Provided by: rsync_3.2.3-8ubuntu3_amd64 bug


       rsync - a fast, versatile, remote (and local) file-copying tool


           rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [DEST]

       Access via remote shell:
               rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST:SRC... [DEST]
               rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST:DEST

       Access via rsync daemon:
               rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST::SRC... [DEST]
               rsync [OPTION...] rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC... [DEST]
               rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST::DEST
               rsync [OPTION...] SRC... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST)

       Usages  with  just  one  SRC  arg  and  no  DEST arg will list the source files instead of


       Rsync is a fast and extraordinarily versatile file copying tool.   It  can  copy  locally,
       to/from another host over any remote shell, or to/from a remote rsync daemon.  It offers a
       large number of options that control every aspect of its behavior and permit very flexible
       specification  of  the  set  of  files  to be copied.  It is famous for its delta-transfer
       algorithm, which reduces the amount of data sent over the  network  by  sending  only  the
       differences  between the source files and the existing files in the destination.  Rsync is
       widely used for backups and mirroring and as an improved copy command for everyday use.

       Rsync finds files that need to be transferred using a "quick check" algorithm (by default)
       that  looks  for files that have changed in size or in last-modified time.  Any changes in
       the other preserved attributes (as requested by options) are made on the destination  file
       directly when the quick check indicates that the file's data does not need to be updated.

       Some of the additional features of rsync are:

       o      support for copying links, devices, owners, groups, and permissions

       o      exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar

       o      a CVS exclude mode for ignoring the same files that CVS would ignore

       o      can use any transparent remote shell, including ssh or rsh

       o      does not require super-user privileges

       o      pipelining of file transfers to minimize latency costs

       o      support for anonymous or authenticated rsync daemons (ideal for mirroring)


       Rsync  copies  files  either  to or from a remote host, or locally on the current host (it
       does not support copying files between two remote hosts).

       There are two different ways for rsync to contact a remote system:  using  a  remote-shell
       program  as  the transport (such as ssh or rsh) or contacting an rsync daemon directly via
       TCP.  The remote-shell transport is used whenever the source or destination path  contains
       a  single  colon  (:)  separator  after  a host specification.  Contacting an rsync daemon
       directly happens when the  source  or  destination  path  contains  a  double  colon  (::)
       separator  after  a host specification, OR when an rsync:// URL is specified (see also the
       this latter rule).

       As  a  special  case, if a single source arg is specified without a destination, the files
       are listed in an output format similar to "ls -l".

       As expected, if neither the source or destination path specify a  remote  host,  the  copy
       occurs locally (see also the --list-only option).

       Rsync  refers  to  the  local side as the client and the remote side as the server.  Don't
       confuse server with an rsync daemon.  A daemon is always a server, but  a  server  can  be
       either a daemon or a remote-shell spawned process.


       See the file for installation instructions.

       Once  installed,  you  can use rsync to any machine that you can access via a remote shell
       (as well as some that you can access using the rsync daemon-mode  protocol).   For  remote
       transfers, a modern rsync uses ssh for its communications, but it may have been configured
       to use a different remote shell by default, such as rsh or remsh.

       You can also specify any remote shell you like,  either  by  using  the  -e  command  line
       option, or by setting the RSYNC_RSH environment variable.

       Note that rsync must be installed on both the source and destination machines.


       You  use  rsync in the same way you use rcp.  You must specify a source and a destination,
       one of which may be remote.

       Perhaps the best way to explain the syntax is with some examples:

           rsync -t *.c foo:src/

       This would transfer all files matching the pattern *.c from the current directory  to  the
       directory  src on the machine foo.  If any of the files already exist on the remote system
       then the rsync remote-update protocol is used to update  the  file  by  sending  only  the
       differences  in  the data.  Note that the expansion of wildcards on the command-line (*.c)
       into a list of files is handled by the shell before it runs rsync and not by rsync  itself
       (exactly the same as all other Posix-style programs).

           rsync -avz foo:src/bar /data/tmp

       This  would  recursively  transfer all files from the directory src/bar on the machine foo
       into the /data/tmp/bar directory on the local  machine.   The  files  are  transferred  in
       archive  mode,  which  ensures  that  symbolic  links,  devices,  attributes, permissions,
       ownerships, etc. are preserved in the transfer.  Additionally, compression will be used to
       reduce the size of data portions of the transfer.

           rsync -avz foo:src/bar/ /data/tmp

       A  trailing  slash  on  the  source  changes this behavior to avoid creating an additional
       directory level at the destination.  You can think of a trailing / on a source as  meaning
       "copy  the  contents of this directory" as opposed to "copy the directory by name", but in
       both cases the attributes of the containing directory are transferred  to  the  containing
       directory  on  the destination.  In other words, each of the following commands copies the
       files in the same way, including their setting of the attributes of /dest/foo:

           rsync -av /src/foo /dest
           rsync -av /src/foo/ /dest/foo

       Note also that host and module references don't require  a  trailing  slash  to  copy  the
       contents of the default directory.  For example, both of these copy the remote directory's
       contents into "/dest":

           rsync -av host: /dest
           rsync -av host::module /dest

       You can also use rsync in local-only mode, where both the  source  and  destination  don't
       have a ':' in the name.  In this case it behaves like an improved copy command.

       Finally,  you can list all the (listable) modules available from a particular rsync daemon
       by leaving off the module name:


       See the following section for more details.


       The syntax for requesting multiple  files  from  a  remote  host  is  done  by  specifying
       additional  remote-host args in the same style as the first, or with the hostname omitted.
       For instance, all these work:

           rsync -av host:file1 :file2 host:file{3,4} /dest/
           rsync -av host::modname/file{1,2} host::modname/file3 /dest/
           rsync -av host::modname/file1 ::modname/file{3,4}

       Older versions of rsync required using quoted spaces in the SRC, like these examples:

           rsync -av host:'dir1/file1 dir2/file2' /dest
           rsync host::'modname/dir1/file1 modname/dir2/file2' /dest

       This word-splitting still works (by default) in the latest rsync, but is not  as  easy  to
       use as the first method.

       If  you  need  to transfer a filename that contains whitespace, you can either specify the
       --protect-args (-s) option, or you'll need to escape the whitespace  in  a  way  that  the
       remote shell will understand.  For instance:

           rsync -av host:'file\ name\ with\ spaces' /dest


       It  is  also  possible to use rsync without a remote shell as the transport.  In this case
       you will directly connect to a remote rsync daemon, typically using TCP  port  873.  (This
       obviously requires the daemon to be running on the remote system, so refer to the STARTING
       AN RSYNC DAEMON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS section below for information on that.)

       Using rsync in this way is the same as using it with a remote shell except that:

       o      you either use a double colon :: instead of a single colon to separate the hostname
              from the path, or you use an rsync:// URL.

       o      the first word of the "path" is actually a module name.

       o      the remote daemon may print a message of the day when you connect.

       o      if  you specify no path name on the remote daemon then the list of accessible paths
              on the daemon will be shown.

       o      if you specify no local destination then a listing of the specified  files  on  the
              remote daemon is provided.

       o      you  must  not  specify  the  --rsh  (-e)  option  (since that overrides the daemon
              connection to use  ssh --  see  USING  RSYNC-DAEMON  FEATURES  VIA  A  REMOTE-SHELL
              CONNECTION below).

       An example that copies all the files in a remote module named "src":

           rsync -av host::src /dest

       Some  modules  on the remote daemon may require authentication.  If so, you will receive a
       password prompt when you connect.  You can  avoid  the  password  prompt  by  setting  the
       environment  variable  RSYNC_PASSWORD  to  the  password  you  want  to  use  or using the
       --password-file option.  This may be useful when scripting rsync.

       WARNING: On some systems environment variables are visible to all users.  On those systems
       using --password-file is recommended.

       You  may  establish  the  connection  via  a web proxy by setting the environment variable
       RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair pointing to  your  web  proxy.   Note  that  your  web
       proxy's configuration must support proxy connections to port 873.

       You  may  also  establish  a  daemon  connection using a program as a proxy by setting the
       environment variable RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG to the commands you wish to run in place of making
       a  direct  socket  connection.   The  string  may contain the escape "%H" to represent the
       hostname specified in the rsync command (so use "%%" if you need  a  single  "%"  in  your
       string).  For example:

           export RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG='ssh proxyhost nc %H 873'
           rsync -av targethost1::module/src/ /dest/
           rsync -av rsync://targethost2/module/src/ /dest/

       The command specified above uses ssh to run nc (netcat) on a proxyhost, which forwards all
       data to port 873 (the rsync daemon) on the targethost (%H).

       Note also that if the RSYNC_SHELL environment variable is set, that program will  be  used
       to  run  the RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG command instead of using the default shell of the system()


       It is sometimes useful to use various features of an rsync daemon (such as named  modules)
       without  actually  allowing  any  new socket connections into a system (other than what is
       already required to allow remote-shell access).  Rsync supports connecting to a host using
       a  remote  shell  and  then spawning a single-use "daemon" server that expects to read its
       config file in the home dir of the remote user.  This can be useful if you want to encrypt
       a  daemon-style  transfer's  data,  but since the daemon is started up fresh by the remote
       user, you may not be able to use features such as chroot or change the  uid  used  by  the
       daemon.  (For  another  way  to  encrypt a daemon transfer, consider using ssh to tunnel a
       local port to a remote machine and configure a normal rsync daemon on that remote host  to
       only allow connections from "localhost".)

       From  the  user's perspective, a daemon transfer via a remote-shell connection uses nearly
       the same command-line syntax as a normal rsync-daemon transfer, with  the  only  exception
       being  that  you must explicitly set the remote shell program on the command-line with the
       --rsh=COMMAND option. (Setting the RSYNC_RSH in the environment  will  not  turn  on  this
       functionality.) For example:

           rsync -av --rsh=ssh host::module /dest

       If  you  need to specify a different remote-shell user, keep in mind that the user@ prefix
       in front of the host is specifying the rsync-user value (for a module that requires  user-
       based  authentication).   This  means  that you must give the '-l user' option to ssh when
       specifying the remote-shell, as in this example that uses the short version of  the  --rsh

           rsync -av -e "ssh -l ssh-user" rsync-user@host::module /dest

       The  "ssh-user"  will be used at the ssh level; the "rsync-user" will be used to log-in to
       the "module".


       In order to connect to an rsync daemon, the remote system needs to have a  daemon  already
       running  (or it needs to have configured something like inetd to spawn an rsync daemon for
       incoming connections on a particular port).  For full information on how to start a daemon
       that will handling incoming socket connections, see the rsyncd.conf(5) man page -- that is
       the config file for the daemon, and it contains the full details for how to run the daemon
       (including stand-alone and inetd configurations).

       If  you're  using one of the remote-shell transports for the transfer, there is no need to
       manually start an rsync daemon.


       Rsync always sorts the specified filenames into its internal transfer list.  This  handles
       the  merging  together  of the contents of identically named directories, makes it easy to
       remove duplicate filenames, and may confuse someone when the files are  transferred  in  a
       different order than what was given on the command-line.

       If  you  need  a  particular  file to be transferred prior to another, either separate the
       files into different rsync calls, or consider using --delay-updates (which doesn't  affect
       the  sorted  transfer  order, but does make the final file-updating phase happen much more


       Here are some examples of how I use rsync.

       To backup my wife's home directory, which  consists  of  large  MS  Word  files  and  mail
       folders, I use a cron job that runs

           rsync -Cavz . arvidsjaur:backup

       each night over a PPP connection to a duplicate directory on my machine "arvidsjaur".

       To synchronize my samba source trees I use the following Makefile targets:

               rsync -avuzb --exclude '*~' samba:samba/ .
               rsync -Cavuzb . samba:samba/
           sync: get put

       This allows me to sync with a CVS directory at the other end of the connection.  I then do
       CVS operations on the remote machine, which saves a lot of time as the remote CVS protocol
       isn't very efficient.

       I mirror a directory between my "old" and "new" ftp sites with the command:

           rsync -az -e ssh --delete ~ftp/pub/samba nimbus:"~ftp/pub/tridge"

       This is launched from cron every few hours.


       Here  is  a short summary of the options available in rsync.  Please refer to the detailed
       description below for a complete description.

       --verbose, -v            increase verbosity
       --info=FLAGS             fine-grained informational verbosity
       --debug=FLAGS            fine-grained debug verbosity
       --stderr=e|a|c           change stderr output mode (default: errors)
       --quiet, -q              suppress non-error messages
       --no-motd                suppress daemon-mode MOTD
       --checksum, -c           skip based on checksum, not mod-time & size
       --archive, -a            archive mode is -rlptgoD (no -A,-X,-U,-N,-H)
       --no-OPTION              turn off an implied OPTION (e.g. --no-D)
       --recursive, -r          recurse into directories
       --relative, -R           use relative path names
       --no-implied-dirs        don't send implied dirs with --relative
       --backup, -b             make backups (see --suffix & --backup-dir)
       --backup-dir=DIR         make backups into hierarchy based in DIR
       --suffix=SUFFIX          backup suffix (default ~ w/o --backup-dir)
       --update, -u             skip files that are newer on the receiver
       --inplace                update destination files in-place
       --append                 append data onto shorter files
       --append-verify          --append w/old data in file checksum
       --dirs, -d               transfer directories without recursing
       --mkpath                 create the destination's path component
       --links, -l              copy symlinks as symlinks
       --copy-links, -L         transform symlink into referent file/dir
       --copy-unsafe-links      only "unsafe" symlinks are transformed
       --safe-links             ignore symlinks that point outside the tree
       --munge-links            munge symlinks to make them safe & unusable
       --copy-dirlinks, -k      transform symlink to dir into referent dir
       --keep-dirlinks, -K      treat symlinked dir on receiver as dir
       --hard-links, -H         preserve hard links
       --perms, -p              preserve permissions
       --executability, -E      preserve executability
       --chmod=CHMOD            affect file and/or directory permissions
       --acls, -A               preserve ACLs (implies --perms)
       --xattrs, -X             preserve extended attributes
       --owner, -o              preserve owner (super-user only)
       --group, -g              preserve group
       --devices                preserve device files (super-user only)
       --copy-devices           copy device contents as regular file
       --specials               preserve special files
       -D                       same as --devices --specials
       --times, -t              preserve modification times
       --atimes, -U             preserve access (use) times
       --open-noatime           avoid changing the atime on opened files
       --crtimes, -N            preserve create times (newness)
       --omit-dir-times, -O     omit directories from --times
       --omit-link-times, -J    omit symlinks from --times
       --super                  receiver attempts super-user activities
       --fake-super             store/recover privileged attrs using xattrs
       --sparse, -S             turn sequences of nulls into sparse blocks
       --preallocate            allocate dest files before writing them
       --write-devices          write to devices as files (implies --inplace)
       --dry-run, -n            perform a trial run with no changes made
       --whole-file, -W         copy files whole (w/o delta-xfer algorithm)
       --checksum-choice=STR    choose the checksum algorithm (aka --cc)
       --one-file-system, -x    don't cross filesystem boundaries
       --block-size=SIZE, -B    force a fixed checksum block-size
       --rsh=COMMAND, -e        specify the remote shell to use
       --rsync-path=PROGRAM     specify the rsync to run on remote machine
       --existing               skip creating new files on receiver
       --ignore-existing        skip updating files that exist on receiver
       --remove-source-files    sender removes synchronized files (non-dir)
       --del                    an alias for --delete-during
       --delete                 delete extraneous files from dest dirs
       --delete-before          receiver deletes before xfer, not during
       --delete-during          receiver deletes during the transfer
       --delete-delay           find deletions during, delete after
       --delete-after           receiver deletes after transfer, not during
       --delete-excluded        also delete excluded files from dest dirs
       --ignore-missing-args    ignore missing source args without error
       --delete-missing-args    delete missing source args from destination
       --ignore-errors          delete even if there are I/O errors
       --force                  force deletion of dirs even if not empty
       --max-delete=NUM         don't delete more than NUM files
       --max-size=SIZE          don't transfer any file larger than SIZE
       --min-size=SIZE          don't transfer any file smaller than SIZE
       --max-alloc=SIZE         change a limit relating to memory alloc
       --partial                keep partially transferred files
       --partial-dir=DIR        put a partially transferred file into DIR
       --delay-updates          put all updated files into place at end
       --prune-empty-dirs, -m   prune empty directory chains from file-list
       --numeric-ids            don't map uid/gid values by user/group name
       --usermap=STRING         custom username mapping
       --groupmap=STRING        custom groupname mapping
       --chown=USER:GROUP       simple username/groupname mapping
       --timeout=SECONDS        set I/O timeout in seconds
       --contimeout=SECONDS     set daemon connection timeout in seconds
       --ignore-times, -I       don't skip files that match size and time
       --size-only              skip files that match in size
       --modify-window=NUM, -@  set the accuracy for mod-time comparisons
       --temp-dir=DIR, -T       create temporary files in directory DIR
       --fuzzy, -y              find similar file for basis if no dest file
       --compare-dest=DIR       also compare destination files relative to DIR
       --copy-dest=DIR          ... and include copies of unchanged files
       --link-dest=DIR          hardlink to files in DIR when unchanged
       --compress, -z           compress file data during the transfer
       --compress-choice=STR    choose the compression algorithm (aka --zc)
       --compress-level=NUM     explicitly set compression level (aka --zl)
       --skip-compress=LIST     skip compressing files with suffix in LIST
       --cvs-exclude, -C        auto-ignore files in the same way CVS does
       --filter=RULE, -f        add a file-filtering RULE
       -F                       same as --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'
                                repeated: --filter='- .rsync-filter'
       --exclude=PATTERN        exclude files matching PATTERN
       --exclude-from=FILE      read exclude patterns from FILE
       --include=PATTERN        don't exclude files matching PATTERN
       --include-from=FILE      read include patterns from FILE
       --files-from=FILE        read list of source-file names from FILE
       --from0, -0              all *-from/filter files are delimited by 0s
       --protect-args, -s       no space-splitting; wildcard chars only
       --copy-as=USER[:GROUP]   specify user & optional group for the copy
       --address=ADDRESS        bind address for outgoing socket to daemon
       --port=PORT              specify double-colon alternate port number
       --sockopts=OPTIONS       specify custom TCP options
       --blocking-io            use blocking I/O for the remote shell
       --outbuf=N|L|B           set out buffering to None, Line, or Block
       --stats                  give some file-transfer stats
       --8-bit-output, -8       leave high-bit chars unescaped in output
       --human-readable, -h     output numbers in a human-readable format
       --progress               show progress during transfer
       -P                       same as --partial --progress
       --itemize-changes, -i    output a change-summary for all updates
       --remote-option=OPT, -M  send OPTION to the remote side only
       --out-format=FORMAT      output updates using the specified FORMAT
       --log-file=FILE          log what we're doing to the specified FILE
       --log-file-format=FMT    log updates using the specified FMT
       --password-file=FILE     read daemon-access password from FILE
       --early-input=FILE       use FILE for daemon's early exec input
       --list-only              list the files instead of copying them
       --bwlimit=RATE           limit socket I/O bandwidth
       --stop-after=MINS        Stop rsync after MINS minutes have elapsed
       --stop-at=y-m-dTh:m      Stop rsync at the specified point in time
       --write-batch=FILE       write a batched update to FILE
       --only-write-batch=FILE  like --write-batch but w/o updating dest
       --read-batch=FILE        read a batched update from FILE
       --protocol=NUM           force an older protocol version to be used
       --iconv=CONVERT_SPEC     request charset conversion of filenames
       --checksum-seed=NUM      set block/file checksum seed (advanced)
       --ipv4, -4               prefer IPv4
       --ipv6, -6               prefer IPv6
       --version, -V            print the version + other info and exit
       --help, -h (*)           show this help (* -h is help only on its own)

