Provided by: lilo_24.2-5.1_amd64 bug


       lilo.conf - configuration file for lilo


       This  file,  by  default  /etc/lilo.conf, is read by the boot loader installer 'lilo' (see

       It might look as follows:

              # /etc/lilo.conf
              #  global options:
              menu-title=" John's Computer "
              ### bootable kernel images ###
              ### other operating systems ###
                   boot-as=0x80    # must be C:
                   boot-as=0x80    # must be C:

       This configuration file specifies that lilo uses the Master Boot Record on /dev/hda.  (For
       a  discussion  of  the  various ways to use lilo, and the interaction with other operating
       systems, see html/user_21-5.html inside the old documentation.)

       When booting, the boot loader will issue its boot: prompt and wait for you  to  enter  the
       label  of  the  kernel  (and  any options) which you wish to boot. At any time you may hit
       [Tab] to see a list of kernel/other labels.  Alternately,  if  the  menu  boot  loader  is
       installed, a menu of boot options will be presented for your selection.  The title of this
       menu is overridden with the menu title specification in this configuration file.   If  you
       enter  nothing,  then  the  default  kernel  image,  the  first mentioned, (in the example
       /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.29-1-i386)  will  be  booted  after  a  timeout  of  15   seconds   (150
       deciseconds).  There  may  be at least 16 images mentioned in lilo.conf. (The exact number
       depends upon compilation options.)

       As can be seen above, a configuration file starts with a number of global options (the top
       9  lines  in the example), followed by descriptions of the options for the various images.
       An option in an image description will override a global option.

       Comment lines may appear anywhere, and begin with the "#" character.


       There are  many  possible  keywords.  The  description  below  is  almost  literally  from
       html/user_21-5.html inside the old documentation (just slightly abbreviated).

              Specifies  the location where a copy of any modified boot sector will be saved in a
              file. 'backup=' may specify this location in one of three ways: a  directory  where
              the  default  backup  file 'boot.NNNN' will be created; a file pathname template to
              which the '.NNNN' suffix will be added; or  the  full  file  pathname,  which  must
              include  the  correct  '.NNNN'  suffix.  All RAID installations should use only the
              first two alternatives, as multiple backups may be created.  The '.NNNN' suffix  is
              the  hexadecimal representation of the major and minor device numbers of the device
              or partition. If this option is not specified, the  default  name  of  boot  sector
              backups  is  '/boot/boot.NNNN'.  If  a backup already exists, it will be preserved,
              rather than overwritten.  C.f., force-backup= below.

              The option is indicated as yes, no, or unknown.   If  not  specified,  a  value  of
              "unknown"  is  assumed,  unless  additional  information  is  available to the boot
              installer. When "no" is specified, it indicates that the BIOS is known not to  pass
              the  current  boot  device  code  to  the boot loader in the DL register.  Its only
              function at this point is experimental, as certain RAID installations  may  benefit
              from  knowing  that  the  BIOS  is  100%  reliable.   Its  use should be considered

              This option may be specified on the command line with the '-Z' switch: yes=1, no=0.

              Specifies use of a 640x480x16 (VGA BIOS) or 640x480x256 (VGA/VESA BIOS) bitmap file
              as the background on which a boot menu is displayed.  May not be used if 'message='
              is specified.  Use of this option will select a bitmap-capable boot loader,  unless
              overridden with "install=" (see below).

              When a bitmap file is specified as a background screen during the boot process, the
              color selection and layout of the text which overlays the  graphic  image  must  be
              specified in one of two ways.

              One  way  is the use of header information in the bitmap image (*.bmp) file: From a
              text file with all the information about 'bmp-colors', 'bmp-table' and  'bmp-timer'
              options  together with the 'bitmap' option are stored in the special LILO header of
              the bitmap image file by the lilo -E  command.  Another  way  works  without  these
              special header information: All the information about 'bmp-colors', 'bmp-table' and
              'bmp-timer'  options  together  with  the  'bitmap'  option  are  stored   in   the
              configuration  file.   Any  use of the 'bmp-' options within the configuration file
              overrides the options stored in the bitmap file header. If lilo cannot find any  of
              the 'bmp-' options, then default values are used.

              Specifies  the  decimal  values  of the colors to be used for the menu display on a
              'bitmap=' background.  The list consists of 6 entries, 3 for normal  text  followed
              by  3  for  highlighted  text.   The  order  of  each  triple is: foreground color,
              background  color,  shadow  color.   If  background   color   is   not   specified,
              "transparent"  is  assumed.   If  shadow  color  is  not  specified, then "none" is
              assumed.  The list entries are separated by commas, with no spaces.

