits, ordered
           by their distance to the included and excluded commits. Refs in refs/bisect/ are not
           used. The farthest from them is displayed first. (This is the only one displayed by

           This is useful because it makes it easy to choose a good commit to test when you want
           to avoid to test some of them for some reason (they may not compile for example).

           This option can be used along with --bisect-vars, in this case, after all the sorted
           commit objects, there will be the same text as if --bisect-vars had been used alone.

   Commit Ordering
       By default, the commits are shown in reverse chronological order.

           Show no parents before all of its children are shown, but otherwise show commits in
           the commit timestamp order.

           Show no parents before all of its children are shown, but otherwise show commits in
           the author timestamp order.

           Show no parents before all of its children are shown, and avoid showing commits on
           multiple lines of history intermixed.

           For example, in a commit history like this:

                       \              \

           where the numbers denote the order of commit timestamps, git rev-list and friends with
           --date-order show the commits in the timestamp order: 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1.

           With --topo-order, they would show 8 6 5 3 7 4 2 1 (or 8 7 4 2 6 5 3 1); some older
           commits are shown before newer ones in order to avoid showing the commits from two
           parallel development track mixed together.

           Output the commits chosen to be shown (see Commit Limiting section above) in reverse
           order. Cannot be combined with --walk-reflogs.

   Object Traversal
       These options are mostly targeted for packing of Git repositories.

           Print the object IDs of any object referenced by the listed commits.  --objects foo
           ^bar thus means “send me all object IDs which I need to download if I have the commit
           object bar but not foo”.

           Print tree and blob ids in order of the commits. The tree and blob ids are printed
           after they are first referenced by a commit.

           Similar to --objects, but also print the IDs of excluded commits prefixed with a “-”
           character. This is used by git-pack-objects(1) to build a “thin” pack, which records
           objects in deltified form based on objects contained in these excluded commits to
           reduce network traffic.

           Similar to --objects-edge, but it tries harder to find excluded commits at the cost of
           increased time. This is used instead of --objects-edge to build “thin” packs for
           shallow repositories.

           Pretend as if all trees and blobs used by the index are listed on the command line.
           Note that you probably want to use --objects, too.

           Only useful with --objects; print the object IDs that are not in packs.

           Only useful with --objects; print the names of the object IDs that are found. This is
           the default behavior.

           Only useful with --objects; does not print the names of the object IDs that are found.
           This inverts --object-names. This flag allows the output to be more easily parsed by
           commands such as git-cat-file(1).

           Only useful with one of the --objects*; omits objects (usually blobs) from the list of
           printed objects. The <filter-spec> may be one of the following:

           The form --filter=blob:none omits all blobs.

           The form --filter=blob:limit=<n>[kmg] omits blobs larger than n bytes or units. n may
           be zero. The suffixes k, m, and g can be used to name units in KiB, MiB, or GiB. For
           example, blob:limit=1k is the same as blob:limit=1024.

           The form --filter=object:type=(tag|commit|tree|blob) omits all objects which are not
           of the requested type.

           The form --filter=sparse:oid=<blob-ish> uses a sparse-checkout specification contained
           in the blob (or blob-expression) <blob-ish> to omit blobs that would not be not
           required for a sparse checkout on the requested refs.

           The form --filter=tree:<depth> omits all blobs and trees whose depth from the root
           tree is >= <depth> (minimum depth if an object is located at multiple depths in the
           commits traversed). <depth>=0 will not include any trees or blobs unless included
           explicitly in the command-line (or standard input when --stdin is used). <depth>=1
           will include only the tree and blobs which are referenced directly by a commit
           reachable from <commit> or an explicitly-given object. <depth>=2 is like <depth>=1
           while also including trees and blobs one more level removed from an explicitly-given
           commit or tree.

           Note that the form --filter=sparse:path=<path> that wants to read from an arbitrary
           path on the filesystem has been dropped for security reasons.

           Multiple --filter= flags can be specified to combine filters. Only objects which are
           accepted by every filter are included.

           The form --filter=combine:<filter1>+<filter2>+...<filterN> can also be used to
           combined several filters, but this is harder than just repeating the --filter flag and
           is usually not necessary. Filters are joined by + and individual filters are %-encoded
           (i.e. URL-encoded). Besides the + and % characters, the following characters are
           reserved and also must be encoded: ~!@#$^&*()[]{}\;",<>?'` as well as all characters
           with ASCII code <= 0x20, which includes space and newline.