       Rsync can also be run as a daemon, in which case the following options are accepted:

       --daemon                 run as an rsync daemon
       --address=ADDRESS        bind to the specified address
       --bwlimit=RATE           limit socket I/O bandwidth
       --config=FILE            specify alternate rsyncd.conf file
       --dparam=OVERRIDE, -M    override global daemon config parameter
       --no-detach              do not detach from the parent
       --port=PORT              listen on alternate port number
       --log-file=FILE          override the "log file" setting
       --log-file-format=FMT    override the "log format" setting
       --sockopts=OPTIONS       specify custom TCP options
       --verbose, -v            increase verbosity
       --ipv4, -4               prefer IPv4
       --ipv6, -6               prefer IPv6
       --help, -h               show this help (when used with --daemon)


       Rsync accepts both long (double-dash + word) and short  (single-dash  +  letter)  options.
       The full list of the available options are described below.  If an option can be specified
       in more than one way, the choices are comma-separated.  Some  options  only  have  a  long
       variant, not a short.  If the option takes a parameter, the parameter is only listed after
       the long variant, even though it must also be specified for the short.  When specifying  a
       parameter,  you can either use the form --option=param or replace the '=' with whitespace.
       The parameter may need to be quoted in some manner for it to survive the shell's  command-
       line  parsing.  Keep in mind that a leading tilde (~) in a filename is substituted by your
       shell, so --option=~/foo will not change the tilde into your home  directory  (remove  the
       '=' for that).

       --help, -h (*)
              Print  a  short  help page describing the options available in rsync and exit.  (*)
              The -h short option will only invoke --help when used without other  options  since
              it normally means --human-readable.

       --version, -V
              Print the rsync version plus other info and exit.

              The  output  includes  the default list of checksum algorithms, the default list of
              compression algorithms, a list of compiled-in capabilities, a link to the rsync web
              site, and some license/copyright info.

       --verbose, -v
              This  option increases the amount of information you are given during the transfer.
              By default, rsync works silently.  A single -v will give you information about what
              files  are  being  transferred and a brief summary at the end.  Two -v options will
              give you information on what files are being skipped and slightly more  information
              at  the  end.   More  than  two -v options should only be used if you are debugging

              In a modern rsync, the -v option is equivalent to the setting of groups  of  --info
              and  --debug options.  You can choose to use these newer options in addition to, or
              in place of using --verbose, as any  fine-grained  settings  override  the  implied
              settings  of -v.  Both --info and --debug have a way to ask for help that tells you
              exactly what flags are set for each increase in verbosity.

              However, do keep in mind that a daemon's "max verbosity"  setting  will  limit  how
              high  of  a  level the various individual flags can be set on the daemon side.  For
              instance, if the max is 2, then any info and/or debug flag that is set to a  higher
              value  than  what  would  be  set by -vv will be downgraded to the -vv level in the
              daemon's logging.

              This option lets you have fine-grained control over the information output you want
              to  see.  An individual flag name may be followed by a level number, with 0 meaning
              to silence that output, 1 being  the  default  output  level,  and  higher  numbers
              increasing  the  output  of  that flag (for those that support higher levels).  Use
              --info=help to see all the available flag names, what they output,  and  what  flag
              names are added for each increase in the verbose level.  Some examples:

                  rsync -a --info=progress2 src/ dest/
                  rsync -avv --info=stats2,misc1,flist0 src/ dest/

              Note  that  --info=name's  output  is  affected  by the --out-format and --itemize-
              changes (-i) options.  See those options for more information on what is output and

              This  option  was added to 3.1.0, so an older rsync on the server side might reject
              your attempts at fine-grained control (if one or more flags needed to  be  send  to
              the  server  and  the  server  was  too  old  to  understand  them).   See also the
              "max verbosity" caveat above when dealing with a daemon.

              This option lets you have fine-grained control over the debug output  you  want  to
              see.   An individual flag name may be followed by a level number, with 0 meaning to
              silence that  output,  1  being  the  default  output  level,  and  higher  numbers
              increasing  the  output  of  that flag (for those that support higher levels).  Use
              --debug=help to see all the available flag names, what they output, and  what  flag
              names are added for each increase in the verbose level.  Some examples:

                  rsync -avvv --debug=none src/ dest/
                  rsync -avA --del --debug=del2,acl src/ dest/

              Note  that  some debug messages will only be output when --stderr=all is specified,
              especially those pertaining to I/O and buffer debugging.

              Beginning in 3.2.0, this option is no longer auto-forwarded to the server  side  in
              order to allow you to specify different debug values for each side of the transfer,
              as well as to specify a new debug option that is only present in one of  the  rsync
              versions.   If  you  want  to  duplicate the same option on both sides, using brace
              expansion is an easy way to save you some typing.  This works in zsh and bash:

                  rsync -aiv {-M,}--debug=del2 src/ dest/

              This option controls which processes output to stderr and if info messages are also
              changed  to  stderr.   The  mode  strings can be abbreviated, so feel free to use a
              single letter value.  The 3 possible choices are:

              o      errors - (the default) causes all the  rsync  processes  to  send  an  error
                     directly  to  stderr,  even  if  the  process  is  on the remote side of the
                     transfer.  Info messages are sent  to  the  client  side  via  the  protocol
                     stream.   If  stderr  is not available (i.e. when directly connecting with a
                     daemon via a socket) errors fall back to being sent via the protocol stream.

              o      all - causes all rsync messages (info and error) to get written directly  to
                     stderr  from  all  (possible) processes.  This causes stderr to become line-
                     buffered (instead of raw) and eliminates the ability to divide up  the  info
                     and  error  messages  by  file  handle.   For those doing debugging or using
                     several levels of verbosity, this option can help to avoid clogging  up  the
                     transfer  stream  (which should prevent any chance of a deadlock bug hanging
                     things up).  It also  allows  --debug  to  enable  some  extra  I/O  related

              o      client  -  causes  all  rsync messages to be sent to the client side via the
                     protocol stream.  One client process outputs all messages,  with  errors  on
                     stderr  and  info  messages  on stdout.  This was the default in older rsync
                     versions, but can cause error delays when a lot of transfer data is ahead of
                     the  messages.   If  you're pushing files to an older rsync, you may want to
                     use --stderr=all since that idiom has been around for several releases.

              This option was added in rsync 3.2.3.  This version also began the forwarding of  a
              non-default  setting  to the remote side, though rsync uses the backward-compatible
              options  --msgs2stderr  and  --no-msgs2stderr  to  represent  the  all  and  client
              settings,  respectively.   A newer rsync will continue to accept these older option
              names to maintain compatibility.

       --quiet, -q
              This option decreases the amount of information you are given during the  transfer,
              notably  suppressing  information  messages from the remote server.  This option is
              useful when invoking rsync from cron.

              This option affects the information that is output by the client at the start of  a
              daemon  transfer.   This suppresses the message-of-the-day (MOTD) text, but it also
              affects the list of modules that the daemon sends in response to the "rsync host::"
              request  (due  to  a  limitation in the rsync protocol), so omit this option if you
              want to request the list of modules from the daemon.

       --ignore-times, -I
              Normally rsync will skip any files that are already the same size and have the same
              modification timestamp.  This option turns off this "quick check" behavior, causing
              all files to be updated.

              This modifies rsync's "quick check" algorithm for finding files  that  need  to  be
              transferred,  changing  it  from  the  default  of transferring files with either a
              changed size or a changed last-modified time to just looking for  files  that  have
              changed  in  size.   This  is useful when starting to use rsync after using another
              mirroring system which may not preserve timestamps exactly.

       --modify-window=NUM, -@
              When comparing two timestamps, rsync treats the timestamps as being equal  if  they
              differ  by  no  more than the modify-window value.  The default is 0, which matches
              just integer seconds.  If you specify a negative value  (and  the  receiver  is  at
              least  version 3.1.3) then nanoseconds will also be taken into account.  Specifying
              1 is useful for copies to/from MS Windows FAT filesystems, because  FAT  represents
              times  with a 2-second resolution (allowing times to differ from the original by up
              to 1 second).

              If you want all your transfers to default to comparing nanoseconds, you can  create
              a ~/.popt file and put these lines in it:

                  rsync alias -a -a@-1
                  rsync alias -t -t@-1

              With  that  as  the  default,  you'd need to specify --modify-window=0 (aka -@0) to
              override it and ignore nanoseconds, e.g. if you're copying between ext3  and  ext4,
              or if the receiving rsync is older than 3.1.3.

       --checksum, -c
              This changes the way rsync checks if the files have been changed and are in need of
              a transfer.  Without this option, rsync uses a  "quick  check"  that  (by  default)
              checks  if  each file's size and time of last modification match between the sender
              and receiver.  This option changes this to compare a 128-bit checksum for each file
              that  has  a  matching  size.   Generating the checksums means that both sides will
              expend a lot of disk I/O reading all the data in the files in the transfer, so this
              can  slow  things down significantly (and this is prior to any reading that will be
              done to transfer changed files)

              The sending side generates its checksums while it is  doing  the  file-system  scan
              that  builds the list of the available files.  The receiver generates its checksums
              when it is scanning for changed files, and will checksum any file that has the same
              size  as  the  corresponding  sender's  file: files with either a changed size or a
              changed checksum are selected for transfer.

              Note  that  rsync  always  verifies  that  each  transferred  file  was   correctly
              reconstructed  on  the  receiving  side  by  checking a whole-file checksum that is
              generated as  the  file  is  transferred,  but  that  automatic  after-the-transfer
              verification  has  nothing  to do with this option's before-the-transfer "Does this
              file need to be updated?" check.

              The checksum used is auto-negotiated between the client and the server, but can  be
              overridden  using  either  the  --checksum-choice  (--cc)  option or an environment
              variable that is discussed in that option's section.

       --archive, -a
              This is equivalent to -rlptgoD.  It is a quick way of saying you want recursion and
              want  to  preserve almost everything.  Be aware that it does not include preserving
              ACLs (-A), xattrs (-X), atimes (-U), crtimes (-N), nor the finding  and  preserving
              of hardlinks (-H).

              The  only  exception to the above equivalence is when --files-from is specified, in
              which case -r is not implied.

              You may turn off one or more implied options by  prefixing  the  option  name  with
              "no-".  Not all options may be prefixed with a "no-": only options that are implied
              by other options (e.g. --no-D, --no-perms) or have different  defaults  in  various
              circumstances (e.g. --no-whole-file, --no-blocking-io, --no-dirs).  You may specify
              either the short or the long option name after the "no-" prefix (e.g. --no-R is the
              same as --no-relative).

              For example: if you want to use -a (--archive) but don't want -o (--owner), instead
              of converting -a into -rlptgD, you could specify -a --no-o (or -a --no-owner).

              The order of the options is important: if you  specify  --no-r -a,  the  -r  option
              would  end up being turned on, the opposite of -a --no-r.  Note also that the side-
              effects of the --files-from option are NOT positional, as it  affects  the  default
              state  of  several options and slightly changes the meaning of -a (see the --files-
              from option for more details).

       --recursive, -r
              This tells rsync to copy directories recursively.  See also --dirs (-d).

              Beginning with rsync 3.0.0, the recursive algorithm used is now an incremental scan
              that  uses  much less memory than before and begins the transfer after the scanning
              of the first few directories have  been  completed.   This  incremental  scan  only
              affects  our recursion algorithm, and does not change a non-recursive transfer.  It
              is also only possible when both ends of the transfer are at least version 3.0.0.

              Some options require rsync to know the full file list, so these options disable the
              incremental   recursion  mode.   These  include:  --delete-before,  --delete-after,
              --prune-empty-dirs, and --delay-updates.  Because of this, the default delete  mode
              when  you  specify --delete is now --delete-during when both ends of the connection
              are at least 3.0.0 (use --del or --delete-during to request this improved  deletion
              mode  explicitly).  See also the --delete-delay option that is a better choice than
              using --delete-after.

              Incremental recursion can be disabled using the --no-inc-recursive  option  or  its
              shorter --no-i-r alias.

       --relative, -R
              Use  relative  paths.  This means that the full path names specified on the command
              line are sent to the server rather than just the last parts of the filenames.  This
              is  particularly  useful when you want to send several different directories at the
              same time.  For example, if you used this command:

                  rsync -av /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

              would create a file named baz.c in /tmp/ on the remote  machine.   If  instead  you

                  rsync -avR /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

              then  a  file  named  /tmp/foo/bar/baz.c  would  be  created on the remote machine,
              preserving  its  full  path.   These  extra  path  elements  are  called   "implied
              directories" (i.e. the "foo" and the "foo/bar" directories in the above example).

              Beginning  with  rsync  3.0.0, rsync always sends these implied directories as real
              directories in the file list, even if a path element is really  a  symlink  on  the
              sending side.  This prevents some really unexpected behaviors when copying the full
              path of a file that you didn't realize had a symlink in its path.  If you  want  to
              duplicate  a  server-side  symlink,  include  both  the  symlink  via its path, and
              referent directory via its real path.  If you're dealing with an older rsync on the
              sending side, you may need to use the --no-implied-dirs option.

              It is also possible to limit the amount of path information that is sent as implied
              directories for each path you specify.  With a modern rsync  on  the  sending  side
              (beginning with 2.6.7), you can insert a dot and a slash into the source path, like

                  rsync -avR /foo/./bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

              That would create /tmp/bar/baz.c on the remote machine. (Note that the dot must  be
              followed  by  a  slash,  so  "/foo/."  would  not  be abbreviated.) For older rsync
              versions, you would need to use a chdir to limit the  source  path.   For  example,
              when pushing files:

                  (cd /foo; rsync -avR bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/)

              (Note  that  the  parens  put  the  two commands into a sub-shell, so that the "cd"
              command doesn't remain in effect for future commands.) If you're pulling files from
              an older rsync, use this idiom (but only for a non-daemon transfer):

                  rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /foo; rsync" \
                       remote:bar/baz.c /tmp/

              This  option  affects  the  default  behavior of the --relative option.  When it is
              specified, the attributes of the implied directories from the source names are  not
              included  in  the transfer.  This means that the corresponding path elements on the
              destination system are left unchanged  if  they  exist,  and  any  missing  implied
              directories  are  created  with default attributes.  This even allows these implied
              path elements to have big differences, such as being a symlink to  a  directory  on
              the receiving side.

              For  instance,  if  a command-line arg or a files-from entry told rsync to transfer
              the file "path/foo/file", the directories "path" and "path/foo"  are  implied  when
              --relative is used.  If "path/foo" is a symlink to "bar" on the destination system,
              the receiving rsync would ordinarily delete "path/foo", recreate it as a directory,
              and receive the file into the new directory.  With --no-implied-dirs, the receiving
              rsync updates "path/foo/file" using the existing path elements,  which  means  that
              the  file ends up being created in "path/bar".  Another way to accomplish this link
              preservation is to use the --keep-dirlinks option (which will also affect  symlinks
              to directories in the rest of the transfer).

              When  pulling files from an rsync older than 3.0.0, you may need to use this option
              if the sending side has a symlink in the path you request and you wish the  implied
              directories to be transferred as normal directories.

       --backup, -b
              With  this  option,  preexisting  destination  files  are  renamed  as each file is
              transferred or deleted.  You can control where the backup file goes  and  what  (if
              any) suffix gets appended using the --backup-dir and --suffix options.

              Note  that  if you don't specify --backup-dir, (1) the --omit-dir-times option will
              be forced on, and (2) if --delete is also in  effect  (without  --delete-excluded),
              rsync will add a "protect" filter-rule for the backup suffix to the end of all your
              existing excludes (e.g. -f "P *~").  This will prevent previously  backed-up  files
              from  being deleted.  Note that if you are supplying your own filter rules, you may
              need to manually insert your own exclude/protect rule somewhere higher  up  in  the
              list  so  that  it  has a high enough priority to be effective (e.g., if your rules
              specify a trailing inclusion/exclusion of *, the auto-added  rule  would  never  be

              This  implies  the  --backup  option,  and  tells rsync to store all backups in the
              specified directory on the receiving  side.   This  can  be  used  for  incremental
              backups.   You  can  additionally specify a backup suffix using the --suffix option
              (otherwise the files backed up in the specified directory will keep their  original

              Note  that if you specify a relative path, the backup directory will be relative to
              the destination directory, so you probably want to specify either an absolute  path
              or  a  path that starts with "../".  If an rsync daemon is the receiver, the backup
              dir cannot go outside the module's path hierarchy, so take extra care not to delete
              it or copy into it.

              This option allows you to override the default backup suffix used with the --backup
              (-b) option.  The default suffix is a ~ if no --backup-dir was specified, otherwise
              it is an empty string.

       --update, -u
              This  forces  rsync  to  skip  any  files which exist on the destination and have a
              modified time that is newer than the source file. (If an existing destination  file
              has a modification time equal to the source file's, it will be updated if the sizes
              are different.)