              Option applies to all 'image=' and 'other=' sections.  (See COMMON OPTIONS, below.)

              Specifies the location and layout of the menu table.  <x>,<y> specify the  starting
              x- and y-position of the upper left corner of the table in character coordinates: x
              in [1..80], y in [1..30]. <ncol> is the number of columns in the menu  (1..5);  and
              <nrow>  is the number of rows (entries) in each column.  If more than one column is
              specified, then <xsep> is the number of  character  columns  between  the  leftmost
              characters  in  each  column: (18..40), and <spill> is the number of entries in one
              column which must be filled before entries spill into the next column. <spill> must
              be  .le. <nrow>. If pixel addressing is used, instead of character addressing, then
              any of <x>, <y>, or <xsep> may be specified with a 'p' suffix on the decimal value.

              Optional specification of the 'timeout=' countdown timer.   <x>,<y>  specifies  the
              character  (or  pixel)  coordinate  of  the location of the timer the same as 'bmp-
              table=' above; and the color triple specifies the character  color  attributes  the
              same  as  'bmp-colors=' above, with the exception that the background color must be
              specified.  If used to override the timer specification in a bitmap file, then  the
              form  'bmp-timer  =  none'  is  acceptable.   This  will  disable the timer display

              Sets the name of the device (e.g. hard disk or partition) that  contains  the  boot
              sector  and where the new boot sector should be written to. Notice: The boot-device
              should be the device with the currently mounted root partition.

              A raid installation is initiated by specifying a RAID1 device as the  boot  device;
              e.g., "boot=/dev/md0".

              On  newer  systems  you  need  an unique ID for the boot device. If the boot sector
              should write to a partition you can use its UUID in the same manner is for the root

              If  your  boot  device  is a hard disk you need a special ID, which is supported by
              udev. You find the right ID in the directory /dev/disk/by-id, i.e.:

                  boot = /dev/disk/by-id/ata-SAMSUNG_SV1604N_S01FJ10X999999

              Defines boot-time changes to partition type numbers (`hiding').


              The above excerpt from a configuration file specifies that all default change-rules
              are  removed  ("reset"),  and  the  change-rules  for  three  partition  types  are
              specified.  Without the reset, the three types specified would have been  added  to
              the  existing  default  change-rules.   Normally, the default rules are sufficient.
              The strings which define the partition types are used  in  a  change  section  (see
              below),  with the suffixes "_normal" or "_hidden" appended.  See section "Partition
              type change rules" of html/user_21-5.html inside the  old  documentation  for  more

              Tries  to merge read requests for adjacent sectors into a single read request. This
              drastically reduces load time and keeps the map file smaller.  Using  `compact'  is
              especially recommended when booting using a map file on a floppy disk.

              Uses  the  specified  image as the default boot image. If `default' is omitted, the
              image appearing first in the configuration file is used. See also, vmdefault below.

              Specifies the number of tenths of a second  the  boot  loader  should  wait  before
              automatically  booting  a  locked  command line, a command line pre-stored by "lilo
              -R", or the default `image=' or `other='.   When  `delay'  is  non-zero,  the  boot
              loader  will  wait  for an interrupt for the specified interval. If an interrupt is
              received, or is already waiting, the boot: prompt will be issued, and no  automatic
              boot  will  take place. The setting of CAPS LOCK or SCROLL LOCK, or any of the keys
              ALT, CTRL, or SHIFT, when held down, are taken as interrupts.

              This action is modified by specifying `prompt' (see below).

              Defines non-standard parameters for the specified disk. See section "Disk geometry"
              of  html/user_21-5.html  inside the old documentation for details.  For versions of
              LILO prior to 22.5, the `bios=' parameter is quite useful for  specifying  how  the
              BIOS has assigned device codes to your disks.  For example,


              would  say  that  your  SCSI disk is the first BIOS disk (0x80), that your (primary
              master) IDE disk is the second BIOS disk (0x81), and that  your  second  SCSI  disk
              (perhaps  a  USB  device) receives no device code, and is therefore inaccessible at
              boot time.

              NOTE: Use of the 'bios=' option is largely obsolete  beginning  with  LILO  version
              22.5,  as the boot loader now identifies disks by 32-bit Volume-ID, and defers BIOS
              device code determination until boot time.