           Other arbitrary characters can also be encoded. For instance, combine:tree:3+blob:none
           and combine:tree%3A3+blob%3Anone are equivalent.

           Turn off any previous --filter= argument.

           Filter the list of explicitly provided objects, which would otherwise always be
           printed even if they did not match any of the filters. Only useful with --filter=.

           Only useful with --filter=; prints a list of the objects omitted by the filter. Object
           IDs are prefixed with a “~” character.

           A debug option to help with future "partial clone" development. This option specifies
           how missing objects are handled.

           The form --missing=error requests that rev-list stop with an error if a missing object
           is encountered. This is the default action.

           The form --missing=allow-any will allow object traversal to continue if a missing
           object is encountered. Missing objects will silently be omitted from the results.

           The form --missing=allow-promisor is like allow-any, but will only allow object
           traversal to continue for EXPECTED promisor missing objects. Unexpected missing
           objects will raise an error.

           The form --missing=print is like allow-any, but will also print a list of the missing
           objects. Object IDs are prefixed with a “?” character.

           (For internal use only.) Prefilter object traversal at promisor boundary. This is used
           with partial clone. This is stronger than --missing=allow-promisor because it limits
           the traversal, rather than just silencing errors about missing objects.

           Only show the given commits, but do not traverse their ancestors. This has no effect
           if a range is specified. If the argument unsorted is given, the commits are shown in
           the order they were given on the command line. Otherwise (if sorted or no argument was
           given), the commits are shown in reverse chronological order by commit time. Cannot be
           combined with --graph.

           Overrides a previous --no-walk.

   Commit Formatting
       Using these options, git-rev-list(1) will act similar to the more specialized family of
       commit log tools: git-log(1), git-show(1), and git-whatchanged(1)

       --pretty[=<format>], --format=<format>
           Pretty-print the contents of the commit logs in a given format, where <format> can be
           one of oneline, short, medium, full, fuller, reference, email, raw, format:<string>
           and tformat:<string>. When <format> is none of the above, and has %placeholder in it,
           it acts as if --pretty=tformat:<format> were given.

           See the "PRETTY FORMATS" section for some additional details for each format. When
           =<format> part is omitted, it defaults to medium.

           Note: you can specify the default pretty format in the repository configuration (see

           Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object name, show a prefix that
           names the object uniquely. "--abbrev=<n>" (which also modifies diff output, if it is
           displayed) option can be used to specify the minimum length of the prefix.

           This should make "--pretty=oneline" a whole lot more readable for people using
           80-column terminals.

           Show the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object name. This negates --abbrev-commit,
           either explicit or implied by other options such as "--oneline". It also overrides the
           log.abbrevCommit variable.

           This is a shorthand for "--pretty=oneline --abbrev-commit" used together.

           The commit objects record the encoding used for the log message in their encoding
           header; this option can be used to tell the command to re-code the commit log message
           in the encoding preferred by the user. For non plumbing commands this defaults to
           UTF-8. Note that if an object claims to be encoded in X and we are outputting in X, we
           will output the object verbatim; this means that invalid sequences in the original
           commit may be copied to the output.

       --expand-tabs=<n>, --expand-tabs, --no-expand-tabs
           Perform a tab expansion (replace each tab with enough spaces to fill to the next
           display column that is multiple of <n>) in the log message before showing it in the
           output.  --expand-tabs is a short-hand for --expand-tabs=8, and --no-expand-tabs is a
           short-hand for --expand-tabs=0, which disables tab expansion.

           By default, tabs are expanded in pretty formats that indent the log message by 4
           spaces (i.e.  medium, which is the default, full, and fuller).

           Check the validity of a signed commit object by passing the signature to gpg --verify
           and show the output.

           Synonym for --date=relative.

           Only takes effect for dates shown in human-readable format, such as when using
           --pretty. config variable sets a default value for the log command’s --date
           option. By default, dates are shown in the original time zone (either committer’s or
           author’s). If -local is appended to the format (e.g., iso-local), the user’s local
           time zone is used instead.