              Note that this does not affect the copying of  dirs,  symlinks,  or  other  special
              files.  Also, a difference of file format between the sender and receiver is always
              considered to be important enough for an update, no matter  what  date  is  on  the
              objects.  In other words, if the source has a directory where the destination has a
              file, the transfer would occur regardless of the timestamps.

              This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't affect the data  that
              goes into the file-lists, and thus it doesn't affect deletions.  It just limits the
              files that the receiver requests to be transferred.

              This option changes how rsync transfers a file when its data needs to  be  updated:
              instead of the default method of creating a new copy of the file and moving it into
              place when it is complete, rsync instead writes the updated data  directly  to  the
              destination file.

              This has several effects:

              o      Hard  links are not broken.  This means the new data will be visible through
                     other hard links to  the  destination  file.   Moreover,  attempts  to  copy
                     differing  source  files onto a multiply-linked destination file will result
                     in a "tug of war" with the destination data changing back and forth.

              o      In-use binaries cannot be updated (either the  OS  will  prevent  this  from
                     happening,  or binaries that attempt to swap-in their data will misbehave or

              o      The file's data will be in an inconsistent state  during  the  transfer  and
                     will be left that way if the transfer is interrupted or if an update fails.

              o      A file that rsync cannot write to cannot be updated.  While a super user can
                     update any file, a normal user needs to be granted write permission for  the
                     open of the file for writing to be successful.

              o      The  efficiency  of  rsync's delta-transfer algorithm may be reduced if some
                     data in the destination file is overwritten before it can  be  copied  to  a
                     position  later in the file.  This does not apply if you use --backup, since
                     rsync is smart enough to use the backup file  as  the  basis  file  for  the

              WARNING:  you should not use this option to update files that are being accessed by
              others, so be careful when choosing to use this for a copy.

              This option is useful for transferring large  files  with  block-based  changes  or
              appended  data, and also on systems that are disk bound, not network bound.  It can
              also help keep a  copy-on-write  filesystem  snapshot  from  diverging  the  entire
              contents of a file that only has minor changes.

              The  option  implies  --partial  (since an interrupted transfer does not delete the
              file), but conflicts with --partial-dir and --delay-updates.  Prior to rsync  2.6.4
              --inplace was also incompatible with --compare-dest and --link-dest.

              This  special copy mode only works to efficiently update files that are known to be
              growing larger where any existing content on the receiving side is also known to be
              the same as the content on the sender.  The use of --append can be dangerous if you
              aren't 100% sure that all the files in the transfer are shared, growing files.  You
              should  thus use filter rules to ensure that you weed out any files that do not fit
              this criteria.

              Rsync updates these growing file in-place without verifying  any  of  the  existing
              content  in  the  file  (it only verifies the content that it is appending).  Rsync
              skips any files that exist on the receiving side that  are  not  shorter  than  the
              associated file on the sending side (which means that new files are transferred).

              This  does not interfere with the updating of a file's non-content attributes (e.g.
              permissions, ownership, etc.) when the file does not need to  be  transferred,  nor
              does it affect the updating of any directories or non-regular files.

              This  special copy mode works like --append except that all the data in the file is
              included in the checksum verification (making  it  much  less  efficient  but  also
              potentially  safer).  This option can be dangerous if you aren't 100% sure that all
              the files in the transfer are shared, growing files.  See the --append  option  for
              more details.

              Note:  prior to rsync 3.0.0, the --append option worked like --append-verify, so if
              you are interacting with an older rsync (or the transfer is using a protocol  prior
              to 30), specifying either append option will initiate an --append-verify transfer.

       --dirs, -d
              Tell  the  sending  side  to  include any directories that are encountered.  Unlike
              --recursive, a directory's contents  are  not  copied  unless  the  directory  name
              specified  is  "." or ends with a trailing slash (e.g. ".", "dir/.", "dir/", etc.).
              Without this option or the --recursive option, rsync will skip all  directories  it
              encounters (and output a message to that effect for each one).  If you specify both
              --dirs and --recursive, --recursive takes precedence.

              The --dirs option is implied by the --files-from option or the  --list-only  option
              (including  an  implied --list-only usage) if --recursive wasn't specified (so that
              directories are seen in the listing).  Specify --no-dirs (or --no-d) if you want to
              turn this off.

              There  is also a backward-compatibility helper option, --old-dirs (or --old-d) that
              tells rsync to use a hack of -r --exclude='/*/*' to get an older rsync  to  list  a
              single directory without recursing.

              Create  a  missing  path  component  of  the destination arg.  This allows rsync to
              create multiple levels of missing destination dirs and to create a path in which to
              put  a  single  renamed  file.   Keep in mind that you'll need to supply a trailing
              slash if you want the entire destination path to be treated  as  a  directory  when
              copying  a  single  arg (making rsync behave the same way that it would if the path
              component of the destination had already existed).

              For example, the following creates a copy  of  file  foo  as  bar  in  the  sub/dir
              directory, creating dirs "sub" and "sub/dir" if either do not yet exist:

                  rsync -ai --mkpath foo sub/dir/bar

              If you instead ran the following, it would have created file foo in the sub/dir/bar

                  rsync -ai --mkpath foo sub/dir/bar/

       --links, -l
              When symlinks are encountered, recreate the symlink on the destination.

       --copy-links, -L
              When symlinks are encountered, the item  that  they  point  to  (the  referent)  is
              copied,  rather than the symlink.  In older versions of rsync, this option also had
              the side-effect of telling the receiving side to follow symlinks, such as  symlinks
              to directories.  In a modern rsync such as this one, you'll need to specify --keep-
              dirlinks (-K) to get this extra behavior.  The only exception is when sending files
              to  an  rsync  that is too old to understand -K -- in that case, the -L option will
              still have the side-effect of -K on that older receiving rsync.

              This tells rsync to copy the referent of symbolic  links  that  point  outside  the
              copied  tree.   Absolute  symlinks are also treated like ordinary files, and so are
              any symlinks in the source path itself when --relative is used.  This option has no
              additional effect if --copy-links was also specified.

              Note  that  the  cut-off point is the top of the transfer, which is the part of the
              path that rsync isn't mentioning in the verbose output.  If you copy  "/src/subdir"
              to "/dest/" then the "subdir" directory is a name inside the transfer tree, not the
              top of the transfer (which is /src) so it is legal for created relative symlinks to
              refer  to  other  names inside the /src and /dest directories.  If you instead copy
              "/src/subdir/" (with a trailing slash)  to  "/dest/subdir"  that  would  not  allow
              symlinks to any files outside of "subdir".

              This  tells rsync to ignore any symbolic links which point outside the copied tree.
              All absolute symlinks are also ignored.  Using  this  option  in  conjunction  with
              --relative may give unexpected results.

              This  option  tells rsync to (1) modify all symlinks on the receiving side in a way
              that makes them unusable but recoverable (see below), or (2) to unmunge symlinks on
              the  sending  side  that  had been stored in a munged state.  This is useful if you
              don't quite trust the source of the data to not try to  slip  in  a  symlink  to  a
              unexpected place.

              The  way  rsync  disables the use of symlinks is to prefix each one with the string
              "/rsyncd-munged/".  This prevents the  links  from  being  used  as  long  as  that
              directory does not exist.  When this option is enabled, rsync will refuse to run if
              that path is a directory or a symlink to a directory.

              The option only affects the client side of the transfer,  so  if  you  need  it  to
              affect  the server, specify it via --remote-option. (Note that in a local transfer,
              the client side is the sender.)

              This option has no affect on a daemon, since the daemon configures whether it wants
              munged  symlinks via its "munge symlinks" parameter.  See also the "munge-symlinks"
              perl script in the support directory of the source code.

       --copy-dirlinks, -k
              This option causes the sending side to treat a symlink to a directory as though  it
              were  a  real  directory.   This  is  useful  if  you  don't  want symlinks to non-
              directories to be affected, as they would be using --copy-links.

              Without this option, if the sending side has replaced a directory with a symlink to
              a  directory, the receiving side will delete anything that is in the way of the new
              symlink, including a directory hierarchy (as long as  --force  or  --delete  is  in

              See also --keep-dirlinks for an analogous option for the receiving side.

              --copy-dirlinks  applies to all symlinks to directories in the source.  If you want
              to follow only a few specified symlinks, a trick you can use is  to  pass  them  as
              additional  source  args  with a trailing slash, using --relative to make the paths
              match up right.  For example:

                  rsync -r --relative src/./ src/./follow-me/ dest/

              This works because rsync calls lstat(2)  on  the  source  arg  as  given,  and  the
              trailing slash makes lstat(2) follow the symlink, giving rise to a directory in the
              file-list which overrides the symlink found during the scan of "src/./".

       --keep-dirlinks, -K
              This option causes the receiving side to treat a symlink to a directory  as  though
              it  were a real directory, but only if it matches a real directory from the sender.
              Without this option, the receiver's symlink would be deleted and  replaced  with  a
              real directory.

              For  example,  suppose  you transfer a directory "foo" that contains a file "file",
              but "foo" is a symlink  to  directory  "bar"  on  the  receiver.   Without  --keep-
              dirlinks,  the  receiver  deletes  symlink  "foo", recreates it as a directory, and
              receives the file into the new directory.  With --keep-dirlinks, the receiver keeps
              the symlink and "file" ends up in "bar".

              One note of caution: if you use --keep-dirlinks, you must trust all the symlinks in
              the copy! If it is possible for an untrusted user to create their  own  symlink  to
              any  directory, the user could then (on a subsequent copy) replace the symlink with
              a real  directory  and  affect  the  content  of  whatever  directory  the  symlink
              references.   For  backup  copies,  you  are better off using something like a bind
              mount instead of a symlink to modify your receiving hierarchy.

              See also --copy-dirlinks for an analogous option for the sending side.

       --hard-links, -H
              This tells rsync to look for hard-linked files in the source and link together  the
              corresponding  files on the destination.  Without this option, hard-linked files in
              the source are treated as though they were separate files.

              This option does NOT necessarily ensure that the  pattern  of  hard  links  on  the
              destination exactly matches that on the source.  Cases in which the destination may
              end up with extra hard links include the following:

              o      If the destination contains extraneous hard-links (more linking than what is
                     present  in the source file list), the copying algorithm will not break them
                     explicitly.  However, if one or more of the paths have content  differences,
                     the  normal file-update process will break those extra links (unless you are
                     using the --inplace option).

              o      If you specify a --link-dest directory that contains hard links, the linking
                     of  the destination files against the --link-dest files can cause some paths
                     in the  destination  to  become  linked  together  due  to  the  --link-dest

              Note  that  rsync  can  only  detect  hard  links between files that are inside the
              transfer set.  If rsync updates a file that  has  extra  hard-link  connections  to
              files outside the transfer, that linkage will be broken.  If you are tempted to use
              the --inplace option to avoid this breakage, be very careful that you know how your
              files  are  being updated so that you are certain that no unintended changes happen
              due to lingering hard links (and see the --inplace option for more caveats).

              If incremental recursion is active (see --recursive), rsync may transfer a  missing
              hard-linked  file  before  it  finds  that  another  link  for that contents exists
              elsewhere in the hierarchy.  This does not affect  the  accuracy  of  the  transfer
              (i.e.  which files are hard-linked together), just its efficiency (i.e. copying the
              data for a new, early copy of a hard-linked file that could have been  found  later
              in  the  transfer  in  another member of the hard-linked set of files).  One way to
              avoid this inefficiency is to disable incremental  recursion  using  the  --no-inc-
              recursive option.

       --perms, -p
              This option causes the receiving rsync to set the destination permissions to be the
              same as the source permissions. (See also the --chmod option for a  way  to  modify
              what rsync considers to be the source permissions.)

              When this option is off, permissions are set as follows:

              o      Existing  files (including updated files) retain their existing permissions,
                     though the --executability option might change just the  execute  permission
                     for the file.

              o      New  files  get  their  "normal"  permission  bits  set to the source file's
                     permissions  masked  with  the  receiving  directory's  default  permissions
                     (either  the receiving process's umask, or the permissions specified via the
                     destination directory's default ACL),  and  their  special  permission  bits
                     disabled except in the case where a new directory inherits a setgid bit from
                     its parent directory.

              Thus, when --perms and --executability are both disabled, rsync's behavior  is  the
              same as that of other file-copy utilities, such as cp(1) and tar(1).

              In  summary:  to  give destination files (both old and new) the source permissions,
              use --perms.  To give new files the destination-default permissions (while  leaving
              existing  files  unchanged),  make  sure  that  the  --perms  option is off and use
              --chmod=ugo=rwX (which ensures that all non-masked bits  get  enabled).   If  you'd
              care to make this latter behavior easier to type, you could define a popt alias for
              it, such as putting this line in the file ~/.popt (the  following  defines  the  -Z
              option, and includes --no-g to use the default group of the destination dir):

                  rsync alias -Z --no-p --no-g --chmod=ugo=rwX

              You could then use this new option in a command such as this one:

                  rsync -avZ src/ dest/

              (Caveat:  make sure that -a does not follow -Z, or it will re-enable the two --no-*
              options mentioned above.)

              The preservation of the destination's setgid bit on newly-created directories  when
              --perms  is  off  was  added  in  rsync  2.6.7.   Older  rsync versions erroneously
              preserved the three special permission bits for newly-created  files  when  --perms
              was  off,  while overriding the destination's setgid bit setting on a newly-created
              directory.  Default ACL observance was added to the ACL patch for rsync  2.6.7,  so
              older  (or  non-ACL-enabled) rsyncs use the umask even if default ACLs are present.
              (Keep in mind that it is the version of the  receiving  rsync  that  affects  these

       --executability, -E
              This  option  causes  rsync to preserve the executability (or non-executability) of
              regular files when --perms is not enabled.  A regular  file  is  considered  to  be
              executable  if  at least one 'x' is turned on in its permissions.  When an existing
              destination file's executability differs from  that  of  the  corresponding  source
              file, rsync modifies the destination file's permissions as follows:

              o      To make a file non-executable, rsync turns off all its 'x' permissions.

              o      To  make  a  file  executable, rsync turns on each 'x' permission that has a
                     corresponding 'r' permission enabled.

              If --perms is enabled, this option is ignored.

       --acls, -A
              This option causes rsync to update the destination ACLs  to  be  the  same  as  the
              source ACLs.  The option also implies --perms.

              The source and destination systems must have compatible ACL entries for this option
              to work properly.  See the --fake-super option for a way to backup and restore ACLs
              that are not compatible.

       --xattrs, -X
              This  option  causes  rsync to update the destination extended attributes to be the
              same as the source ones.

              For systems that support extended-attribute namespaces, a  copy  being  done  by  a
              super-user  copies  all  namespaces except system.*.  A normal user only copies the
              user.* namespace.  To be able to backup and restore non-user namespaces as a normal
              user, see the --fake-super option.

              The above name filtering can be overridden by using one or more filter options with
              the x modifier.  When you specify an xattr-affecting filter  rule,  rsync  requires
              that you do your own system/user filtering, as well as any additional filtering for
              what xattr names are copied and what names are allowed to be deleted.  For example,
              to skip the system namespace, you could specify:

                  --filter='-x system.*'

              To  skip all namespaces except the user namespace, you could specify a negated-user

                  --filter='-x! user.*'

              To prevent any attributes from being deleted, you  could  specify  a  receiver-only
              rule that excludes all names:

                  --filter='-xr *'

              Note  that  the  -X  option does not copy rsync's special xattr values (e.g.  those
              used by --fake-super) unless you repeat the option  (e.g.  -XX).   This  "copy  all
              xattrs" mode cannot be used with --fake-super.

              This  option  tells rsync to apply one or more comma-separated "chmod" modes to the
              permission of the files in the transfer.  The resulting value is treated as  though
              it  were  the  permissions that the sending side supplied for the file, which means
              that this option can seem to have no effect on existing files  if  --perms  is  not

              In  addition to the normal parsing rules specified in the chmod(1) manpage, you can
              specify an item that should only apply to a directory by prefixing it with  a  'D',
              or  specify  an  item  that should only apply to a file by prefixing it with a 'F'.
              For example, the following will ensure that all  directories  get  marked  set-gid,
              that  no  files are other-writable, that both are user-writable and group-writable,
              and that both have consistent executability across all bits:


              Using octal mode numbers is also allowed:


              It is also legal to specify multiple --chmod options, as each additional option  is
              just appended to the list of changes to make.

              See  the --perms and --executability options for how the resulting permission value
              can be applied to the files in the transfer.

       --owner, -o
              This option causes rsync to set the owner of the destination file to be the same as
              the  source  file,  but  only if the receiving rsync is being run as the super-user
              (see also the --super and --fake-super options).  Without this option, the owner of
              new and/or transferred files are set to the invoking user on the receiving side.

              The  preservation  of  ownership  will associate matching names by default, but may
              fall back to using the ID number in some circumstances (see also the  --numeric-ids
              option for a full discussion).

       --group, -g
              This option causes rsync to set the group of the destination file to be the same as
              the source file.  If the receiving program is not running as the super-user (or  if
              --no-super was specified), only groups that the invoking user on the receiving side
              is a member of will be preserved.  Without this option, the group  is  set  to  the
              default group of the invoking user on the receiving side.

              The preservation of group information will associate matching names by default, but
              may fall back to using the ID number in some circumstances (see also the --numeric-
              ids option for a full discussion).

              This option causes rsync to transfer character and block device files to the remote
              system to recreate these devices.  This option has no effect if the receiving rsync
              is not run as the super-user (see also the --super and --fake-super options).

              This option causes rsync to transfer special files such as named sockets and fifos.

       -D     The -D option is equivalent to --devices --specials.

              This  tells  rsync  to  treat  a  device  on  the receiving side as a regular file,
              allowing the writing of file data into a device.

              This option implies the --inplace option.

              Be careful using this, as you should know what devices are present on the receiving
              side of the transfer, especially if running rsync as root.

              This option is refused by an rsync daemon.

       --times, -t
              This  tells  rsync  to  transfer modification times along with the files and update
              them on the remote system.  Note that if this option is not used, the  optimization
              that  excludes  files  that  have  not  been modified cannot be effective; in other
              words, a missing -t or -a will cause the next transfer to behave as if it used  -I,
              causing  all files to be updated (though rsync's delta-transfer algorithm will make
              the update fairly efficient if the files  haven't  actually  changed,  you're  much
              better off using -t).