              Other options include the specification of disk geometry; e.g.,


              probably only useful for floppy disks and loopback devices, because for hard  disks
              the lba32 disk addressing option ignores disk geometry.

              Developers  who  have implemented a disk driver for a new block storage device will
              have to indicate to LILO the maximum number of partitions on the device.   This  is
              in  addition  to  making  all of the necessary entries for the device in the "/dev"
              directory (with 'mknod').  The maximum number of partitions must be one of 63 (like
              an  IDE disk), 31 (uncommon), 15 (like SCSI disks -- most common value), or 7 (like
              one array controller). An example specification would be:


              In cases where there is no kernel  partition  information  available,  such  as  on
              loopback   devices,   the   'disk='   specification  may  include  partition  start
              information; viz.,

                          bios=0x80              # use this BIOS code
                          max-partitions=7       # declare partitionable
                               start=63          # offset from sector 0
                               start=102400      # offset from sector 0

              Specifies the name of the disk  parameter  table.   The  map  installer  looks  for
              /etc/disktab if `disktab' is omitted. The use of disktabs is discouraged.

              Flag second stage loader to terminate disk emulation when booting from an El Torito
              Bootable CD. This option is used by the mkrescue utility when the "--iso" switch is

              This  allows  lilo to adjust 3D addresses in partition tables. Each partition entry
              contains a 3D (cylinder/head/sector) and a linear address of the first and the last
              sector  of  the partition. If a partition is not track-aligned and if certain other
              operating systems (e.g. PC/MS-DOS) are using the same disk, they may change the  3D
              address. lilo can store its boot sector only on partitions where both address types
              correspond. lilo re-adjusts incorrect 3D start addresses if `fix-table' is set.

              WARNING: This does not guarantee that other operating systems may  not  attempt  to
              reset the address later. It is also possible that this change has other, unexpected
              side-effects. The correct fix is to re-partition the drive with a program that does
              align  partitions to tracks. Also, with some disks (e.g. some large EIDE disks with
              address translation enabled), under some circumstances, it may even be  unavoidable
              to have conflicting partition table entries.

              Operation  is  identical  to  backup=  above,  except  an  existing  backup file is
              unconditionally overwritten if it exists.

              Force disk addressing which is compatible with older versions of  LILO.   Geometric
              addressing uses cylinder/head/sector addresses, and is limited to disk cylinders up
              to 1023.  If inaccessible cylinders are referenced, diagnostics will be  issued  at
              boot-install  time,  rather  than  boot-time.  With a newer BIOS, use of 'lba32' is

              tells lilo to ignore corrupt partition tables.

              Selects the user interface which will be seen at boot time.  One of  the  following
              three  options may be specified: text, menu, or bmp. The traditional LILO interface
              is `text'; but `menu' is now the default, unless the  configuration  file  contains
              the  `bitmap='  specification.   The  text  interface  is  strictly  a command-line
              interface as though the console were a dumb terminal.   The  menu  interface  is  a
              text-based  screen of the boot choices, with the option to enter additional command
              line parameters.  And the bmp interface is  a  menu  presented  against  a  graphic
              screen, specified as a 640x480 BitMaP file of 16 or 256 colors.  (See the 'lilo -E'
              switch for editing options).

              (Prior to LILO version 22.3, `install=' specified the user interface as a  file  in
              the `/boot' directory.)

              Normally  any  initial  ramdisk  (initrd) loaded with a kernel is loaded as high in
              memory as possible, but never above 15 MB.  This is due to  a  BIOS  limitation  on
              older  systems.  On newer systems, this option enables using memory above 15 MB (up
              to a kernel imposed limit, around 768 MB) for passing the  initrd  to  the  kernel.
              The presence of this option merely indicates that your system does not have the old
              BIOS limitation.