           --date=relative shows dates relative to the current time, e.g. “2 hours ago”. The
           -local option has no effect for --date=relative.

           --date=local is an alias for --date=default-local.

           --date=iso (or --date=iso8601) shows timestamps in a ISO 8601-like format. The
           differences to the strict ISO 8601 format are:

           •   a space instead of the T date/time delimiter

           •   a space between time and time zone

           •   no colon between hours and minutes of the time zone

           --date=iso-strict (or --date=iso8601-strict) shows timestamps in strict ISO 8601

           --date=rfc (or --date=rfc2822) shows timestamps in RFC 2822 format, often found in
           email messages.

           --date=short shows only the date, but not the time, in YYYY-MM-DD format.

           --date=raw shows the date as seconds since the epoch (1970-01-01 00:00:00 UTC),
           followed by a space, and then the timezone as an offset from UTC (a + or - with four
           digits; the first two are hours, and the second two are minutes). I.e., as if the
           timestamp were formatted with strftime("%s %z")). Note that the -local option does not
           affect the seconds-since-epoch value (which is always measured in UTC), but does
           switch the accompanying timezone value.

           --date=human shows the timezone if the timezone does not match the current time-zone,
           and doesn’t print the whole date if that matches (ie skip printing year for dates that
           are "this year", but also skip the whole date itself if it’s in the last few days and
           we can just say what weekday it was). For older dates the hour and minute is also

           --date=unix shows the date as a Unix epoch timestamp (seconds since 1970). As with
           --raw, this is always in UTC and therefore -local has no effect.

           --date=format:...  feeds the format ...  to your system strftime, except for %z and
           %Z, which are handled internally. Use --date=format:%c to show the date in your system
           locale’s preferred format. See the strftime manual for a complete list of format
           placeholders. When using -local, the correct syntax is --date=format-local:....

           --date=default is the default format, and is similar to --date=rfc2822, with a few

           •   there is no comma after the day-of-week

           •   the time zone is omitted when the local time zone is used

           Print the contents of the commit in raw-format; each record is separated with a NUL

           Print also the parents of the commit (in the form "commit parent..."). Also enables
           parent rewriting, see History Simplification above.

           Print also the children of the commit (in the form "commit child..."). Also enables
           parent rewriting, see History Simplification above.

           Print the raw commit timestamp.

           Mark which side of a symmetric difference a commit is reachable from. Commits from the
           left side are prefixed with < and those from the right with >. If combined with
           --boundary, those commits are prefixed with -.

           For example, if you have this topology:

                            y---b---b  branch B
                           / \ /
                          /   .
                         /   / \
                        o---x---a---a  branch A

           you would get an output like this:

                       $ git rev-list --left-right --boundary --pretty=oneline A...B

                       >bbbbbbb... 3rd on b
                       >bbbbbbb... 2nd on b
                       <aaaaaaa... 3rd on a
                       <aaaaaaa... 2nd on a
                       -yyyyyyy... 1st on b
                       -xxxxxxx... 1st on a

           Draw a text-based graphical representation of the commit history on the left hand side
           of the output. This may cause extra lines to be printed in between commits, in order
           for the graph history to be drawn properly. Cannot be combined with --no-walk.

           This enables parent rewriting, see History Simplification above.

           This implies the --topo-order option by default, but the --date-order option may also
           be specified.

           When --graph is not used, all history branches are flattened which can make it hard to
           see that the two consecutive commits do not belong to a linear branch. This option
           puts a barrier in between them in that case. If <barrier> is specified, it is the
           string that will be shown instead of the default one.

           Print a number stating how many commits would have been listed, and suppress all other
           output. When used together with --left-right, instead print the counts for left and
           right commits, separated by a tab. When used together with --cherry-mark, omit patch
           equivalent commits from these counts and print the count for equivalent commits
           separated by a tab.


       If the commit is a merge, and if the pretty-format is not oneline, email or raw, an
       additional line is inserted before the Author: line. This line begins with "Merge: " and
       the hashes of ancestral commits are printed, separated by spaces. Note that the listed
       commits may not necessarily be the list of the direct parent commits if you have limited
       your view of history: for example, if you are only interested in changes related to a
       certain directory or file.