       --atimes, -U
              This tells rsync to set the access (use) times of the destination files to the same
              value as the source files.

              If repeated, it also sets the --open-noatime option, which can help you to make the
              sending  and  receiving systems have the same access times on the transferred files
              without needing to run rsync an extra time after a file is transferred.

              Note that some older rsync versions (prior to 3.2.0) may have  been  built  with  a
              pre-release  --atimes  patch that does not imply --open-noatime when this option is

              This tells rsync to open files with the O_NOATIME flag (on systems that support it)
              to avoid changing the access time of the files that are being transferred.  If your
              OS does not support the O_NOATIME flag then rsync will silently ignore this option.
              Note  also  that  some  filesystems are mounted to avoid updating the atime on read
              access even without the O_NOATIME flag being set.

       --crtimes, -N,
              This tells rsync to set the create times (newness) of the destination files to  the
              same value as the source files.

       --omit-dir-times, -O
              This  tells rsync to omit directories when it is preserving modification times (see
              --times).  If NFS is sharing the directories on the receiving side, it  is  a  good
              idea to use -O.  This option is inferred if you use --backup without --backup-dir.

              This  option  also has the side-effect of avoiding early creation of directories in
              incremental recursion copies.  The default --inc-recursive copying normally does an
              early-create  pass of all the sub-directories in a parent directory in order for it
              to be able to then set the modify time of the parent directory right away  (without
              having to delay that until a bunch of recursive copying has finished).  This early-
              create idiom is not necessary if directory modify times are not being preserved, so
              it  is skipped.  Since early-create directories don't have accurate mode, mtime, or
              ownership, the use of this option can  help  when  someone  wants  to  avoid  these
              partially-finished directories.

       --omit-link-times, -J
              This  tells  rsync  to  omit symlinks when it is preserving modification times (see

              This tells the  receiving  side  to  attempt  super-user  activities  even  if  the
              receiving rsync wasn't run by the super-user.  These activities include: preserving
              users via the --owner option, preserving all groups (not just  the  current  user's
              groups) via the --group option, and copying devices via the --devices option.  This
              is useful for systems that allow such activities without being the super-user,  and
              also for ensuring that you will get errors if the receiving side isn't being run as
              the super-user.  To turn off super-user activities, the super-user  can  use  --no-

              When   this   option   is   enabled,   rsync  simulates  super-user  activities  by
              saving/restoring the privileged attributes via special extended attributes that are
              attached to each file (as needed).  This includes the file's owner and group (if it
              is not the default), the file's device info (device & special files are created  as
              empty  text  files),  and  any permission bits that we won't allow to be set on the
              real file (e.g. the real file gets u-s,g-s,o-t for safety) or that would limit  the
              owner's  access  (since  the  real  super-user can always access/change a file, the
              files we create can always be accessed/changed by the creating user).  This  option
              also  handles  ACLs  (if --acls was specified) and non-user extended attributes (if
              --xattrs was specified).

              This is a good way to backup data without using a super-user,  and  to  store  ACLs
              from incompatible systems.

              The  --fake-super option only affects the side where the option is used.  To affect
              the remote side of a remote-shell connection, use the --remote-option (-M) option:

                  rsync -av -M--fake-super /src/ host:/dest/

              For a local copy, this option affects both the source and the destination.  If  you
              wish  a  local  copy  to enable this option just for the destination files, specify
              -M--fake-super.  If you wish a local copy to enable this option just for the source
              files, combine --fake-super with -M--super.

              This option is overridden by both --super and --no-super.

              See also the "fake super" setting in the daemon's rsyncd.conf file.

       --sparse, -S
              Try  to  handle  sparse  files  efficiently  so  they  take  up  less  space on the
              destination.  If combined with --inplace the file created might  not  end  up  with
              sparse  blocks with some combinations of kernel version and/or filesystem type.  If
              --whole-file is in effect (e.g. for a local copy) then it will always work  because
              rsync truncates the file prior to writing out the updated version.

              Note  that  versions  of  rsync  older  than  3.1.3  will reject the combination of
              --sparse and --inplace.

              This tells the receiver to allocate each destination  file  to  its  eventual  size
              before  writing  data  to  the file.  Rsync will only use the real filesystem-level
              preallocation support provided by Linux's  fallocate(2)  system  call  or  Cygwin's
              posix_fallocate(3),  not the slow glibc implementation that writes a null byte into
              each block.

              Without this option, larger files may not be entirely contiguous on the filesystem,
              but  with  this option rsync will probably copy more slowly.  If the destination is
              not an extent-supporting filesystem (such as ext4, xfs, NTFS,  etc.),  this  option
              may have no positive effect at all.

              If  combined  with  --sparse,  the file will only have sparse blocks (as opposed to
              allocated sequences of null bytes)  if  the  kernel  version  and  filesystem  type
              support creating holes in the allocated data.

       --dry-run, -n
              This  makes  rsync  perform a trial run that doesn't make any changes (and produces
              mostly the same output as a real run).  It is most  commonly  used  in  combination
              with  the  --verbose,  -v and/or --itemize-changes, -i options to see what an rsync
              command is going to do before one actually runs it.

              The output of --itemize-changes is supposed to be exactly the same on a dry run and
              a  subsequent  real run (barring intentional trickery and system call failures); if
              it isn't, that's a bug.  Other output should be mostly unchanged, but may differ in
              some  areas.   Notably, a dry run does not send the actual data for file transfers,
              so --progress has no effect, the "bytes sent", "bytes  received",  "literal  data",
              and  "matched data" statistics are too small, and the "speedup" value is equivalent
              to a run where no file transfers were needed.

       --whole-file, -W
              This option disables rsync's delta-transfer algorithm, which causes all transferred
              files to be sent whole.  The transfer may be faster if this option is used when the
              bandwidth between the source and destination machines is higher than the  bandwidth
              to  disk  (especially when the "disk" is actually a networked filesystem).  This is
              the default when both the source and destination are specified as local paths,  but
              only if no batch-writing option is in effect.

       --checksum-choice=STR, --cc=STR
              This option overrides the checksum algorithms.  If one algorithm name is specified,
              it is used for both the transfer checksums and (assuming --checksum  is  specified)
              the  pre-transfer  checksums.  If two comma-separated names are supplied, the first
              name affects the transfer checksums, and the second name affects  the  pre-transfer
              checksums (-c).

              The checksum options that you may be able to use are:

              o      auto (the default automatic choice)

              o      xxh128

              o      xxh3

              o      xxh64 (aka xxhash)

              o      md5

              o      md4

              o      none

              Run  rsync --version  to  see  the default checksum list compiled into your version
              (which may differ from the list above).

              If "none" is specified for the first (or only) name,  the  --whole-file  option  is
              forced  on  and  no checksum verification is performed on the transferred data.  If
              "none" is specified for the second (or only) name, the --checksum option cannot  be

              The  "auto"  option  is  the  default,  where rsync bases its algorithm choice on a
              negotiation between the client and the server as follows:

              When both sides of the transfer  are  at  least  3.2.0,  rsync  chooses  the  first
              algorithm  in  the  client's  list  of choices that is also in the server's list of
              choices.  If no common checksum choice is found, rsync exits with an error.  If the
              remote rsync is too old to support checksum negotiation, a value is chosen based on
              the protocol version (which chooses between MD5 and various flavors of MD4 based on
              protocol age).

              The   default   order  can  be  customized  by  setting  the  environment  variable
              RSYNC_CHECKSUM_LIST to a space-separated list of acceptable checksum names.  If the
              string  contains  a "&" character, it is separated into the "client string & server
              string", otherwise the same string applies to  both.   If  the  string  (or  string
              portion)  contains no non-whitespace characters, the default checksum list is used.
              This method does not allow you to specify the transfer checksum separately from the
              pre-transfer  checksum,  and  it discards "auto" and all unknown checksum names.  A
              list with only invalid names results in a failed negotiation.

              The use of the --checksum-choice option overrides this environment list.

       --one-file-system, -x
              This tells rsync to avoid crossing a filesystem boundary when recursing.  This does
              not  limit  the  user's ability to specify items to copy from multiple filesystems,
              just rsync's recursion through the  hierarchy  of  each  directory  that  the  user
              specified,  and also the analogous recursion on the receiving side during deletion.
              Also keep in mind that rsync treats a "bind" mount to the same device as  being  on
              the same filesystem.

              If  this option is repeated, rsync omits all mount-point directories from the copy.
              Otherwise, it includes an empty directory at each mount-point it encounters  (using
              the attributes of the mounted directory because those of the underlying mount-point
              directory are inaccessible).

              If rsync has been told to collapse symlinks  (via  --copy-links  or  --copy-unsafe-
              links),  a  symlink to a directory on another device is treated like a mount-point.
              Symlinks to non-directories are unaffected by this option.

       --existing, --ignore-non-existing
              This tells rsync to skip creating files (including directories) that do  not  exist
              yet  on  the  destination.   If  this option is combined with the --ignore-existing
              option, no files will be updated (which can be useful if all  you  want  to  do  is
              delete extraneous files).

              This  option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't affect the data that
              goes into the file-lists, and thus it doesn't affect deletions.  It just limits the
              files that the receiver requests to be transferred.

              This tells rsync to skip updating files that already exist on the destination (this
              does not ignore existing  directories,  or  nothing  would  get  done).   See  also

              This  option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't affect the data that
              goes into the file-lists, and thus it doesn't affect deletions.  It just limits the
              files that the receiver requests to be transferred.

              This option can be useful for those doing backups using the --link-dest option when
              they need to continue a backup run that got interrupted.  Since a  --link-dest  run
              is  copied  into  a  new  directory  hierarchy  (when  it  is used properly), using
              --ignore-existing will ensure that the  already-handled  files  don't  get  tweaked
              (which  avoids  a  change in permissions on the hard-linked files).  This does mean
              that this option is only looking at the existing files in the destination hierarchy

              This  tells  rsync  to  remove  from  the  sending  side  the  files  (meaning non-
              directories) that are a part of the transfer and have been successfully  duplicated
              on the receiving side.

              Note  that  you should only use this option on source files that are quiescent.  If
              you are using this to move files that show up in a  particular  directory  over  to
              another  host,  make  sure  that  the  finished  files  get renamed into the source
              directory, not directly written into it, so that rsync can't  possibly  transfer  a
              file  that  is  not  yet  fully written.  If you can't first write the files into a
              different  directory,  you  should  use  a  naming  idiom  that  lets  rsync  avoid
              transferring  files that are not yet finished (e.g. name the file "" when it
              is written, rename  it  to  "foo"  when  it  is  done,  and  then  use  the  option
              --exclude='*.new' for the rsync transfer).

              Starting  with 3.1.0, rsync will skip the sender-side removal (and output an error)
              if the file's size or modify time has not stayed unchanged.

              This tells rsync to delete extraneous files from  the  receiving  side  (ones  that
              aren't  on  the  sending  side),  but  only  for  the  directories  that  are being
              synchronized.  You must have asked rsync to send the whole directory (e.g. "dir" or
              "dir/")  without using a wildcard for the directory's contents (e.g. "dir/*") since
              the wildcard is expanded by the shell and rsync thus gets  a  request  to  transfer
              individual  files,  not  the files' parent directory.  Files that are excluded from
              the transfer are also excluded from being deleted  unless  you  use  the  --delete-
              excluded  option  or  mark  the rules as only matching on the sending side (see the
              include/exclude modifiers in the FILTER RULES section).

              Prior to rsync 2.6.7, this option would  have  no  effect  unless  --recursive  was
              enabled.   Beginning  with  2.6.7,  deletions  will  also occur when --dirs (-d) is
              enabled, but only for directories whose contents are being copied.

              This option can be dangerous if used incorrectly! It is a very good idea  to  first
              try  a  run  using  the  --dry-run  option  (-n)  to see what files are going to be

              If the sending side detects any I/O errors, then the deletion of any files  at  the
              destination   will  be  automatically  disabled.   This  is  to  prevent  temporary
              filesystem failures (such as NFS errors) on the sending side from causing a massive
              deletion  of  files  on  the destination.  You can override this with the --ignore-
              errors option.

              The --delete option may be combined with one of the --delete-WHEN  options  without
              conflict,  as  well  as  --delete-excluded.   However, if none of the --delete-WHEN
              options are specified, rsync will choose the --delete-during algorithm when talking
              to rsync 3.0.0 or newer, and the --delete-before algorithm when talking to an older
              rsync.  See also --delete-delay and --delete-after.

              Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be done before  the  transfer
              starts.  See --delete (which is implied) for more details on file-deletion.

              Deleting  before  the  transfer is helpful if the filesystem is tight for space and
              removing extraneous files would help to make the transfer  possible.   However,  it
              does introduce a delay before the start of the transfer, and this delay might cause
              the transfer to timeout (if --timeout was specified).  It also forces rsync to  use
              the  old,  non-incremental  recursion algorithm that requires rsync to scan all the
              files in the transfer into memory at once (see --recursive).

       --delete-during, --del
              Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be done incrementally as  the
              transfer  happens.   The  per-directory  delete  scan  is  done  right  before each
              directory is checked for updates, so it behaves like  a  more  efficient  --delete-
              before, including doing the deletions prior to any per-directory filter files being
              updated.  This option was first added in rsync version 2.6.4.  See --delete  (which
              is implied) for more details on file-deletion.

              Request  that  the  file-deletions  on  the  receiving  side be computed during the
              transfer (like --delete-during), and then removed  after  the  transfer  completes.
              This  is  useful  when  combined  with  --delay-updates and/or --fuzzy, and is more
              efficient than using --delete-after (but can behave  differently,  since  --delete-
              after  computes  the  deletions in a separate pass after all updates are done).  If
              the number of removed files overflows an internal buffer, a temporary file will  be
              created  on  the receiving side to hold the names (it is removed while open, so you
              shouldn't see it during the transfer).  If  the  creation  of  the  temporary  file
              fails,  rsync  will try to fall back to using --delete-after (which it cannot do if
              --recursive is doing an incremental scan).  See --delete  (which  is  implied)  for
              more details on file-deletion.

              Request  that  the  file-deletions on the receiving side be done after the transfer
              has completed.  This is useful if you are sending new per-directory merge files  as
              a  part of the transfer and you want their exclusions to take effect for the delete
              phase of the current  transfer.   It  also  forces  rsync  to  use  the  old,  non-
              incremental  recursion  algorithm  that requires rsync to scan all the files in the
              transfer into memory at once (see --recursive). See --delete (which is implied) for
              more details on file-deletion.

              In addition to deleting the files on the receiving side that are not on the sending
              side, this tells rsync to also delete any files on  the  receiving  side  that  are
              excluded  (see  --exclude).   See  the  FILTER  RULES  section  for  a  way to make
              individual exclusions behave this way on the receiver, and for  a  way  to  protect
              files  from --delete-excluded.  See --delete (which is implied) for more details on

              When rsync  is  first  processing  the  explicitly  requested  source  files  (e.g.
              command-line  arguments  or  --files-from  entries), it is normally an error if the
              file cannot be found.  This option suppresses that  error,  and  does  not  try  to
              transfer  the file.  This does not affect subsequent vanished-file errors if a file
              was initially found to be present and later is no longer there.

              This option takes the behavior of (the implied) --ignore-missing-args option a step
              farther:  each  missing  arg  will  become  a deletion request of the corresponding
              destination file on the receiving side (should it exist).  If the destination  file
              is  a  non-empty  directory,  it  will  only  be successfully deleted if --force or
              --delete are in effect.  Other than that, this option is independent of  any  other
              type of delete processing.

              The missing source files are represented by special file-list entries which display
              as a "*missing" entry in the --list-only output.

              Tells --delete to go ahead and delete files even when there are I/O errors.

              This option tells rsync to delete a non-empty directory when it is to  be  replaced
              by  a  non-directory.   This  is  only  relevant  if  deletions are not active (see
              --delete for details).

              Note for older rsync versions:  --force  used  to  still  be  required  when  using
              --delete-after,  and it used to be non-functional unless the --recursive option was
              also enabled.

              This tells rsync not to delete more than NUM files or directories.  If  that  limit
              is exceeded, all further deletions are skipped through the end of the transfer.  At
              the end, rsync outputs a warning (including a count of the skipped  deletions)  and
              exits  with  an  error  code of 25 (unless some more important error condition also

              Beginning with version 3.0.0, you may specify --max-delete=0 to be warned about any
              extraneous  files  in  the destination without removing any of them.  Older clients
              interpreted this as "unlimited", so if you don't know what version the  client  is,
              you  can  use  the  less  obvious  --max-delete=-1  as a backward-compatible way to
              specify that no deletions be allowed (though really old versions didn't  warn  when
              the limit was exceeded).

              This  tells  rsync to avoid transferring any file that is larger than the specified
              SIZE.  A numeric value can be suffixed with a string to indicate the numeric  units
              or  left  unqualified  to specify bytes.  Feel free to use a fractional value along
              with the units, such as --max-size=1.5m.

              This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't affect the data  that
              goes into the file-lists, and thus it doesn't affect deletions.  It just limits the
              files that the receiver requests to be transferred.

              The first letter of a units string can be B (bytes), K (kilo), M (mega), G  (giga),
              T  (tera),  or  P  (peta).   If the string is a single char or has "ib" added to it
              (e.g. "G" or "GiB") then the units are multiples of 1024.  If you use a  two-letter
              suffix  that  ends  with a "B" (e.g. "kb") then you get units that are multiples of
              1000.  The string's letters can be any mix of upper and lower-case that you want to

              Finally,  if  the string ends with either "+1" or "-1", it is offset by one byte in
              the indicated direction.  The largest possible value is usually 8192P-1.

              Examples: --max-size=1.5mb-1 is 1499999 bytes, and  --max-size=2g+1  is  2147483649

              Note that rsync versions prior to 3.1.0 did not allow --max-size=0.

              This  tells rsync to avoid transferring any file that is smaller than the specified
              SIZE, which can help in not transferring small, junk  files.   See  the  --max-size
              option for a description of SIZE and other information.

              Note that rsync versions prior to 3.1.0 did not allow --min-size=0.