              This switch (or its absence) is not passed to the kernel, and does not in  any  way
              affect  the  amount  of  physical  memory  which  it  will  use.   (See  the kernel
              documentation for the kernel command line parameter "mem=" for limiting the  memory
              used by the kernel.)

       lba32  Generate  32-bit Logical Block Addresses instead of cylinder/head/sector addresses.
              If the BIOS supports packet addressing, then packet calls will be  used  to  access
              the  disk.  This  allows  booting  from  any partition on disks with more than 1024
              cylinders.  If the BIOS does not support packet addressing, then 'lba32'  addresses
              are  translated  to  cylinder/head/sector ('geometric'), just as for 'linear'.  All
              floppy disk references are retained in C:H:S form.  Use of 'lba32'  is  recommended
              on  all  post-1998 systems.  Beginning with LILO version 22, 'lba32' is the default
              disk addressing scheme.

       linear Generate 24-bit linear sector addresses instead of cylinder/head/sector (geometric)
              addresses.  Linear addresses are translated at run time to geometric addresses, and
              are limited to cylinders <= 1023. When using `linear' with large disks,  /sbin/lilo
              may  generate  references  to  inaccessible  disk cylinders. 'lba32' avoids many of
              these pitfalls with its use of  packet  addressing,  but  requires  a  recent  BIOS
              (post-1998).   The  'linear' option is considered obsolete, and its use is strongly

       lock   Enables automatic recording of boot command lines as the defaults for the following
              boots. This way, lilo "locks" on a choice until it is manually overridden.

              The per-image password option `mandatory' (see below) applies to all images.

              Specifies  the location of the map file. If `map' is omitted, the file /boot/map is

              On machines with a pre-1998 BIOS, the EDD bios extensions  which  are  required  to
              support  "lba32" disk sector addressing may not be present. In this case, the boot-
              loader will fall back automatically  to  "geometric"  addressing;  this  fall  back
              situation,  or the specific use of "geometric" or "linear" addressing, will require
              the map file to be located within the first 1024 cylinders of the disk drive.  This
              BIOS  limitation  is  not  present  on post-1998 systems, most of which support the
              newer EDD disk BIOS calls.

              Specifies the title line (up to 37  characters)  for  the  boot  menu.  This  title
              replaces the default "LILO Boot Menu" title string. If menu is not installed as the
              boot loader (see install= option), then this line has no effect.

              The default color scheme of the boot menu may be overridden on VGA  displays  using
              this option. (The color scheme of MDA displays is fixed.)  The general color-scheme
              string is of the form:


              where each entry  is  two  characters  which  specify  a  foreground  color  and  a
              background  color.  Only  the first entry is required. The default highlight is the
              reverse of the text color; and the default border and title  colors  are  the  text
              color.  Colors are specified using the characters kbgcrmyw, for blacK, Blue, Green,
              Cyan, Red, Magenta, Yellow, and White: upper case for intense (fg only), lower case
              for dim.  Valid color-scheme strings would be

                  menu-scheme=Wm     intense white on magenta
                  menu-scheme=wr:bw:wr:Yr    the LILO default
                  menu-scheme=Yk:kw    bright yellow on black

              If menu is not installed as the boot loader, then this line has no effect.

              specifies  a file containing a message that is displayed before the boot prompt. No
              message is displayed while waiting for a shifting key after printing  "LILO  ".  In
              the  message,  the  FF  character  ([Ctrl  L])  clears  the  local  screen. This is
              undesirable when the menu boot loader is installed.  The size of the  message  file
              is  limited  to  65535 bytes. The map file has to be rebuilt if the message file is
              changed or moved.  'message=' and 'bitmap=' are mutually exclusive.

              (22.8) Disables pre-loading of the internal device cache. May be needed  for  Linux
              distributions  which  use  non-standard  device  naming conventions; e.g., when the
              first IDE disk is not `/dev/hda'.

              (22.7.2) The named descriptor is taken to be the default boot image  if  no  IBM-PC
              keyboard  is  present.  If  no  serial  interface  ("serial=")  is in use, then any
              "prompt" keyword and "timeout" value are bypassed, and default  booting  occurs  as
              specified  by "delay=".  The keyboard detection codes cannot detect the presence or
              absence of a newer USB keyboard.

       noraid Disables the automatic marking of disk volumes which are components of RAID  arrays
              as   inaccessible.   This  allows  the  user  to  edit  the  disk=  /  inaccessible
              declarations into the  configuration  file  himself.   Without  such  declarations,
              duplicate  Volume IDs will be overwritten, leading to confusing situations at boot-
              time, and possible failure to boot.  The use  of  this  keyword  is  generally  not

       nowarn Disables warnings about possible future dangers.

              The per-image option `optional' (see below) applies to all images.