       There are several built-in formats, and you can define additional formats by setting a
       pretty.<name> config option to either another format name, or a format: string, as
       described below (see git-config(1)). Here are the details of the built-in formats:

       •   oneline

               <hash> <title line>

           This is designed to be as compact as possible.

       •   short

               commit <hash>
               Author: <author>

               <title line>

       •   medium

               commit <hash>
               Author: <author>
               Date:   <author date>

               <title line>

               <full commit message>

       •   full

               commit <hash>
               Author: <author>
               Commit: <committer>

               <title line>

               <full commit message>

       •   fuller

               commit <hash>
               Author:     <author>
               AuthorDate: <author date>
               Commit:     <committer>
               CommitDate: <committer date>

               <title line>

               <full commit message>

       •   reference

               <abbrev hash> (<title line>, <short author date>)

           This format is used to refer to another commit in a commit message and is the same as
           --pretty='format:%C(auto)%h (%s, %ad)'. By default, the date is formatted with
           --date=short unless another --date option is explicitly specified. As with any format:
           with format placeholders, its output is not affected by other options like --decorate
           and --walk-reflogs.

       •   email

               From <hash> <date>
               From: <author>
               Date: <author date>
               Subject: [PATCH] <title line>

               <full commit message>

       •   mboxrd

           Like email, but lines in the commit message starting with "From " (preceded by zero or
           more ">") are quoted with ">" so they aren’t confused as starting a new commit.

       •   raw

           The raw format shows the entire commit exactly as stored in the commit object.
           Notably, the hashes are displayed in full, regardless of whether --abbrev or
           --no-abbrev are used, and parents information show the true parent commits, without
           taking grafts or history simplification into account. Note that this format affects
           the way commits are displayed, but not the way the diff is shown e.g. with git log
           --raw. To get full object names in a raw diff format, use --no-abbrev.

       •   format:<string>

           The format:<string> format allows you to specify which information you want to show.
           It works a little bit like printf format, with the notable exception that you get a
           newline with %n instead of \n.

           E.g, format:"The author of %h was %an, %ar%nThe title was >>%s<<%n" would show
           something like this:

               The author of fe6e0ee was Junio C Hamano, 23 hours ago
               The title was >>t4119: test autocomputing -p<n> for traditional diff input.<<

           The placeholders are:

           •   Placeholders that expand to a single literal character:


                   a raw %

                   print a byte from a hex code

           •   Placeholders that affect formatting of later placeholders:

                   switch color to red

                   switch color to green

                   switch color to blue

                   reset color

                   color specification, as described under Values in the "CONFIGURATION FILE"
                   section of git-config(1). By default, colors are shown only when enabled for
                   log output (by color.diff, color.ui, or --color, and respecting the auto
                   settings of the former if we are going to a terminal).  %C(auto,...)  is
                   accepted as a historical synonym for the default (e.g., %C(auto,red)).
                   Specifying %C(always,...)  will show the colors even when color is not
                   otherwise enabled (though consider just using --color=always to enable color
                   for the whole output, including this format and anything else git might
                   color).  auto alone (i.e.  %C(auto)) will turn on auto coloring on the next
                   placeholders until the color is switched again.

                   left (<), right (>) or boundary (-) mark

                   switch line wrapping, like the -w option of git-shortlog(1).

                   make the next placeholder take at least N columns, padding spaces on the right
                   if necessary. Optionally truncate at the beginning (ltrunc), the middle
                   (mtrunc) or the end (trunc) if the output is longer than N columns. Note that
                   truncating only works correctly with N >= 2.

                   make the next placeholder take at least until Nth columns, padding spaces on
                   the right if necessary

               %>(<N>), %>|(<N>)
                   similar to %<(<N>), %<|(<N>) respectively, but padding spaces on the left

               %>>(<N>), %>>|(<N>)
                   similar to %>(<N>), %>|(<N>) respectively, except that if the next placeholder
                   takes more spaces than given and there are spaces on its left, use those

               %><(<N>), %><|(<N>)
                   similar to %<(<N>), %<|(<N>) respectively, but padding both sides (i.e. the
                   text is centered)