              By  default  rsync  limits  an individual malloc/realloc to about 1GB in size.  For
              most people this limit works just fine and prevents a protocol error causing  rsync
              to  request massive amounts of memory.  However, if you have many millions of files
              in a transfer, a large amount of server memory, and you don't want to split up your
              transfer  into  multiple  parts,  you  can  increase  the  per-allocation  limit to
              something larger and rsync will consume more memory.

              Keep in mind that this is not a limit on the total size of allocated memory.  It is
              a sanity-check value for each individual allocation.

              See  the  --max-size  option  for  a description of how SIZE can be specified.  The
              default suffix if none is given is bytes.

              Beginning in 3.2.3, a value of 0 specifies no limit.

              You can set a default value using the environment  variable  RSYNC_MAX_ALLOC  using
              the  same  SIZE  values  as  supported by this option.  If the remote rsync doesn't
              understand the --max-alloc option, you  can  override  an  environmental  value  by
              specifying  --max-alloc=1g,  which  will make rsync avoid sending the option to the
              remote side (because "1G" is the default).

       --block-size=SIZE, -B
              This forces the block size used in rsync's  delta-transfer  algorithm  to  a  fixed
              value.   It is normally selected based on the size of each file being updated.  See
              the technical report for details.

              Beginning in 3.2.3 the SIZE can be specified with  a  suffix  as  detailed  in  the
              --max-size option.  Older versions only accepted a byte count.

       --rsh=COMMAND, -e
              This  option  allows  you  to choose an alternative remote shell program to use for
              communication between the local and remote copies of rsync.   Typically,  rsync  is
              configured to use ssh by default, but you may prefer to use rsh on a local network.

              If this option is used with [user@]host::module/path, then the remote shell COMMAND
              will be used to run an rsync daemon on the  remote  host,  and  all  data  will  be
              transmitted  through  that  remote  shell  connection, rather than through a direct
              socket connection to a running rsync daemon on the remote host.   See  the  section

              Beginning  with rsync 3.2.0, the RSYNC_PORT environment variable will be set when a
              daemon connection is being made via a remote-shell connection.  It is set to  0  if
              the  default  daemon  port is being assumed, or it is set to the value of the rsync
              port that was specified via either the --port option or a non-empty port  value  in
              an  rsync:// URL.  This allows the script to discern if a non-default port is being
              requested, allowing for things such as an SSL or stunnel helper script  to  connect
              to a default or alternate port.

              Command-line  arguments are permitted in COMMAND provided that COMMAND is presented
              to rsync as a single argument.  You must use spaces (not tabs or other  whitespace)
              to  separate  the  command and args from each other, and you can use single- and/or
              double-quotes to preserve spaces in an argument (but not backslashes).   Note  that
              doubling  a  single-quote  inside  a single-quoted string gives you a single-quote;
              likewise for double-quotes (though you need to pay attention to which  quotes  your
              shell is parsing and which quotes rsync is parsing).  Some examples:

                  -e 'ssh -p 2234'
                  -e 'ssh -o "ProxyCommand nohup ssh firewall nc -w1 %h %p"'

              (Note  that  ssh  users  can alternately customize site-specific connect options in
              their .ssh/config file.)

              You can also choose the  remote  shell  program  using  the  RSYNC_RSH  environment
              variable, which accepts the same range of values as -e.

              See also the --blocking-io option which is affected by this option.

              Use  this  to  specify  what program is to be run on the remote machine to start-up
              rsync.  Often used when rsync is not  in  the  default  remote-shell's  path  (e.g.
              --rsync-path=/usr/local/bin/rsync).   Note  that  PROGRAM is run with the help of a
              shell, so it can be any program, script, or command sequence you'd care to run,  so
              long  as  it does not corrupt the standard-in & standard-out that rsync is using to

              One tricky example is to set a different default directory on  the  remote  machine
              for use with the --relative option.  For instance:

                  rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /a/b && rsync" host:c/d /e/

       --remote-option=OPTION, -M
              This  option is used for more advanced situations where you want certain effects to
              be limited to one side of the transfer only.  For instance, if  you  want  to  pass
              --log-file=FILE and --fake-super to the remote system, specify it like this:

                  rsync -av -M --log-file=foo -M--fake-super src/ dest/

              If  you  want  to  have  an option affect only the local side of a transfer when it
              normally affects both sides, send its negation to the remote side.  Like this:

                  rsync -av -x -M--no-x src/ dest/

              Be cautious using this, as it is possible to toggle an option that will cause rsync
              to  have  a different idea about what data to expect next over the socket, and that
              will make it fail in a cryptic fashion.

              Note that it is best to use a separate --remote-option for each option you want  to
              pass.   This  makes  your usage compatible with the --protect-args option.  If that
              option is off, any spaces in your remote options will be split by the remote  shell
              unless you take steps to protect them.

              When  performing  a local transfer, the "local" side is the sender and the "remote"
              side is the receiver.

              Note some versions of the popt option-parsing library  have  a  bug  in  them  that
              prevents  you from using an adjacent arg with an equal in it next to a short option
              letter (e.g. -M--log-file=/tmp/foo).  If this bug affects your version of popt, you
              can use the version of popt that is included with rsync.

       --cvs-exclude, -C
              This  is  a  useful  shorthand  for excluding a broad range of files that you often
              don't want to transfer between systems.  It uses a  similar  algorithm  to  CVS  to
              determine if a file should be ignored.

              The exclude list is initialized to exclude the following items (these initial items
              are marked as perishable -- see the FILTER RULES section):

                  RCS SCCS CVS CVS.adm RCSLOG cvslog.*  tags TAGS .make.state .nse_depinfo *~  #*
                  .#*  ,*  _$*  *$ *.old *.bak *.BAK *.orig *.rej .del-* *.a *.olb *.o *.obj *.so
                  *.exe *.Z *.elc *.ln core .svn/ .git/ .hg/ .bzr/

              then, files listed in a $HOME/.cvsignore are added to the list and any files listed
              in  the  CVSIGNORE  environment  variable  (all  cvsignore  names  are delimited by

              Finally, any file is ignored if it is in the same directory as  a  .cvsignore  file
              and  matches  one  of  the  patterns listed therein.  Unlike rsync's filter/exclude
              files, these patterns are split on whitespace.  See  the  cvs(1)  manual  for  more

              If you're combining -C with your own --filter rules, you should note that these CVS
              excludes are appended at the end of your own rules, regardless of where the -C  was
              placed  on  the  command-line.  This makes them a lower priority than any rules you
              specified explicitly.  If you want to control where these CVS excludes get inserted
              into  your  filter rules, you should omit the -C as a command-line option and use a
              combination of --filter=:C and --filter=-C  (either  on  your  command-line  or  by
              putting  the  ":C"  and  "-C" rules into a filter file with your other rules).  The
              first option turns on the per-directory scanning  for  the  .cvsignore  file.   The
              second option does a one-time import of the CVS excludes mentioned above.

       --filter=RULE, -f
              This  option  allows you to add rules to selectively exclude certain files from the
              list of files to be transferred.   This  is  most  useful  in  combination  with  a
              recursive transfer.

              You  may  use  as many --filter options on the command line as you like to build up
              the list of files to exclude.  If the filter contains whitespace, be sure to  quote
              it  so that the shell gives the rule to rsync as a single argument.  The text below
              also mentions that you can use an underscore to replace the space that separates  a
              rule from its arg.

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option.

       -F     The  -F  option  is a shorthand for adding two --filter rules to your command.  The
              first time it is used is a shorthand for this rule:

                  --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'

              This tells rsync to look for  per-directory  .rsync-filter  files  that  have  been
              sprinkled  through  the  hierarchy  and  use their rules to filter the files in the
              transfer.  If -F is repeated, it is a shorthand for this rule:

                  --filter='exclude .rsync-filter'

              This filters out the .rsync-filter files themselves from the transfer.

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on how these options work.

              This option is a simplified form of the --filter option that defaults to an exclude
              rule and does not allow the full rule-parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option.

              This  option  is  related  to  the  --exclude  option, but it specifies a FILE that
              contains exclude patterns (one per line).  Blank lines in the file are ignored,  as
              are  whole-line  comments  that  start with ';' or '#' (filename rules that contain
              those characters are unaffected).

              If FILE is '-', the list will be read from standard input.

              This option is a simplified form of the --filter option that defaults to an include
              rule and does not allow the full rule-parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option.

              This  option  is  related  to  the  --include  option, but it specifies a FILE that
              contains include patterns (one per line).  Blank lines in the file are ignored,  as
              are  whole-line  comments  that  start with ';' or '#' (filename rules that contain
              those characters are unaffected).

              If FILE is '-', the list will be read from standard input.

              Using this option allows you to specify the exact list of  files  to  transfer  (as
              read  from  the  specified  FILE  or  '-'  for standard input).  It also tweaks the
              default behavior of rsync  to  make  transferring  just  the  specified  files  and
              directories easier:

              o      The  --relative (-R) option is implied, which preserves the path information
                     that is specified for each item in the file (use --no-relative or --no-R  if
                     you want to turn that off).

              o      The  --dirs  (-d) option is implied, which will create directories specified
                     in the list on the destination rather than noisily skipping them (use  --no-
                     dirs or --no-d if you want to turn that off).

              o      The  --archive  (-a)  option's  behavior does not imply --recursive (-r), so
                     specify it explicitly, if you want it.

              o      These side-effects change the default state of rsync, so the position of the
                     --files-from  option on the command-line has no bearing on how other options
                     are parsed (e.g. -a works the same before or  after  --files-from,  as  does
                     --no-R and all other options).

              The filenames that are read from the FILE are all relative to the source dir -- any
              leading slashes are removed and no ".." references are allowed to  go  higher  than
              the source dir.  For example, take this command:

                  rsync -a --files-from=/tmp/foo /usr remote:/backup

              If /tmp/foo contains the string "bin" (or even "/bin"), the /usr/bin directory will
              be created as /backup/bin on the remote host.  If  it  contains  "bin/"  (note  the
              trailing  slash),  the  immediate  contents  of  the  directory  would also be sent
              (without needing to be explicitly mentioned in the file -- this  began  in  version
              2.6.4).   In  both cases, if the -r option was enabled, that dir's entire hierarchy
              would also be transferred (keep in mind that -r needs to  be  specified  explicitly
              with  --files-from,  since  it is not implied by -a).  Also note that the effect of
              the (enabled by default) --relative option is to duplicate only the path info  that
              is  read from the file -- it does not force the duplication of the source-spec path
              (/usr in this case).

              In addition, the --files-from file can be read from the remote host instead of  the
              local  host  if you specify a "host:" in front of the file (the host must match one
              end of the transfer).  As a short-cut, you can specify just a prefix of ":" to mean
              "use the remote end of the transfer".  For example:

                  rsync -a --files-from=:/path/file-list src:/ /tmp/copy

              This  would  copy  all  the  files  specified  in the /path/file-list file that was
              located on the remote "src" host.

              If the --iconv and  --protect-args  options  are  specified  and  the  --files-from
              filenames are being sent from one host to another, the filenames will be translated
              from the sending host's charset to the receiving host's charset.

              NOTE: sorting the list of files in the --files-from input helps rsync  to  be  more
              efficient,  as  it will avoid re-visiting the path elements that are shared between
              adjacent entries.  If  the  input  is  not  sorted,  some  path  elements  (implied
              directories)  may  end  up  being scanned multiple times, and rsync will eventually
              unduplicate them after they get turned into file-list elements.

       --from0, -0
              This tells rsync that the rules/filenames it reads from a file are terminated by  a
              null  ('\0')  character,  not  a  NL,  CR,  or CR+LF.  This affects --exclude-from,
              --include-from, --files-from, and any merged files specified in  a  --filter  rule.
              It  does  not affect --cvs-exclude (since all names read from a .cvsignore file are
              split on whitespace).

       --protect-args, -s
              This option sends all filenames and  most  options  to  the  remote  rsync  without
              allowing  the remote shell to interpret them.  This means that spaces are not split
              in names, and any non-wildcard special characters are not translated (such as ~, $,
              ;,  &,  etc.).   Wildcards are expanded on the remote host by rsync (instead of the
              shell doing it).

              If you use this option with --iconv, the args related to the remote side will  also
              be  translated from the local to the remote character-set.  The translation happens
              before wild-cards are expanded.  See also the --files-from option.

              You may also control this option via the RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS  environment  variable.
              If  this  variable  has  a  non-zero value, this option will be enabled by default,
              otherwise it will be disabled by default.  Either state is overridden by a manually
              specified  positive  or negative version of this option (note that --no-s and --no-
              protect-args are the negative versions).  Since this option was first introduced in
              3.0.0,  you'll  need to make sure it's disabled if you ever need to interact with a
              remote rsync that is older than that.

              Rsync can also be configured (at build time) to have this option enabled by default
              (with   is   overridden  by  both  the  environment  and  the  command-line).   Run
              rsync --version to check if this is the case, as it will display "default  protect-
              args" or "optional protect-args" depending on how it was compiled.

              This  option  will  eventually  become  a  new  default  setting  at  some  as-yet-
              undetermined point in the future.

              This option instructs rsync to use the USER and (if specified after  a  colon)  the
              GROUP  for  the copy operations.  This only works if the user that is running rsync
              has the ability to change users.  If the group is not  specified  then  the  user's
              default groups are used.

              This  option  can help to reduce the risk of an rsync being run as root into or out
              of a directory that might have live changes happening to it and you  want  to  make
              sure that root-level read or write actions of system files are not possible.  While
              you could alternatively run all of rsync as the specified user, sometimes you  need
              the  root-level  host-access  credentials  to be used, so this allows rsync to drop
              root for the copying part  of  the  operation  after  the  remote-shell  or  daemon
              connection is established.

              The  option  only affects one side of the transfer unless the transfer is local, in
              which case it affects both sides.  Use the --remote-option  to  affect  the  remote
              side,  such  as -M--copy-as=joe.  For a local transfer, the lsh (or support
              file provides a local-shell helper script that can be used to allow a  "localhost:"
              or  "lh:"  host-spec  to  be  specified without needing to setup any remote shells,
              allowing you to specify remote options that affect the side of the transfer that is
              using  the  host-spec  (and using hostname "lh" avoids the overriding of the remote
              directory to the user's home dir).

              For example, the following rsync writes the local files as user "joe":

                  sudo rsync -aiv --copy-as=joe host1:backups/joe/ /home/joe/

              This makes all files owned by user "joe", limits  the  groups  to  those  that  are
              available  to  that  user,  and  makes it impossible for the joe user to do a timed
              exploit of the path to induce a  change  to  a  file  that  the  joe  user  has  no
              permissions to change.

              The  following  command  does  a  local  copy  into  the  "dest/" dir as user "joe"
              (assuming you've installed support/lsh into a dir on your $PATH):

                  sudo rsync -aive lsh -M--copy-as=joe src/ lh:dest/

       --temp-dir=DIR, -T
              This option instructs rsync to  use  DIR  as  a  scratch  directory  when  creating
              temporary  copies  of  the  files  transferred  on the receiving side.  The default
              behavior is to create each temporary file in the same directory as  the  associated
              destination  file.   Beginning  with  rsync  3.1.1,  the temp-file names inside the
              specified DIR will not be prefixed with an extra dot (though they will still have a
              random suffix added).

              This  option  is  most  often  used when the receiving disk partition does not have
              enough free space to hold a copy of the largest file in the transfer.  In this case
              (i.e.  when the scratch directory is on a different disk partition), rsync will not
              be able to rename each received temporary file  over  the  top  of  the  associated
              destination  file, but instead must copy it into place.  Rsync does this by copying
              the file over the top of the destination file, which  means  that  the  destination
              file  will contain truncated data during this copy.  If this were not done this way
              (even if the destination file were first removed, the  data  locally  copied  to  a
              temporary  file in the destination directory, and then renamed into place) it would
              be possible for the old file to continue taking up disk space (if  someone  had  it
              open),  and  thus there might not be enough room to fit the new version on the disk
              at the same time.

              If you are using this option for reasons other than a shortage of disk  space,  you
              may  wish to combine it with the --delay-updates option, which will ensure that all
              copied files get put into subdirectories in the destination hierarchy, awaiting the
              end  of  the transfer.  If you don't have enough room to duplicate all the arriving
              files on the destination partition, another way  to  tell  rsync  that  you  aren't
              overly  concerned  about  disk  space  is  to  use  the --partial-dir option with a
              relative path; because this tells rsync that it is OK to stash  off  a  copy  of  a
              single  file  in a subdir in the destination hierarchy, rsync will use the partial-
              dir as a staging area to bring over the copied file, and then rename it into  place
              from  there.  (Specifying  a --partial-dir with an absolute path does not have this

       --fuzzy, -y
              This option tells rsync that it should look for a basis file  for  any  destination
              file  that  is  missing.   The current algorithm looks in the same directory as the
              destination file for either a file that has an identical size and modified-time, or
              a  similarly-named file.  If found, rsync uses the fuzzy basis file to try to speed
              up the transfer.

              If the option is repeated, the fuzzy  scan  will  also  be  done  in  any  matching
              alternate  destination  directories  that are specified via --compare-dest, --copy-
              dest, or --link-dest.

              Note that the use of the --delete option might get rid of any potential fuzzy-match
              files, so either use --delete-after or specify some filename exclusions if you need
              to prevent this.

              This option instructs rsync to use DIR on the destination machine as an  additional
              hierarchy  to  compare  destination files against doing transfers (if the files are
              missing in the destination directory).  If a file is found in DIR that is identical
              to  the  sender's  file,  the  file  will  NOT  be  transferred  to the destination
              directory.  This is useful for creating a sparse backup of  just  files  that  have
              changed  from  an  earlier  backup.   This option is typically used to copy into an
              empty (or newly created) directory.

              Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --compare-dest directories  may  be  provided,
              which  will  cause  rsync  to  search  the list in the order specified for an exact
              match.  If a match is found that differs only in attributes, a local copy  is  made
              and  the attributes updated.  If a match is not found, a basis file from one of the
              DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the transfer.

              If DIR is a relative path, it is relative to the destination directory.   See  also
              --copy-dest and --link-dest.

              NOTE:  beginning  with  version  3.1.0,  rsync  will remove a file from a non-empty
              destination hierarchy if an exact  match  is  found  in  one  of  the  compare-dest
              hierarchies (making the end result more closely match a fresh copy).

              This  option  behaves like --compare-dest, but rsync will also copy unchanged files
              found in DIR to the destination directory using a local copy.  This is  useful  for
              doing  transfers to a new destination while leaving existing files intact, and then
              doing a flash-cutover when all files have been successfully transferred.