              The per-image option `password=...' (see below) applies to all images.  This option
              may prevent unattended booting, if the default image is  `password='  protected  at
              the default level `mandatory', which is a level higher than `restricted'.

       prompt Automatic  booting  (see `delay' above) will not take place unless a locked or pre-
              stored ("lilo -R") command line is present. Instead, the boot loader will issue the
              boot:  prompt  and  wait  for  user  input  before  proceeding (see timeout below).
              Unattended default image reboots are impossible if `prompt' is set and `timeout' is
              not,   or  the  default  image  is  password  protected  at  a  higher  level  than

              This option only  has  meaning  for  RAID1  installations.   The  <option>  may  be
              specified as none, auto, mbr, mbr-only, or a comma-separated list of devices; e.g.,
              "/dev/hda,/dev/hdc6".  Starting with LILO version 22.0, the boot record is normally
              written  to  the  first  sector  of the RAID1 partition.  On PARALLEL raid sets, no
              other boot records are needed.  The default action is auto, meaning,  automatically
              generate auxiliary boot records as needed on SKEWED raid sets.  none means suppress
              generation of all auxiliary boot records.  mbr-only suppresses generation of a boot
              record  on  the raid device, and forces compatibility with versions of LILO earlier
              than version 22.0 by writing boot records to all Master Boot Records (MBRs) of  all
              disks  which  have partitions in the raid set. mbr is like mbr-only except the boot
              record on the RAID partition is  not  suppressed.   Use  of  an  explicit  list  of
              devices, forces writing of auxiliary boot records only on those devices enumerated,
              in addition to the boot record on the RAID1 device.  Since  the  version  22  RAID1
              codes  will  never  automatically write a boot record on the MBR of device 0x80, if
              such a boot record is desired, this is one way to have it written. Use  of  mbr  is
              the other way to force writing to the MBR of device 0x80.

              The per-image password option `restricted' (see below) applies to all images.

              enables  control  from  a serial line. The specified serial port is initialized and
              the boot loader is accepting input from it and from the PC's  keyboard.  Sending  a
              break  on  the  serial  line  corresponds to pressing a shift key on the console in
              order to get the boot loader's attention.  All  boot  images  should  be  password-
              protected  if  the serial access is less secure than access to the console, e.g. if
              the line is connected to a modem. The parameter string has the following syntax:


              <port>: the number of the serial port, zero-based. Zero  (0)  corresponds  to  COM1
              alias /dev/ttyS0, etc. All four ports can be used (if present).

              <bps>:  the  baud  rate of the serial port. The following baud rates are supported:
              110, 150, 300, 600, 1200, 2400 (default),  4800,  9600,  plus  the  extended  rates
              19200, 38400, and 57600 (56000).  The rate 115200 is allowed, but may not work with
              all COMx port hardware.

              <parity>: the parity used on the serial line. The boot loader ignores input  parity
              and  strips the 8th bit. The following (upper or lower case) characters are used to
              describe the parity: "n" for no parity, "e" for even parity and "o" for odd parity.

              <bits>: the number of bits in a character. Only 7 and 8 bits are supported. Default
              is 8 if parity is "none", 7 if parity is "even" or "odd".

              If `serial' is set, the value of `delay' is automatically raised to 20.

              Example: "serial=0,2400n8" initializes COM1 with the default parameters.

              This  option specifies that boot images or 'other's are to be selected and launched
              with a single keystroke.  Selection is based upon the first character of each name,
              which  must be unique.  This option should not be used with the menu or bitmap user
              interface ("install=").

              Causes the operation of the boot installer and boot loader to  bypass  the  use  of
              Volume-ID  information,  and  to  revert to a mode of operation of versions of LILO
              from 22.4 backward.  With Volume-ID booting (22.5 and later),  the  BIOS  codes  of
              disks  are  determined  at  boot time, not install time; hence they may be switched
              around, either by adding or removing disk(s) from the hardware configuration, or by
              using a BIOS menu to select the boot device.

              With  the  use  of  this option, BIOS codes of disks MUST be correctly specified at
              install time; either guessed correctly by LILO (which often fails on mixed IDE/SCSI
              systems),  or  explicitly specified with 'disk=/dev/XXX bios=0xYY' statements.  The
              use of this option precludes any activity which may switch around  the  BIOS  codes
              assigned to particular disk devices, as noted above.

              In general, this option should never be used, except as a bug workaround.

              This  global  option  suppresses the boot-time real mode collection of BIOS data on
              systems which hang on certain BIOS calls.  It is equivalent to using the  boot-time
              switch 'nobd'.