           •   Placeholders that expand to information extracted from the commit:

                   commit hash

                   abbreviated commit hash

                   tree hash

                   abbreviated tree hash

                   parent hashes

                   abbreviated parent hashes

                   author name

                   author name (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

                   author email

                   author email (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

                   author email local-part (the part before the @ sign)

                   author local-part (see %al) respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or git-

                   author date (format respects --date= option)

                   author date, RFC2822 style

                   author date, relative

                   author date, UNIX timestamp

                   author date, ISO 8601-like format

                   author date, strict ISO 8601 format

                   author date, short format (YYYY-MM-DD)

                   author date, human style (like the --date=human option of git-rev-list(1))

                   committer name

                   committer name (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

                   committer email

                   committer email (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or git-blame(1))

                   committer email local-part (the part before the @ sign)

                   committer local-part (see %cl) respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or

                   committer date (format respects --date= option)

                   committer date, RFC2822 style

                   committer date, relative

                   committer date, UNIX timestamp

                   committer date, ISO 8601-like format

                   committer date, strict ISO 8601 format

                   committer date, short format (YYYY-MM-DD)

                   committer date, human style (like the --date=human option of git-rev-list(1))

                   ref names, like the --decorate option of git-log(1)

                   ref names without the " (", ")" wrapping.

                   human-readable name, like git-describe(1); empty string for undescribable
                   commits. The describe string may be followed by a colon and zero or more
                   comma-separated options. Descriptions can be inconsistent when tags are added
                   or removed at the same time.

                   •   match=<pattern>: Only consider tags matching the given glob(7) pattern,
                       excluding the "refs/tags/" prefix.

                   •   exclude=<pattern>: Do not consider tags matching the given glob(7)
                       pattern, excluding the "refs/tags/" prefix.

                   ref name given on the command line by which the commit was reached (like git
                   log --source), only works with git log



                   sanitized subject line, suitable for a filename


                   raw body (unwrapped subject and body)

                   raw verification message from GPG for a signed commit

                   show "G" for a good (valid) signature, "B" for a bad signature, "U" for a good
                   signature with unknown validity, "X" for a good signature that has expired,
                   "Y" for a good signature made by an expired key, "R" for a good signature made
                   by a revoked key, "E" if the signature cannot be checked (e.g. missing key)
                   and "N" for no signature

                   show the name of the signer for a signed commit

                   show the key used to sign a signed commit

                   show the fingerprint of the key used to sign a signed commit

                   show the fingerprint of the primary key whose subkey was used to sign a signed

                   show the trust level for the key used to sign a signed commit

                   reflog selector, e.g., refs/stash@{1} or refs/stash@{2 minutes ago}; the
                   format follows the rules described for the -g option. The portion before the @
                   is the refname as given on the command line (so git log -g refs/heads/master
                   would yield refs/heads/master@{0}).

                   shortened reflog selector; same as %gD, but the refname portion is shortened
                   for human readability (so refs/heads/master becomes just master).

                   reflog identity name

                   reflog identity name (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or git-

                   reflog identity email

                   reflog identity email (respecting .mailmap, see git-shortlog(1) or git-

                   reflog subject

                   display the trailers of the body as interpreted by git-interpret-trailers(1).
                   The trailers string may be followed by a colon and zero or more
                   comma-separated options. If any option is provided multiple times the last
                   occurrence wins.

                   The boolean options accept an optional value [=<BOOL>]. The values true,
                   false, on, off etc. are all accepted. See the "boolean" sub-section in
                   "EXAMPLES" in git-config(1). If a boolean option is given with no value, it’s

                   •   key=<K>: only show trailers with specified key. Matching is done
                       case-insensitively and trailing colon is optional. If option is given
                       multiple times trailer lines matching any of the keys are shown. This
                       option automatically enables the only option so that non-trailer lines in
                       the trailer block are hidden. If that is not desired it can be disabled
                       with only=false. E.g., %(trailers:key=Reviewed-by) shows trailer lines
                       with key Reviewed-by.

                   •   only[=<BOOL>]: select whether non-trailer lines from the trailer block
                       should be included.

                   •   separator=<SEP>: specify a separator inserted between trailer lines. When
                       this option is not given each trailer line is terminated with a line feed
                       character. The string SEP may contain the literal formatting codes
                       described above. To use comma as separator one must use %x2C as it would
                       otherwise be parsed as next option. E.g.,
                       %(trailers:key=Ticket,separator=%x2C ) shows all trailer lines whose key
                       is "Ticket" separated by a comma and a space.