              Multiple --copy-dest directories may be provided, which will cause rsync to  search
              the  list in the order specified for an unchanged file.  If a match is not found, a
              basis file from one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the transfer.

              If DIR is a relative path, it is relative to the destination directory.   See  also
              --compare-dest and --link-dest.

              This  option behaves like --copy-dest, but unchanged files are hard linked from DIR
              to the destination directory.   The  files  must  be  identical  in  all  preserved
              attributes  (e.g.  permissions,  possibly  ownership)  in order for the files to be
              linked together.  An example:

                  rsync -av --link-dest=$PWD/prior_dir host:src_dir/ new_dir/

              If file's aren't linking,  double-check  their  attributes.   Also  check  if  some
              attributes  are getting forced outside of rsync's control, such a mount option that
              squishes root to a single user, or mounts a removable drive with generic  ownership
              (such as OS X's "Ignore ownership on this volume" option).

              Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --link-dest directories may be provided, which
              will cause rsync to search the list in the  order  specified  for  an  exact  match
              (there  is  a limit of 20 such directories).  If a match is found that differs only
              in attributes, a local copy is made and the attributes updated.  If a match is  not
              found,  a  basis  file from one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the

              This option works best  when  copying  into  an  empty  destination  hierarchy,  as
              existing  files  may  get  their  attributes tweaked, and that can affect alternate
              destination files via hard-links.   Also,  itemizing  of  changes  can  get  a  bit
              muddled.   Note  that  prior  to  version 3.1.0, an alternate-directory exact match
              would never be found (nor linked into the  destination)  when  a  destination  file
              already exists.

              Note  that  if you combine this option with --ignore-times, rsync will not link any
              files together because it only links identical files together as a  substitute  for
              transferring the file, never as an additional check after the file is updated.

              If  DIR  is a relative path, it is relative to the destination directory.  See also
              --compare-dest and --copy-dest.

              Note that rsync versions prior to 2.6.1 had a bug that  could  prevent  --link-dest
              from  working  properly  for  a non-super-user when -o was specified (or implied by
              -a).  You can work-around this bug by avoiding the -o option when sending to an old

       --compress, -z
              With  this  option, rsync compresses the file data as it is sent to the destination
              machine, which reduces the amount of data being transmitted --  something  that  is
              useful over a slow connection.

              Rsync  supports multiple compression methods and will choose one for you unless you
              force the choice using the --compress-choice (--zc) option.

              Run rsync --version to see the default compress list compiled into your version.

              When both sides of the transfer  are  at  least  3.2.0,  rsync  chooses  the  first
              algorithm  in  the  client's  list  of choices that is also in the server's list of
              choices.  If no common compress choice is found, rsync exits with an error.  If the
              remote  rsync is too old to support checksum negotiation, its list is assumed to be

              The  default  order  can  be  customized  by  setting  the   environment   variable
              RSYNC_COMPRESS_LIST  to a space-separated list of acceptable compression names.  If
              the string contains a "&" character, it is separated  into  the  "client  string  &
              server  string",  otherwise  the  same  string  applies to both.  If the string (or
              string portion) contains no non-whitespace characters, the default compress list is
              used.   Any  unknown compression names are discarded from the list, but a list with
              only invalid names results in a failed negotiation.

              There are some older rsync versions that were configured to reject a -z option  and
              require  the  use  of -zz because their compression library was not compatible with
              the default zlib compression method.  You can usually ignore this weirdness  unless
              the rsync server complains and tells you to specify -zz.

              See also the --skip-compress option for the default list of file suffixes that will
              be transferred with no (or minimal) compression.

       --compress-choice=STR, --zc=STR
              This option can be used to override the automatic negotiation  of  the  compression
              algorithm  that  occurs  when  --compress  is  used.  The option implies --compress
              unless "none" was specified, which instead implies --no-compress.

              The compression options that you may be able to use are:

              o      zstd

              o      lz4

              o      zlibx

              o      zlib

              o      none

              Run rsync --version to see the default compress list  compiled  into  your  version
              (which may differ from the list above).

              Note  that  if  you  see  an  error  about an option named --old-compress or --new-
              compress, this is rsync trying to send the  --compress-choice=zlib  or  --compress-
              choice=zlibx  option  in  a  backward-compatible  manner  that  more rsync versions
              understand.  This error indicates that the older rsync version on the  server  will
              not allow you to force the compression type.

              Note  that  the  "zlibx"  compression  algorithm  is just the "zlib" algorithm with
              matched data excluded  from  the  compression  stream  (to  try  to  make  it  more
              compatible with an external zlib implementation).

       --compress-level=NUM, --zl=NUM
              Explicitly set the compression level to use (see --compress, -z) instead of letting
              it default.  The --compress option is implied as long as the level chosen is not  a
              "don't  compress"  level for the compression algorithm that is in effect (e.g. zlib
              compression treats level 0 as "off").

              The level values vary depending on the checksum  in  effect.   Because  rsync  will
              negotiate  a  checksum  choice by default (when the remote rsync is new enough), it
              can be good to combine this option with a --compress-choice  (--zc)  option  unless
              you're sure of the choice in effect.  For example:

                  rsync -aiv --zc=zstd --zl=22 host:src/ dest/

              For  zlib  &  zlibx  compression  the valid values are from 1 to 9 with 6 being the
              default.  Specifying 0 turns compression off, and specifying -1 chooses the default
              of 6.

              For  zstd  compression  the  valid  values  are from -131072 to 22 with 3 being the
              default. Specifying 0 chooses the default of 3.

              For lz4 compression there are no levels, so the value is always 0.

              If you specify a too-large or too-small value, the number is silently limited to  a
              valid  value.   This  allows  you  to  specify something like --zl=999999999 and be
              assured that you'll end up with  the  maximum  compression  level  no  matter  what
              algorithm was chosen.

              If  you  want to know the compression level that is in effect, specify --debug=nstr
              to  see  the  "negotiated  string"  results.   This  will  report  something   like
              "Client compress: zstd (level 3)" (along with the checksum choice in effect).

              Override  the  list of file suffixes that will be compressed as little as possible.
              Rsync sets the compression level on a per-file basis based on  the  file's  suffix.
              If  the  compression  algorithm  has  an  "off"  level (such as zlib/zlibx) then no
              compression occurs for those files.  Other algorithms  that  support  changing  the
              streaming  level  on-the-fly will have the level minimized to reduces the CPU usage
              as much as possible for  a  matching  file.   At  this  time,  only  zlib  &  zlibx
              compression support this changing of levels on a per-file basis.

              The LIST should be one or more file suffixes (without the dot) separated by slashes
              (/).  You may specify an empty string to indicate that no files should be skipped.

              Simple character-class matching is supported:  each  must  consist  of  a  list  of
              letters  inside  the square brackets (e.g. no special classes, such as "[:alpha:]",
              are supported, and '-' has no special meaning).

              The characters asterisk (*) and question-mark (?) have no special meaning.

              Here's an example that specifies 6 suffixes to skip (since 1 of the 5 rules matches
              2 suffixes):


              The default file suffixes in the skip-compress list in this version of rsync are:

                  3g2 3gp 7z aac ace apk avi bz2 deb dmg ear f4v flac flv gpg gz iso jar jpeg jpg
                  lrz lz lz4 lzma lzo m1a m1v m2a m2ts m2v m4a m4b m4p m4r m4v mka  mkv  mov  mp1
                  mp2  mp3  mp4  mpa mpeg mpg mpv mts odb odf odg odi odm odp ods odt oga ogg ogm
                  ogv ogx opus otg oth otp ots ott oxt png qt rar rpm rz rzip  spx  squashfs  sxc
                  sxd sxg sxm sxw sz tbz tbz2 tgz tlz ts txz tzo vob war webm webp xz z zip zst

              This list will be replaced by your --skip-compress list in all but one situation: a
              copy from a daemon rsync will add  your  skipped  suffixes  to  its  list  of  non-
              compressing files (and its list may be configured to a different default).

              With  this  option rsync will transfer numeric group and user IDs rather than using
              user and group names and mapping them at both ends.

              By default rsync will use the username and groupname to determine what ownership to
              give  files.   The  special  uid  0  and  the  special group 0 are never mapped via
              user/group names even if the --numeric-ids option is not specified.

              If a user or group has no name on the source system or  it  has  no  match  on  the
              destination  system,  then  the  numeric ID from the source system is used instead.
              See also the comments on the "use chroot" setting in the  rsyncd.conf  manpage  for
              information  on how the chroot setting affects rsync's ability to look up the names
              of the users and groups and what you can do about it.

       --usermap=STRING, --groupmap=STRING
              These options allow you to specify users and groups that should be mapped to  other
              values  by  the  receiving side.  The STRING is one or more FROM:TO pairs of values
              separated by commas.  Any matching FROM value from the sender is replaced with a TO
              value from the receiver.  You may specify usernames or user IDs for the FROM and TO
              values, and the FROM value may also be a wild-card string, which  will  be  matched
              against  the sender's names (wild-cards do NOT match against ID numbers, though see
              below for why a '*' matches everything).  You may instead specify  a  range  of  ID
              numbers via an inclusive range: LOW-HIGH.  For example:

                  --usermap=0-99:nobody,wayne:admin,*:normal --groupmap=usr:1,1:usr

              The  first  match in the list is the one that is used.  You should specify all your
              user mappings using a single --usermap option, and/or all your group mappings using
              a single --groupmap option.

              Note  that  the  sender's  name for the 0 user and group are not transmitted to the
              receiver, so you should either match these values using a 0, or use  the  names  in
              effect  on the receiving side (typically "root").  All other FROM names match those
              in use on the sending side.  All TO names match those in use on the receiving side.

              Any IDs that do not have a name on the sending side are treated as having an  empty
              name  for  the  purpose  of  matching.  This allows them to be matched via a "*" or
              using an empty name.  For instance:

                  --usermap=:nobody --groupmap=*:nobody

              When the --numeric-ids option is used, the sender does not send any names,  so  all
              the  IDs  are  treated  as  having an empty name.  This means that you will need to
              specify numeric FROM values if you want to map  these  nameless  IDs  to  different

              For  the  --usermap option to have any effect, the -o (--owner) option must be used
              (or implied), and the receiver will need to be running as a  super-user  (see  also
              the  --fake-super  option).   For  the --groupmap option to have any effect, the -g
              (--group) option must be used (or implied), and the  receiver  will  need  to  have
              permissions to set that group.

              If your shell complains about the wildcards, use --protect-args (-s).

              This  option  forces  all  files  to  be owned by USER with group GROUP.  This is a
              simpler  interface  than  using  --usermap  and  --groupmap  directly,  but  it  is
              implemented  using those options internally, so you cannot mix them.  If either the
              USER or GROUP is empty, no mapping for the omitted user/group will occur.  If GROUP
              is  empty, the trailing colon may be omitted, but if USER is empty, a leading colon
              must be supplied.

              If  you  specify  "--chown=foo:bar",  this  is  exactly  the  same  as   specifying
              "--usermap=*:foo --groupmap=*:bar", only easier.  If your shell complains about the
              wildcards, use --protect-args (-s).

              This option allows you to set a maximum I/O timeout in  seconds.   If  no  data  is
              transferred  for  the specified time then rsync will exit.  The default is 0, which
              means no timeout.

              This option allows you to set the amount of time  that  rsync  will  wait  for  its
              connection  to  an rsync daemon to succeed.  If the timeout is reached, rsync exits
              with an error.

              By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address  when  connecting  to  an  rsync
              daemon.   The  --address  option  allows  you  to specify a specific IP address (or
              hostname) to bind to.  See also this option in the --daemon mode section.

              This specifies an alternate TCP port number to use rather than the default of  873.
              This  is  only needed if you are using the double-colon (::) syntax to connect with
              an rsync daemon (since the URL syntax has a way to specify the port as  a  part  of
              the URL).  See also this option in the --daemon mode section.

              This  option  can  provide endless fun for people who like to tune their systems to
              the utmost degree.  You can  set  all  sorts  of  socket  options  which  may  make
              transfers  faster (or slower!).  Read the man page for the setsockopt() system call
              for details on some of the options you may be able to set.  By default  no  special
              socket  options  are  set.  This only affects direct socket connections to a remote
              rsync daemon.

              This option also exists in the --daemon mode section.

              This tells rsync to use blocking I/O when launching a remote shell  transport.   If
              the  remote  shell  is  either  rsh or remsh, rsync defaults to using blocking I/O,
              otherwise it defaults to using  non-blocking  I/O.  (Note  that  ssh  prefers  non-
              blocking I/O.)

              This  sets the output buffering mode.  The mode can be None (aka Unbuffered), Line,
              or Block (aka Full).  You may specify as little as a single letter  for  the  mode,
              and use upper or lower case.

              The  main  use  of  this  option is to change Full buffering to Line buffering when
              rsync's output is going to a file or pipe.

       --itemize-changes, -i
              Requests a simple itemized list of the changes that are being made  to  each  file,
              including  attribute  changes.   This  is  exactly  the  same  as specifying --out-
              format='%i %n%L'.  If you repeat the option, unchanged files will also  be  output,
              but  only  if  the  receiving rsync is at least version 2.6.7 (you can use -vv with
              older versions of rsync, but that  also  turns  on  the  output  of  other  verbose

              The  "%i"  escape has a cryptic output that is 11 letters long.  The general format
              is like the string YXcstpoguax, where Y is replaced by the  type  of  update  being
              done,  X  is  replaced by the file-type, and the other letters represent attributes
              that may be output if they are being modified.

              The update types that replace the Y are as follows:

              o      A < means that a file is being transferred to the remote host (sent).

              o      A > means that a file is being transferred to the local host (received).

              o      A c means that a local change/creation is occurring for the  item  (such  as
                     the creation of a directory or the changing of a symlink, etc.).

              o      A  h  means  that  the item is a hard link to another item (requires --hard-

              o      A . means that  the  item  is  not  being  updated  (though  it  might  have
                     attributes that are being modified).

              o      A * means that the rest of the itemized-output area contains a message (e.g.

              The file-types that replace the X are: f for a file, a d for a directory, an L  for
              a  symlink,  a  D  for a device, and a S for a special file (e.g. named sockets and

              The other letters in the string indicate  if  some  attributes  of  the  file  have
              changed, as follows:

              o      "." - the attribute is unchanged.

              o      "+" - the file is newly created.

              o      " " - all the attributes are unchanged (all dots turn to spaces).

              o      "?" - the change is unknown (when the remote rsync is old).

              o      A letter indicates an attribute is being updated.

              The attribute that is associated with each letter is as follows:

              o      A  c  means  either  that  a regular file has a different checksum (requires
                     --checksum) or that a symlink, device, or special file has a changed  value.
                     Note  that  if you are sending files to an rsync prior to 3.0.1, this change
                     flag will be present only for checksum-differing regular files.

              o      A s means the size of a regular file is different and will be updated by the
                     file transfer.

              o      A  t  means  the  modification time is different and is being updated to the
                     sender's value (requires --times).  An alternate value of T means  that  the
                     modification  time  will  be  set to the transfer time, which happens when a
                     file/symlink/device is updated without --times and when a symlink is changed
                     and  the  receiver  can't  set  its  time.  (Note: when using an rsync 3.0.0
                     client, you might see the s flag combined with t instead  of  the  proper  T
                     flag for this time-setting failure.)

              o      A  p  means  the  permissions  are  different  and  are being updated to the
                     sender's value (requires --perms).

              o      An o means the owner is different and is being updated to the sender's value
                     (requires --owner and super-user privileges).

              o      A  g means the group is different and is being updated to the sender's value
                     (requires --group and the authority to set the group).

              o      A u|n|b indicates the following information: u  means the access (use)  time
                     is different and is being updated to the sender's value (requires --atimes);
                     n means the create time (newness) is different and is being updated  to  the
                     sender's value (requires --crtimes); b means that both the access and create
                     times are being updated.

              o      The a means that the ACL information is being changed.

              o      The x means that the extended attribute information is being changed.

              One other output is possible: when deleting files, the "%i" will output the  string
              "*deleting" for each item that is being removed (assuming that you are talking to a
              recent enough rsync that it logs deletions instead of outputting them as a  verbose

              This  allows  you to specify exactly what the rsync client outputs to the user on a
              per-update basis.  The format is a text string containing embedded single-character
              escape sequences prefixed with a percent (%) character.  A default format of "%n%L"
              is assumed if either --info=name or -v is specified (this tells you just  the  name
              of  the  file and, if the item is a link, where it points).  For a full list of the
              possible escape  characters,  see  the  "log format"  setting  in  the  rsyncd.conf

              Specifying  the  --out-format  option  implies  the  --info=name option, which will
              mention each file, dir, etc. that gets updated in a significant way (a  transferred
              file,  a  recreated  symlink/device,  or a touched directory).  In addition, if the
              itemize-changes escape (%i) is included in  the  string  (e.g.  if  the  --itemize-
              changes  option  was used), the logging of names increases to mention any item that
              is changed in any way (as long as the receiving side is at least 2.6.4).   See  the
              --itemize-changes option for a description of the output of "%i".

              Rsync  will  output  the out-format string prior to a file's transfer unless one of
              the transfer-statistic escapes is requested, in which case the logging is  done  at
              the end of the file's transfer.  When this late logging is in effect and --progress
              is also specified, rsync will also output the name of the  file  being  transferred
              prior to its progress information (followed, of course, by the out-format output).

              This option causes rsync to log what it is doing to a file.  This is similar to the
              logging that a daemon does, but can be requested for the  client  side  and/or  the
              server  side  of  a non-daemon transfer.  If specified as a client option, transfer
              logging will be enabled with a default format of "%i %n%L".   See  the  --log-file-
              format option if you wish to override this.

              Here's a example command that requests the remote side to log what is happening:

                  rsync -av --remote-option=--log-file=/tmp/rlog src/ dest/

              This is very useful if you need to debug why a connection is closing unexpectedly.