              This  option  defeats  the  disk  volume recognition and BIOS device code detection
              features of LILO on systems with more than one disk. Thus the use  of  this  option
              will produce a strong cautionary message, which cannot be suppressed.

              sets  a  timeout  (in  tenths  of a second) for keyboard input at the boot: prompt.
              "timeout" only has meaning if "prompt" is mentioned.  If no key is pressed for  the
              specified  time,  the default image is automatically booted. The default timeout is

              (22.6) Alters the operation of the "timeout" parameter in a manner which is  useful
              on  noisy  serial  lines.   Each  typed (or noise) character restarts the "timeout"
              timer and a timeout  will  always  boot  the  default  descriptor,  even  if  noise
              characters have appeared on the input line.

              Turns  on  lots of progress reporting. Higher numbers give more verbose output.  If
              -v is additionally specified on the lilo  command  line,  the  level  is  increased
              accordingly. The maximum verbosity level is 5.

              The  named boot image is used as the default boot if booting in "virtual" mode with
              a virtual monitor, such as VMware(tm).  Thus a real mode boot and  a  virtual  mode
              boot can be made to have different default boot images.

       Additionally,  the kernel configuration parameters append, ramdisk, read-only, read-write,
       root and vga can be set in the global options section. They are used as defaults  if  they
       aren't specified in the configuration sections of the respective kernel images.


       A per-image section starts with either a line


       to indicate a file or device containing the boot image of a Linux kernel, or a line


       to indicate an arbitrary system to boot.

       In  the  former  case,  if  an image line specifies booting from a device, then one has to
       indicate the range of sectors to be mapped using


       In the third case, 'nsec=1' is assumed.


       If the booted image is a Linux kernel, then one may pass command line parameters  to  this

              The  kernel  parameters of this string are concatenated to the parameter(s) from an
              append= option (see below).  The string of addappend must be enclosed within double
              quotes.  Usually, the previous append= will set parameters common to all kernels by
              appearing in the global section of the configuration file and  addappend=  will  be
              used to add local parameter(s) to an individual image.  The addappend option may be
              used only once per "image=" section.

              If the string is a very long line, this line can be divided in more lines using "\"
              as last character of a line, e.g.,

                  addappend="noapic acpi=off pci=usepirqmask \
                          pnpbios=off pnpacpi=off noisapnp"

              Appends  the options specified to the parameter line passed to the kernel.  This is
              typically used to specify hardware parameters that can't be entirely  auto-detected
              or  for which probing may be dangerous. Multiple kernel parameters are separated by
              a blank space, and the string must be enclosed in double quotes.  A  local  append=
              appearing  within  an  image= section overrides any global append= appearing in the
              global section of the configuration file.  The append option may be used only  once
              per "image=" section. To concatenate parameter strings, use "addappend=". Example:

                   append="mem=96M hd=576,64,32 console=ttyS1,9600"

              If the string is a very long line, this line can be divided in more lines using "\"
              as last character of a line. See example of addappend option.

              Specifies the initial ramdisk image to be loaded with the kernel.  The  image  will
              contain  modules  needed  at  boot  time, such as network and scsi drivers. See man
              pages for mkinitrd(8).

              Like `append', but removes all other options (e.g. setting  of  the  root  device).
              'literal'  overrides  all  'append' and 'addappend' options.  Because vital options
              can be removed unintentionally with `literal', this option cannot  be  set  in  the
              global options section.

              This  specifies  the  size (e.g. "4096k") of the optional RAM disk. A value of zero
              indicates that no RAM disk should be created. If this variable is omitted, the  RAM
              disk size configured into the boot image is used.

              This  specifies  that  the root file system should be mounted read-only.  It may be
              specified as a global option.  Typically, the system  startup  procedure  re-mounts
              the root file system read-write later (e.g. after fsck'ing it).

              This  specifies  that the root file system should be mounted read-write.  It may be
              specified as a global option.

              This specifies the device that should be mounted as root.  It may be specified as a
              global  option.  If the special name current is used, the root device is set to the
              device on which the root file system is currently mounted. If  the  root  has  been
              changed  with -r, the respective device is used. If the variable `root' is omitted,
              the root device setting contained in the running kernel image  is  used.   Warning:
              This can induce to an unbootable system!