                   •   unfold[=<BOOL>]: make it behave as if interpret-trailer’s --unfold option
                       was given. E.g., %(trailers:only,unfold=true) unfolds and shows all
                       trailer lines.

                   •   keyonly[=<BOOL>]: only show the key part of the trailer.

                   •   valueonly[=<BOOL>]: only show the value part of the trailer.

                   •   key_value_separator=<SEP>: specify a separator inserted between trailer
                       lines. When this option is not given each trailer key-value pair is
                       separated by ": ". Otherwise it shares the same semantics as
                       separator=<SEP> above.

           Some placeholders may depend on other options given to the revision traversal engine.
           For example, the %g* reflog options will insert an empty string unless we are
           traversing reflog entries (e.g., by git log -g). The %d and %D placeholders will use
           the "short" decoration format if --decorate was not already provided on the command

       If you add a + (plus sign) after % of a placeholder, a line-feed is inserted immediately
       before the expansion if and only if the placeholder expands to a non-empty string.

       If you add a - (minus sign) after % of a placeholder, all consecutive line-feeds
       immediately preceding the expansion are deleted if and only if the placeholder expands to
       an empty string.

       If you add a ` ` (space) after % of a placeholder, a space is inserted immediately before
       the expansion if and only if the placeholder expands to a non-empty string.

       •   tformat:

           The tformat: format works exactly like format:, except that it provides "terminator"
           semantics instead of "separator" semantics. In other words, each commit has the
           message terminator character (usually a newline) appended, rather than a separator
           placed between entries. This means that the final entry of a single-line format will
           be properly terminated with a new line, just as the "oneline" format does. For

               $ git log -2 --pretty=format:%h 4da45bef \
                 | perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'
               7134973 -- NO NEWLINE

               $ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef \
                 | perl -pe '$_ .= " -- NO NEWLINE\n" unless /\n/'

           In addition, any unrecognized string that has a % in it is interpreted as if it has
           tformat: in front of it. For example, these two are equivalent:

               $ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef
               $ git log -2 --pretty=%h 4da45bef


       •   Print the list of commits reachable from the current branch.

               git rev-list HEAD

       •   Print the list of commits on this branch, but not present in the upstream branch.

               git rev-list @{upstream}..HEAD

       •   Format commits with their author and commit message (see also the porcelain git-

               git rev-list --format=medium HEAD

       •   Format commits along with their diffs (see also the porcelain git-log(1), which can do
           this in a single process).

               git rev-list HEAD |
               git diff-tree --stdin --format=medium -p

       •   Print the list of commits on the current branch that touched any file in the
           Documentation directory.

               git rev-list HEAD -- Documentation/

       •   Print the list of commits authored by you in the past year, on any branch, tag, or
           other ref.

               git rev-list --since=1.year.ago --all

       •   Print the list of objects reachable from the current branch (i.e., all commits and the
           blobs and trees they contain).

               git rev-list --objects HEAD

       •   Compare the disk size of all reachable objects, versus those reachable from reflogs,
           versus the total packed size. This can tell you whether running git repack -ad might
           reduce the repository size (by dropping unreachable objects), and whether expiring
           reflogs might help.

               # reachable objects
               git rev-list --disk-usage --objects --all
               # plus reflogs
               git rev-list --disk-usage --objects --all --reflog
               # total disk size used
               du -c .git/objects/pack/*.pack .git/objects/??/*
               # alternative to du: add up "size" and "size-pack" fields
               git count-objects -v

       •   Report the disk size of each branch, not including objects used by the current branch.
           This can find outliers that are contributing to a bloated repository size (e.g.,
           because somebody accidentally committed large build artifacts).

               git for-each-ref --format='%(refname)' |
               while read branch
                       size=$(git rev-list --disk-usage --objects HEAD..$branch)
                       echo "$size $branch"
               done |
               sort -n

       •   Compare the on-disk size of branches in one group of refs, excluding another. If you
           co-mingle objects from multiple remotes in a single repository, this can show which
           remotes are contributing to the repository size (taking the size of origin as a

               git rev-list --disk-usage --objects --remotes=$suspect --not --remotes=origin


       Part of the git(1) suite