              This  allows  you  to  specify exactly what per-update logging is put into the file
              specified by the --log-file option (which must also be specified for this option to
              have  any  effect).   If  you  specify  an  empty string, updated files will not be
              mentioned in the log file.  For a list of the possible escape characters,  see  the
              "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

              The  default  FORMAT  used if --log-file is specified and this option is not is '%i

              This tells rsync to print a  verbose  set  of  statistics  on  the  file  transfer,
              allowing  you  to  tell  how effective rsync's delta-transfer algorithm is for your
              data.  This option is equivalent to --info=stats2  if  combined  with  0  or  1  -v
              options, or --info=stats3 if combined with 2 or more -v options.

              The current statistics are as follows:

              o      Number of files  is  the  count of all "files" (in the generic sense), which
                     includes directories, symlinks, etc.  The total count will be followed by  a
                     list  of counts by filetype (if the total is non-zero).  For example: "(reg:
                     5, dir: 3, link: 2, dev: 1, special: 1)" lists the totals for regular files,
                     directories, symlinks, devices, and special files.  If any of value is 0, it
                     is completely omitted from the list.

              o      Number of created files is the count of how  many  "files"  (generic  sense)
                     were created (as opposed to updated).  The total count will be followed by a
                     list of counts by filetype (if the total is non-zero).

              o      Number of deleted files is the count of how  many  "files"  (generic  sense)
                     were  deleted.   The  total  count  will  be followed by a list of counts by
                     filetype (if the total is non-zero).  Note that this line is only output  if
                     deletions  are in effect, and only if protocol 31 is being used (the default
                     for rsync 3.1.x).

              o      Number of regular files transferred is the count of normal files  that  were
                     updated  via  rsync's delta-transfer algorithm, which does not include dirs,
                     symlinks, etc.  Note that rsync 3.1.0 added the  word  "regular"  into  this

              o      Total file size  is  the  total sum of all file sizes in the transfer.  This
                     does not count any size for directories or special files, but  does  include
                     the size of symlinks.

              o      Total transferred file size is the total sum of all files sizes for just the
                     transferred files.

              o      Literal data is how much unmatched file-update data we had to  send  to  the
                     receiver for it to recreate the updated files.

              o      Matched data  is  how much data the receiver got locally when recreating the
                     updated files.

              o      File list size is how big the file-list data was when the sender sent it  to
                     the receiver.  This is smaller than the in-memory size for the file list due
                     to some compressing of duplicated data when rsync sends the list.

              o      File list generation time is the number of seconds  that  the  sender  spent
                     creating  the  file  list.  This requires a modern rsync on the sending side
                     for this to be present.

              o      File list transfer time is the number  of  seconds  that  the  sender  spent
                     sending the file list to the receiver.

              o      Total bytes sent  is  the  count  of  all the bytes that rsync sent from the
                     client side to the server side.

              o      Total bytes received is the  count  of  all  non-message  bytes  that  rsync
                     received  by the client side from the server side. "Non-message" bytes means
                     that we don't count the bytes for a verbose message that the server sent  to
                     us, which makes the stats more consistent.

       --8-bit-output, -8
              This  tells  rsync to leave all high-bit characters unescaped in the output instead
              of trying to test them to see if they're valid in the current locale  and  escaping
              the  invalid  ones.   All  control  characters (but never tabs) are always escaped,
              regardless of this option's setting.

              The escape idiom that started in 2.6.7 is to output a literal backslash (\)  and  a
              hash  (#), followed by exactly 3 octal digits.  For example, a newline would output
              as "\#012".  A literal backslash that is in a filename is not escaped unless it  is
              followed by a hash and 3 digits (0-9).

       --human-readable, -h
              Output  numbers  in a more human-readable format.  There are 3 possible levels: (1)
              output numbers with a separator between each set of 3 digits (either a comma  or  a
              period,  depending  on if the decimal point is represented by a period or a comma);
              (2) output numbers in units of 1000 (with a character suffix  for  larger  units --
              see below); (3) output numbers in units of 1024.

              The  default is human-readable level 1.  Each -h option increases the level by one.
              You can take the level down to 0 (to output numbers as pure digits)  by  specifying
              the --no-human-readable (--no-h) option.

              The  unit  letters  that  are appended in levels 2 and 3 are: K (kilo), M (mega), G
              (giga), T (tera), or P (peta).  For example, a 1234567-byte file  would  output  as
              1.23M in level-2 (assuming that a period is your local decimal point).

              Backward compatibility note: versions of rsync prior to 3.1.0 do not support human-
              readable level 1, and they default to level 0.  Thus,  specifying  one  or  two  -h
              options  will  behave in a comparable manner in old and new versions as long as you
              didn't specify a --no-h option prior to one or more -h options.   See  the  --list-
              only option for one difference.

              By  default,  rsync  will  delete any partially transferred file if the transfer is
              interrupted.  In  some  circumstances  it  is  more  desirable  to  keep  partially
              transferred files.  Using the --partial option tells rsync to keep the partial file
              which should make a subsequent transfer of the rest of the file much faster.

              A better way to keep partial files than the --partial option is to  specify  a  DIR
              that  will  be  used  to  hold  the  partial data (instead of writing it out to the
              destination file).  On the next transfer, rsync will use a file found in  this  dir
              as  data to speed up the resumption of the transfer and then delete it after it has
              served its purpose.

              Note that if --whole-file is specified (or implied), any partial-dir file  that  is
              found  for  a  file  that  is  being updated will simply be removed (since rsync is
              sending files without using rsync's delta-transfer algorithm).

              Rsync will create the DIR if it is missing (just the  last  dir --  not  the  whole
              path).   This  makes it easy to use a relative path (such as "--partial-dir=.rsync-
              partial") to have rsync create the  partial-directory  in  the  destination  file's
              directory  when  needed, and then remove it again when the partial file is deleted.
              Note that the directory is only removed if it is a  relative  pathname,  as  it  is
              expected  that  an absolute path is to a directory that is reserved for partial-dir

              If the partial-dir value is not an absolute path, rsync will add an exclude rule at
              the  end  of  all  your  existing  excludes.   This will prevent the sending of any
              partial-dir files that may exist on the sending side, and  will  also  prevent  the
              untimely  deletion  of  partial-dir  items  on the receiving side.  An example: the
              above --partial-dir option would add the equivalent of "-f '-p .rsync-partial/'" at
              the end of any other filter rules.

              If  you  are  supplying  your  own  exclude  rules,  you  may  need to add your own
              exclude/hide/protect rule for the partial-dir because (1) the auto-added  rule  may
              be  ineffective  at  the  end  of your other rules, or (2) you may wish to override
              rsync's exclude choice.  For instance, if you want to make rsync clean-up any left-
              over  partial-dirs  that may be lying around, you should specify --delete-after and
              add a "risk" filter rule,  e.g.   -f 'R .rsync-partial/'.  (Avoid  using  --delete-
              before  or  --delete-during unless you don't need rsync to use any of the left-over
              partial-dir data during the current run.)

              IMPORTANT: the --partial-dir should not be writable by  other  users  or  it  is  a
              security risk.  E.g. AVOID "/tmp".

              You  can also set the partial-dir value the RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR environment variable.
              Setting this in the environment does not force --partial to be enabled, but  rather
              it  affects  where  partial  files  go  when --partial is specified.  For instance,
              instead of using --partial-dir=.rsync-tmp along  with  --progress,  you  could  set
              RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR=.rsync-tmp in your environment and then just use the -P option to
              turn on the use of the .rsync-tmp dir for partial transfers.  The only  times  that
              the  --partial  option  does  not  look  for  this  environment  value are (1) when
              --inplace was specified (since --inplace conflicts  with  --partial-dir),  and  (2)
              when --delay-updates was specified (see below).

              When a modern rsync resumes the transfer of a file in the partial-dir, that partial
              file is now updated in-place instead of creating yet another tmp-file copy  (so  it
              maxes  out at dest + tmp instead of dest + partial + tmp).  This requires both ends
              of the transfer to be at least version 3.2.0.

              For the purposes of the  daemon-config's  "refuse options"  setting,  --partial-dir
              does not imply --partial.  This is so that a refusal of the --partial option can be
              used to disallow the overwriting of destination  files  with  a  partial  transfer,
              while still allowing the safer idiom provided by --partial-dir.

              This option puts the temporary file from each updated file into a holding directory
              until the end of the transfer, at which time all the files are renamed  into  place
              in rapid succession.  This attempts to make the updating of the files a little more
              atomic.  By default the files are placed into a  directory  named  .~tmp~  in  each
              file's  destination  directory,  but  if you've specified the --partial-dir option,
              that directory will be used instead.  See the comments in the --partial-dir section
              for  a  discussion  of  how this .~tmp~ dir will be excluded from the transfer, and
              what you can do if you want rsync to cleanup old .~tmp~ dirs that  might  be  lying
              around.  Conflicts with --inplace and --append.

              This  option implies --no-inc-recursive since it needs the full file list in memory
              in order to be able to iterate over it at the end.

              This option uses more memory on the receiving side (one bit per  file  transferred)
              and  also  requires  enough  free  disk  space  on  the  receiving  side to hold an
              additional copy of all the updated files.  Note also that you  should  not  use  an
              absolute path to --partial-dir unless (1) there is no chance of any of the files in
              the transfer having the same name (since all the updated files will be put  into  a
              single  directory if the path is absolute) and (2) there are no mount points in the
              hierarchy (since the delayed updates will  fail  if  they  can't  be  renamed  into

              See  also  the  "atomic-rsync"  perl  script  in the "support" subdir for an update
              algorithm that is even more atomic (it uses --link-dest and a parallel hierarchy of

       --prune-empty-dirs, -m
              This  option  tells  the  receiving  rsync to get rid of empty directories from the
              file-list, including nested directories that have no non-directory children.   This
              is  useful  for  avoiding  the  creation of a bunch of useless directories when the
              sending   rsync   is   recursively   scanning   a   hierarchy   of   files    using
              include/exclude/filter rules.

              Note that the use of transfer rules, such as the --min-size option, does not affect
              what goes into the file list, and thus does not leave directories  empty,  even  if
              none of the files in a directory match the transfer rule.

              Because  the  file-list  is  actually  being  pruned, this option also affects what
              directories get deleted when a delete  is  active.   However,  keep  in  mind  that
              excluded files and directories can prevent existing items from being deleted due to
              an exclude both hiding source files and  protecting  destination  files.   See  the
              perishable filter-rule option for how to avoid this.

              You  can  prevent  the  pruning  of certain empty directories from the file-list by
              using a global "protect" filter.  For instance, this option would ensure  that  the
              directory "emptydir" was kept in the file-list:

                  --filter 'protect emptydir/'

              Here's  an  example  that  copies  all .pdf files in a hierarchy, only creating the
              necessary destination directories to hold the .pdf  files,  and  ensures  that  any
              superfluous  files  and  directories  in the destination are removed (note the hide
              filter of non-directories being used instead of an exclude):

                  rsync -avm --del --include='*.pdf' -f 'hide,! */' src/ dest

              If you didn't want to remove superfluous destination files, the  more  time-honored
              options of --include='*/' --exclude='*' would work fine in place of the hide-filter
              (if that is more natural to you).

              This option tells rsync to print information showing the progress of the  transfer.
              This  gives  a bored user something to watch.  With a modern rsync this is the same
              as specifying --info=flist2,name,progress, but any user-supplied settings for those
              info flags takes precedence (e.g.  "--info=flist0 --progress").

              While  rsync  is transferring a regular file, it updates a progress line that looks
              like this:

                  782448  63%  110.64kB/s    0:00:04

              In this example, the receiver has reconstructed 782448 bytes or 63% of the sender's
              file,  which  is  being reconstructed at a rate of 110.64 kilobytes per second, and
              the transfer will finish in 4 seconds if the current rate is maintained  until  the

              These  statistics  can be misleading if rsync's delta-transfer algorithm is in use.
              For example, if the sender's file consists of the basis file followed by additional
              data,  the  reported rate will probably drop dramatically when the receiver gets to
              the literal data, and the transfer will probably take much longer  to  finish  than
              the receiver estimated as it was finishing the matched part of the file.

              When  the  file  transfer finishes, rsync replaces the progress line with a summary
              line that looks like this:

                  1,238,099 100%  146.38kB/s    0:00:08  (xfr#5, to-chk=169/396)

              In this example, the file was 1,238,099 bytes long in total, the  average  rate  of
              transfer for the whole file was 146.38 kilobytes per second over the 8 seconds that
              it took to complete, it was the 5th transfer of a regular file during  the  current
              rsync  session,  and  there are 169 more files for the receiver to check (to see if
              they are up-to-date or not) remaining out of the 396 total files in the file-list.

              In an incremental recursion scan, rsync won't know the total number of files in the
              file-list  until  it  reaches the ends of the scan, but since it starts to transfer
              files during the scan,  it  will  display  a  line  with  the  text  "ir-chk"  (for
              incremental  recursion check) instead of "to-chk" until the point that it knows the
              full size of the list, at which point it will  switch  to  using  "to-chk".   Thus,
              seeing  "ir-chk"  lets  you  know that the total count of files in the file list is
              still going to increase (and each time it does, the count of files  left  to  check
              will increase by the number of the files added to the list).

       -P     The  -P  option  is  equivalent to --partial --progress.  Its purpose is to make it
              much easier to  specify  these  two  options  for  a  long  transfer  that  may  be

              There  is also a --info=progress2 option that outputs statistics based on the whole
              transfer, rather than  individual  files.   Use  this  flag  without  outputting  a
              filename  (e.g.  avoid  -v  or  specify  --info=name0)  if  you want to see how the
              transfer is doing without scrolling the screen with a lot of names. (You don't need
              to specify the --progress option in order to use --info=progress2.)

              Finally, you can get an instant progress report by sending rsync a signal of either
              SIGINFO or SIGVTALRM.  On BSD systems, a SIGINFO is generated by  typing  a  Ctrl+T
              (Linux  doesn't  currently support a SIGINFO signal).  When the client-side process
              receives one of those signals, it sets a flag to output a  single  progress  report
              which  is  output  when the current file transfer finishes (so it may take a little
              time if a big file is being handled when the signal arrives).  A filename is output
              (if needed) followed by the --info=progress2 format of progress info.  If you don't
              know which of the 3 rsync processes is the client process, it's OK to signal all of
              them (since the non-client processes ignore the signal).

              CAUTION: sending SIGVTALRM to an older rsync (pre-3.2.0) will kill it.

              This  option  allows  you to provide a password for accessing an rsync daemon via a
              file or via standard input if FILE is -.  The file should contain just the password
              on  the first line (all other lines are ignored).  Rsync will exit with an error if
              FILE is world readable or if a root-run rsync command finds a non-root-owned file.

              This option does not supply a password to a remote shell transport such as ssh;  to
              learn  how to do that, consult the remote shell's documentation.  When accessing an
              rsync daemon using a remote shell as the transport, this  option  only  comes  into
              effect  after  the  remote shell finishes its authentication (i.e. if you have also
              specified a password in the daemon's config file).

              This option allows rsync to send up to 5K of data to the "early exec" script on its
              stdin.   One  possible  use of this data is to give the script a secret that can be
              used to mount an encrypted filesystem (which you should unmount in the  the  "post-
              xfer exec" script).

              The daemon must be at least version 3.2.1.

              This  option will cause the source files to be listed instead of transferred.  This
              option is inferred if there is a single source arg and no destination specified, so
              its  main uses are: (1) to turn a copy command that includes a destination arg into
              a file-listing command, or (2) to be able to  specify  more  than  one  source  arg
              (note:  be  sure  to include the destination).  Caution: keep in mind that a source
              arg with a wild-card is expanded by the shell into multiple args, so  it  is  never
              safe to try to list such an arg without using this option. For example:

                  rsync -av --list-only foo* dest/

              Starting  with  rsync  3.1.0,  the  sizes output by --list-only are affected by the
              --human-readable option.  By default they will contain digit separators, but higher
              levels of readability will output the sizes with unit suffixes.  Note also that the
              column width for the size output has increased from 11 to  14  characters  for  all
              human-readable  levels.   Use  --no-h if you want just digits in the sizes, and the
              old column width of 11 characters.

              Compatibility note: when requesting a remote listing of files from an rsync that is
              version  2.6.3  or older, you may encounter an error if you ask for a non-recursive
              listing.  This is because a file listing implies the --dirs option w/o --recursive,
              and older rsyncs don't have that option.  To avoid this problem, either specify the
              --no-dirs option (if you don't need to expand a directory's content),  or  turn  on
              recursion and exclude the content of subdirectories: -r --exclude='/*/*'.

              This  option allows you to specify the maximum transfer rate for the data sent over
              the socket, specified in units per second.  The RATE value can be suffixed  with  a
              string  to  indicate  a  size  multiplier,  and  may  be  a  fractional value (e.g.
              "--bwlimit=1.5m").  If no suffix is specified, the value will be assumed to  be  in
              units  of  1024  bytes  (as if "K" or "KiB" had been appended).  See the --max-size
              option for a description of all the available suffixes.  A value of 0 specifies  no

              For  backward-compatibility  reasons, the rate limit will be rounded to the nearest
              KiB unit, so no rate smaller than 1024 bytes per second is possible.

              Rsync writes data over the socket in blocks, and this option both limits  the  size
              of the blocks that rsync writes, and tries to keep the average transfer rate at the
              requested limit.  Some burstiness may be seen where rsync writes  out  a  block  of
              data and then sleeps to bring the average rate into compliance.

              Due to the internal buffering of data, the --progress option may not be an accurate
              reflection on how fast the data is being sent.  This is because some files can show
              up as being rapidly sent when the data is quickly buffered, while other can show up
              as very slow when the flushing of the output buffer occurs.  This may be fixed in a
              future version.

              This  option  tells  rsync to stop copying when the specified number of minutes has

              Rsync also accepts an earlier version of this option: --time-limit=MINS.

              For maximal flexibility, rsync does not communicate this option to the remote rsync
              since  it  is  usually  enough  that one side of the connection quits as specified.
              This allows the option's use even when only one side of the connection supports it.
              You  can  tell  the  remote  side  about the time limit using --remote-option (-M),
              should the need arise.

              This option tells rsync to stop copying when the specified point in time  has  been
              reached.  The date & time can be fully specified in a numeric format of year-month-
              dayThour:minute (e.g. 2000-12-31T23:59) in the local timezone.  You may  choose  to
              separate the date numbers using slashes instead of dashes.

              The  value  can  also  be  abbreviated  in  a variety of ways, such as specifying a
              2-digit year and/or leaving off various values.  In all cases, the  value  will  be
              taken to be the next possible point in time where the supplied information matches.
              If the value specifies the current time or a past time, rsync exits with an error.