              The  root  filesystem  may  also be specified by a LABEL= or UUID= directive, as in
              '/etc/fstab'.  In this case, the argument to root= must be  enclosed  in  quotation
              marks, to avoid a syntax error on the second equal sign, e.g.:


              Note:   The   command   line   root=  parameter  passed  to  the  kernel  will  be:
              'root=LABEL=MyDisk'; i.e., without the quotation marks. If the root=  parameter  is
              passed  from  the  boot time boot: prompt, no quotes are used.  The quotes are only
              there to satisfy the requirements of the boot-installer  parser,  which  treats  an
              equal  sign  as  an operator.  The kernel command line parser is very much simpler,
              and must not see any quotation marks.  Simply stated, only use the quotation  marks
              within /etc/lilo.conf.

              This  specifies  the VGA text mode that should be selected when booting.  It may be
              specified as a global  option.   The  following  values  are  recognized  (case  is

              normal: select normal 80x25 text mode.

              extended (or ext): select 80x50 text mode.

              ask: stop and ask for user input (at boot time).

              <number>:  use the corresponding text mode (can specify the number in decimal or in
              hex with the usual '0x' convention).  A list of available modes can be obtained  by
              booting with vga=ask and pressing [Enter].

              If  this variable is omitted, the VGA mode setting contained in the kernel image is
              used. (And that is set at compile time using the SVGA_MODE variable in  the  kernel
              Makefile, and can later be changed with the rdev(8) program.)


       Used to load systems other than Linux. The `other = <device>' specifies the boot sector of
       an alternate system  contained  on  a  device  or  disk  partition;  e.g.,  DOS  on,  say,
       `/dev/hda2',  or  a floppy on `/dev/fd0'.  In the case of booting another system there are
       these options:

              This specifies the chain loader that should be used.  It may also be specified as a
              global  option.   By default chain is used.  This chain loader passes partition and
              drive information in the boot sector it loads  only  to  DOS  on  FAT12  or  FAT16,
              Windows on FAT16 or FAT32. (see also table=<letter> below).

              This  specifies the device that contains the partition table.  The boot loader will
              pass default partition information to the booted operating system if this  variable
              is  omitted.  (Some  operating  systems  have  other  means to determine from which
              partition they have been booted.  E.g., MS-DOS usually stores the geometry  of  the
              boot disk or partition in its boot sector.)  Note that /sbin/lilo must be re-run if
              a partition table mapped referenced with `table' is modified.

       change This keyword starts a  section  which  describes  how  primary  partition  IDs  are
              changed,  and  how  primary partitions are activated and deactivated.  If change is
              omitted, change rules are generated as though the automatic keyword were specified.
              The  keyword  change  alone,  without  any rules following, will suppress automatic
              change-rules.  For example,


              specifies that when primary partition /dev/hda2 is booted,  automatic  change-rules
              will  be  in  effect; plus, partition 1, a DOS12 partition, will be set hidden, and
              deactivated.  In  addition,  partition  2,  will  be  set  normal,  and  activated.
              Activation  sets  the  boot-flag in the partition table.  The automatic keyword may
              conflict with default change rules, so the set= lines above may be redundant.

              This option (LILO version 22.5.1) indicates the BIOS  device  code  which  must  be
              assigned to the specified drive in order for the "other=" operating system to boot.
              If the chain loader detects that another BIOS device code is assigned to this disk,
              then  it  will  dynamically swap the assigned device code with the specified device

              This option is easier to specify than "map-drive=" and more general  than  "master-
              boot"  in  that  any  device  code  may  be  specified.   Unlike  "map-drive=", the
              determination whether to swap device codes is made at boot time, not install  time.
              This is advantageous on systems where the BIOS presents a boot menu of devices, and
              will map disks  to  devices  in  different  ways,  depending  upon  the  BIOS  boot

              This  option  may  be specified as a global option, in which case it applies to all
              "other=" sections unless overridden with a specific "master-boot" option.   If  one
              of  "boot-as="  or  "master-boot"  is specified as a global option, it is better to
              specify "master-boot" as the global option, as it will not  interfere  with  floppy
              disk  BIOS  device  codes;  "boot-as="  is  then used as a local option to override
              "master-boot" as necessary.

              This flag (LILO version 22.5) indicates a DOS/Windows or other  system  which  will
              only  boot  from  BIOS device 0x80, the "C:" drive, or BIOS device 0, the A: drive.
              When this flag is specified, if this drive is not assigned device code 0x80 or 0 by
              the  BIOS,  then  the  chain  loader will dynamically swap the device code actually
              assigned with device code 0x80 or 0 to make this drive appear to be the first  hard
              or floppy drive, "C:" or "A:".

              This  flag  is  easier  to  use than "map-drive=" (see below), and is preferred, if
              simple forcing of device code 0x80 is  all  that  is  required.  It  is  also  more
              general,  in that the necessity to swap BIOS device codes is determined dynamically
              at boot-time, not at boot install-time, as with "map-drive=".  It is slightly  more
              powerful  than "boot-as=", in that the device code which is assigned, 0 or 0x80, is
              determined dynamically.

              This option may be specified as a global option, in which case it  applies  to  all
              "other=" sections unless overridden with a specific "boot-as=" option.

              Maps  BIOS  calls  for the specified drive to the device code specified on the next
              line as to=<num>.  This mapping is useful for booting operating  systems,  such  as
              DOS, from the second hard drive.  The following, swaps the C: and D: drives,


              This  option  is  largely  rendered  obsolete  by  "boot-as=", introduced with LILO
              version 22.5.

       unsafe Do not access the boot sector at map  creation  time.  This  disables  some  sanity
              checks,  including a partition table check. If the boot sector is on a fixed-format
              floppy disk device, using UNSAFE avoids the need to put a readable  disk  into  the
              drive  when  running  the map installer. If the boot sector is on a hard drive, the
              BIOS  device  code  of  the  drive  will  have  to  be  specified  explicitly  with
              "disk=/dev/XXXX  bios=0x8X  inaccessible"  in the configuration file.  `unsafe' and
              `table' (explicit or implicit) are mutually incompatible.


       In both the image= and other= cases, the following options apply.

       bypass No password is required to boot this  image.  Used  to  indicate  that  the  global
              password does not apply to this `image=' or `other='.  See 'password=' below.

              The  boot  loader  uses  the  main  file  name  (without  its  path)  of each image
              specification to identify that image.  A different name can be used by setting  the
              variable `label'.

              A second name for the same entry can be used by specifying an alias.

              The  bitmap  graphic (install=bmp) is retained when control is passed to the loaded
              kernel image, or other= bootloader; i.e., the screen is not blanked to alphanumeric
              mode  before  starting  the  kernel.   This feature is considered EXPERIMENTAL, for
              those users working with startup splash screens.

              Specifies a string that is stored as the default command line if the current  image
              is  booted.  This  is useful when experimenting with kernels which may crash before
              allowing interaction with the system. If using the fallback option, the next reboot
              (e.g.   triggered  by  a manual reset or by a watchdog timer) will load a different
              (supposedly stable) kernel. The command line stored by the  fallback  mechanism  is
              cleared  by removing or changing the default command line with the -R option, which
              should be a part of the boot startup scripts.

       lock   (See above.)

              Omit the image if it is not available at map creation time.  It may be specified as
              a  global  option.   This  is  useful  to  specify test kernels that are not always

              Protect the `image=' or `other=' with  a  password  (or  passphrase).   It  may  be
              specified  as  a  global  option.  The interpretation of the `password=' setting is
              modified by the words `mandatory', `restricted', and `bypass' (see below).
              The password may be specified in the config-file (less secure) or  entered  at  the
              time the boot loader is installed. To request interactive entry of the password, it
              should be specified: password="".  Passwords entered interactively are not required
              to  be  entered  again  if the boot installer is re-run. They are cached, in hashed
              form, in a companion file to the config-file, default name: /etc/lilo.conf.crc.  If
              the  config-file is updated, a warning message will be issued telling you to re-run
              lilo -p to force re-creation of the password cache file.

              A password is required to boot this image. This is the default. May be  used  on  a
              single `image=' or `other=' to override a different global setting.

              (22.7.2)  The  specified  descriptor  is not bootable if the IBM-PC keyboard is not
              present.  This option is really only useful if the "serial=" boot  terminal  is  in
              use.   With  no  keyboard  (and  no  serial  terminal)  attached,  selecting a boot
              descriptor other than the default is impossible.  See nokbdefault above.

              A password is only required to boot the image if kernel parameters are specified on
              the  command line (e.g. 'single').  May be used on a single `image=' or `other=' to
              override a different global setting.

       vmwarn If booting under a virtual monitor such as VMware(tm), the image  with  this  label
              will  cause  a  cautionary warning to be issued at boot time, and user intervention
              will be required to continue or to abort the boot process.

              If booting under a virtual monitor, the image with this label will not be displayed
              as a boot option.  The image is only bootable in real mode.  See vmdefault above.


       lilo(8), mkinitrd(8), mknod(1), mkrescue(8), rdev(8).

                                            June 2013                                LILO.CONF(5)