              For example, "1-30" specifies the next  January  30th  (at  midnight  local  time),
              "14:00"  specifies  the  next  2  P.M.,  "1" specifies the next 1st of the month at
              midnight, "31" specifies the next month where we can stop  on  its  31st  day,  and
              ":59" specifies the next 59th minute after the hour.

              For maximal flexibility, rsync does not communicate this option to the remote rsync
              since it is usually enough that one side of  the  connection  quits  as  specified.
              This allows the option's use even when only one side of the connection supports it.
              You can tell the remote side about  the  time  limit  using  --remote-option  (-M),
              should  the  need arise.  Do keep in mind that the remote host may have a different
              default timezone than your local host.

              Record a file that can later be  applied  to  another  identical  destination  with
              --read-batch.  See the "BATCH MODE" section for details, and also the --only-write-
              batch option.

              This  option  overrides  the  negotiated  checksum  &  compress  lists  and  always
              negotiates  a  choice based on old-school md5/md4/zlib choices.  If you want a more
              modern choice, use the --checksum-choice  (--cc)  and/or  --compress-choice  (--zc)

              Works like --write-batch, except that no updates are made on the destination system
              when creating the batch.  This lets you transport the changes  to  the  destination
              system via some other means and then apply the changes via --read-batch.

              Note  that you can feel free to write the batch directly to some portable media: if
              this media fills to capacity before the end of the transfer,  you  can  just  apply
              that  partial  transfer  to the destination and repeat the whole process to get the
              rest of the changes (as long as you don't  mind  a  partially  updated  destination
              system while the multi-update cycle is happening).

              Also  note  that  you  only  save bandwidth when pushing changes to a remote system
              because this allows the batched data to be diverted from the sender into the  batch
              file without having to flow over the wire to the receiver (when pulling, the sender
              is remote, and thus can't write the batch).

              Apply all of the changes stored in FILE, a file previously  generated  by  --write-
              batch.   If  FILE  is  -,  the batch data will be read from standard input. See the
              "BATCH MODE" section for details.

              Force an older protocol version to be used.  This is useful for  creating  a  batch
              file  that  is  compatible  with an older version of rsync.  For instance, if rsync
              2.6.4 is being used with the --write-batch option, but rsync 2.6.3 is what will  be
              used  to  run the --read-batch option, you should use "--protocol=28" when creating
              the batch file to force the older protocol version to be used  in  the  batch  file
              (assuming you can't upgrade the rsync on the reading system).

              Rsync  can  convert  filenames  between  character sets using this option.  Using a
              CONVERT_SPEC of "." tells rsync to look up the default character-set via the locale
              setting.   Alternately,  you  can  fully  specify what conversion to do by giving a
              local and a remote charset separated by a comma in the order  --iconv=LOCAL,REMOTE,
              e.g.  --iconv=utf8,iso88591.  This order ensures that the option will stay the same
              whether you're pushing or pulling files.  Finally, you  can  specify  either  --no-
              iconv  or a CONVERT_SPEC of "-" to turn off any conversion.  The default setting of
              this option is  site-specific,  and  can  also  be  affected  via  the  RSYNC_ICONV
              environment variable.

              For  a  list  of  what charset names your local iconv library supports, you can run
              "iconv --list".

              If you specify the --protect-args option (-s), rsync will translate  the  filenames
              you  specify  on the command-line that are being sent to the remote host.  See also
              the --files-from option.

              Note that rsync does not do any conversion of  names  in  filter  files  (including
              include/exclude  files).  It is up to you to ensure that you're specifying matching
              rules that can match on both sides of the transfer.  For instance, you can  specify
              extra include/exclude rules if there are filename differences on the two sides that
              need to be accounted for.

              When you pass an --iconv option to an rsync daemon that allows it, the daemon  uses
              the  charset  specified  in its "charset" configuration parameter regardless of the
              remote charset you actually pass.  Thus, you may feel  free  to  specify  just  the
              local charset for a daemon transfer (e.g.  --iconv=utf8).

       --ipv4, -4 or --ipv6, -6
              Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating sockets or running ssh.  This affects
              sockets that rsync has direct control  over,  such  as  the  outgoing  socket  when
              directly  contacting  an  rsync  daemon,  as well as the forwarding of the -4 or -6
              option to ssh when rsync can deduce that ssh is being used  as  the  remote  shell.
              For other remote shells you'll need to specify the "--rsh SHELL -4" option directly
              (or whatever ipv4/ipv6 hint options it uses).

              These options also exist in the --daemon mode section.

              If rsync was complied without support for IPv6, the  --ipv6  option  will  have  no
              effect.  The rsync --version output will contain "no IPv6" if is the case.

              Set the checksum seed to the integer NUM.  This 4 byte checksum seed is included in
              each block and MD4 file checksum calculation (the more modern  MD5  file  checksums
              don't  use  a  seed).   By default the checksum seed is generated by the server and
              defaults to the current time().  This option is used to  set  a  specific  checksum
              seed,  which is useful for applications that want repeatable block checksums, or in
              the case where the user wants a more random checksum seed.  Setting NUM to 0 causes
              rsync to use the default of time() for checksum seed.


       The options allowed when starting an rsync daemon are as follows:

              This  tells  rsync that it is to run as a daemon.  The daemon you start running may
              be accessed using an rsync client using the  host::module  or  rsync://host/module/

              If  standard  input  is  a  socket  then rsync will assume that it is being run via
              inetd, otherwise it will detach from the current terminal and become  a  background
              daemon.  The daemon will read the config file (rsyncd.conf) on each connect made by
              a client and respond to requests accordingly.  See the rsyncd.conf(5) man page  for
              more details.

              By  default  rsync  will bind to the wildcard address when run as a daemon with the
              --daemon option.  The --address option allows you to specify a specific IP  address
              (or  hostname) to bind to.  This makes virtual hosting possible in conjunction with
              the --config option.  See also the  "address"  global  option  in  the  rsyncd.conf

              This option allows you to specify the maximum transfer rate for the data the daemon
              sends over the socket.  The client can still specify a smaller --bwlimit value, but
              no larger value will be allowed.  See the client version of this option (above) for
              some extra details.

              This specifies an alternate config file than the default.  This  is  only  relevant
              when  --daemon  is specified.  The default is /etc/rsyncd.conf unless the daemon is
              running over a remote shell program and the remote user is not the  super-user;  in
              that case the default is rsyncd.conf in the current directory (typically $HOME).

       --dparam=OVERRIDE, -M
              This  option can be used to set a daemon-config parameter when starting up rsync in
              daemon mode.  It is equivalent to adding the parameter at the  end  of  the  global
              settings  prior  to  the  first  module's  definition.   The parameter names can be
              specified without spaces, if you so desire.  For instance:

                  rsync --daemon -M pidfile=/path/

              When running as a daemon, this option instructs rsync  to  not  detach  itself  and
              become  a background process.  This option is required when running as a service on
              Cygwin, and may also be useful when rsync  is  supervised  by  a  program  such  as
              daemontools  or  AIX's System Resource Controller.  --no-detach is also recommended
              when rsync is run under a debugger.  This option has no effect if rsync is run from
              inetd or sshd.

              This specifies an alternate TCP port number for the daemon to listen on rather than
              the default of 873.  See also the "port" global option in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

              This option tells the rsync daemon to use the given log-file name instead of  using
              the "log file" setting in the config file.

              This  option tells the rsync daemon to use the given FORMAT string instead of using
              the "log format" setting in the config file.  It  also  enables  "transfer logging"
              unless the string is empty, in which case transfer logging is turned off.

              This  overrides the socket options setting in the rsyncd.conf file and has the same

       --verbose, -v
              This option increases the amount of information the daemon logs during its  startup
              phase.   After the client connects, the daemon's verbosity level will be controlled
              by the options that the client used and the "max verbosity" setting in the module's
              config section.

       --ipv4, -4 or --ipv6, -6
              Tells  rsync  to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating the incoming sockets that the rsync
              daemon will use to listen for connections.  One of these options may be required in
              older  versions  of  Linux  to work around an IPv6 bug in the kernel (if you see an
              "address already in use" error when nothing else is using the port, try  specifying
              --ipv6 or --ipv4 when starting the daemon).

              These options also exist in the regular rsync options section.

              If  rsync  was  complied  without  support for IPv6, the --ipv6 option will have no
              effect.  The rsync --version output will contain "no IPv6" if is the case.

       --help, -h
              When specified after --daemon, print a  short  help  page  describing  the  options
              available for starting an rsync daemon.


       The  filter  rules  allow  for flexible selection of which files to transfer (include) and
       which files to skip (exclude).  The rules either directly specify include/exclude patterns
       or  they  specify a way to acquire more include/exclude patterns (e.g. to read them from a

       As the list of files/directories to transfer is  built,  rsync  checks  each  name  to  be
       transferred  against  the list of include/exclude patterns in turn, and the first matching
       pattern is acted on: if it is an exclude pattern, then that file is skipped; if it  is  an
       include  pattern  then that filename is not skipped; if no matching pattern is found, then
       the filename is not skipped.

       Rsync builds an ordered list of filter rules as specified  on  the  command-line.   Filter
       rules have the following syntax:


       You have your choice of using either short or long RULE names, as described below.  If you
       use a short-named rule, the ',' separating the RULE from the MODIFIERS is  optional.   The
       PATTERN  or  FILENAME that follows (when present) must come after either a single space or
       an underscore (_).  Here are the available rule prefixes:

       exclude, '-'
              specifies an exclude pattern.

       include, '+'
              specifies an include pattern.

       merge, '.'
              specifies a merge-file to read for more rules.

       dir-merge, ':'
              specifies a per-directory merge-file.

       hide, 'H'
              specifies a pattern for hiding files from the transfer.

       show, 'S'
              files that match the pattern are not hidden.

       protect, 'P'
              specifies a pattern for protecting files from deletion.

       risk, 'R'
              files that match the pattern are not protected.

       clear, '!'
              clears the current include/exclude list (takes no arg)

       When rules are being read from a file, empty lines are ignored, as are whole-line comments
       that start with a '#' (filename rules that contain a hash are unaffected).

       Note  that  the  --include & --exclude command-line options do not allow the full range of
       rule parsing as described above -- they only allow the specification of include /  exclude
       patterns plus a "!" token to clear the list (and the normal comment parsing when rules are
       read from a file).  If a pattern does not begin with "- " (dash,  space)  or  "+ "  (plus,
       space),  then the rule will be interpreted as if "+ " (for an include option) or "- " (for
       an exclude option) were prefixed to the string.  A --filter option,  on  the  other  hand,
       must always contain either a short or long rule name at the start of the rule.

       Note  also that the --filter, --include, and --exclude options take one rule/pattern each.
       To add multiple ones, you can repeat the options on the command-line, use  the  merge-file
       syntax of the --filter option, or the --include-from / --exclude-from options.


       You  can  include and exclude files by specifying patterns using the "+", "-", etc. filter
       rules (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above).  The include/exclude  rules  each
       specify  a  pattern  that  is  matched against the names of the files that are going to be
       transferred.  These patterns can take several forms:

       o      if the pattern starts with a / then it is anchored to  a  particular  spot  in  the
              hierarchy  of files, otherwise it is matched against the end of the pathname.  This
              is similar to a leading ^ in regular expressions.  Thus /foo would match a name  of
              "foo"  at  either  the  "root of the transfer" (for a global rule) or in the merge-
              file's directory (for a per-directory rule).  An unqualified foo would match a name
              of "foo" anywhere in the tree because the algorithm is applied recursively from the
              top down; it behaves as if each path component gets a turn at being the end of  the
              filename.   Even the unanchored "sub/foo" would match at any point in the hierarchy
              where a "foo" was found within  a  directory  named  "sub".   See  the  section  on
              ANCHORING  INCLUDE/EXCLUDE  PATTERNS  for  a  full  discussion  of how to specify a
              pattern that matches at the root of the transfer.

       o      if the pattern ends with a / then it will only match a  directory,  not  a  regular
              file, symlink, or device.

       o      rsync chooses between doing a simple string match and wildcard matching by checking
              if the pattern contains one of these three wildcard characters: '*', '?', and '[' .

       o      a '*' matches any path component, but it stops at slashes.

       o      use '**' to match anything, including slashes.

       o      a '?' matches any character except a slash (/).

       o      a '[' introduces a character class, such as [a-z] or [[:alpha:]].

       o      in a wildcard pattern, a backslash can be used to escape a wildcard character,  but
              it is matched literally when no wildcards are present.  This means that there is an
              extra level of backslash  removal  when  a  pattern  contains  wildcard  characters
              compared  to  a  pattern  that  has  none.  e.g. if you add a wildcard to "foo\bar"
              (which matches the backslash) you would need to use "foo\\bar*" to avoid  the  "\b"
              becoming just "b".

       o      if  the  pattern  contains  a  /  (not counting a trailing /) or a "**", then it is
              matched against the full pathname,  including  any  leading  directories.   If  the
              pattern  doesn't  contain  a / or a "**", then it is matched only against the final
              component of the filename. (Remember that the algorithm is applied  recursively  so
              "full  filename"  can actually be any portion of a path from the starting directory
              on down.)

       o      a trailing "dir_name/***" will match both the directory (as if "dir_name/" had been
              specified)   and  everything  in  the  directory  (as  if  "dir_name/**"  had  been
              specified).  This behavior was added in version 2.6.7.

       Note that, when using the --recursive (-r) option (which is implied by -a),  every  subdir
       component  of every path is visited left to right, with each directory having a chance for
       exclusion  before  its  content.   In  this  way  include/exclude  patterns  are   applied
       recursively  to  the  pathname  of  each  node  in the filesystem's tree (those inside the
       transfer).  The exclude patterns short-circuit the  directory  traversal  stage  as  rsync
       finds the files to send.

       For instance, to include "/foo/bar/baz", the directories "/foo" and "/foo/bar" must not be
       excluded.  Excluding one of those parent  directories  prevents  the  examination  of  its
       content,  cutting  off  rsync's  recursion  into those paths and rendering the include for
       "/foo/bar/baz" ineffectual (since rsync can't match something it never sees in the cut-off
       section of the directory hierarchy).

       The  concept path exclusion is particularly important when using a trailing '*' rule.  For
       instance, this won't work:

           + /some/path/this-file-will-not-be-found
           + /file-is-included
           - *

       This fails because the parent directory "some" is excluded by the '*' rule, so rsync never
       visits  any of the files in the "some" or "some/path" directories.  One solution is to ask
       for all directories in the hierarchy to be included by using a single rule: "+ */" (put it
       somewhere  before the "- *" rule), and perhaps use the --prune-empty-dirs option.  Another
       solution is to add specific include rules for all the parent dirs that need to be visited.
       For instance, this set of rules works fine:

           + /some/
           + /some/path/
           + /some/path/this-file-is-found
           + /file-also-included
           - *

       Here are some examples of exclude/include matching:

       o      "- *.o" would exclude all names matching *.o

       o      "- /foo"  would  exclude  a  file  (or  directory)  named  foo in the transfer-root

       o      "- foo/" would exclude any directory named foo

       o      "- /foo/*/bar" would exclude any file named bar which is  at  two  levels  below  a
              directory named foo in the transfer-root directory

       o      "- /foo/**/bar"  would  exclude  any  file  named  bar  two  or more levels below a
              directory named foo in the transfer-root directory

       o      The combination of "+ */", "+ *.c", and "- *" would include all directories  and  C
              source files but nothing else (see also the --prune-empty-dirs option)

       o      The  combination  of  "+ foo/", "+ foo/bar.c", and "- *" would include only the foo
              directory and foo/bar.c (the foo directory must be explicitly included or it  would
              be excluded by the "*")

       The following modifiers are accepted after a "+" or "-":

       o      A  / specifies that the include/exclude rule should be matched against the absolute
              pathname of the current item.  For  example,  "-/ /etc/passwd"  would  exclude  the
              passwd  file any time the transfer was sending files from the "/etc" directory, and
              "-/ subdir/foo" would always exclude "foo" when it is in a dir named "subdir", even
              if "foo" is at the root of the current transfer.

       o      A  !  specifies that the include/exclude should take effect if the pattern fails to
              match.  For instance, "-! */" would exclude all non-directories.

       o      A C is used to indicate that all the global CVS-exclude rules should be inserted as
              excludes in place of the "-C".  No arg should follow.

       o      An  s  is  used to indicate that the rule applies to the sending side.  When a rule
              affects the sending side, it prevents files from being transferred.  The default is
              for  a  rule  to affect both sides unless --delete-excluded was specified, in which
              case default rules become sender-side only.  See also the hide  (H)  and  show  (S)
              rules, which are an alternate way to specify sending-side includes/excludes.

       o      An  r is used to indicate that the rule applies to the receiving side.  When a rule
              affects the receiving side, it prevents  files  from  being  deleted.   See  the  s
              modifier  for more info.  See also the protect (P) and risk (R) rules, which are an
              alternate way to specify receiver-side includes/excludes.

       o      A p indicates that a rule is perishable, meaning that it is ignored in  directories
              that  are  being deleted.  For instance, the -C option's default rules that exclude
              things like "CVS" and "*.o" are marked  as  perishable,  and  will  not  prevent  a
              directory that was removed on the source from being deleted on the destination.

       o      An x indicates that a rule affects xattr names in xattr copy/delete operations (and
              is thus ignored when matching file/dir names).   If  no  xattr-matching  rules  are
              specified, a default xattr filtering rule is used (see the --xattrs option).


       You  can  merge  whole  files into your filter rules by specifying either a merge (.) or a
       dir-merge (:) filter rule (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above).

       There are two kinds of merged files -- single-instance ('.') and per-directory  (':').   A
       single-instance  merge  file  is  read  one  time, and its rules are incorporated into the
       filter list in the place of the "." rule.  For per-directory merge files, rsync will  scan
       every  directory  that it traverses for the named file, merging its contents when the file
       exists into the current list of inherited rules.  These per-directory rule files  must  be
       created  on  the sending side because it is the sending side that is being scanned for the
       available files to transfer.  These rule files may also need  to  be  transferred  to  the
       receiving  side if you want them to affect what files don't get deleted (see PER-DIRECTORY
       RULES AND DELETE below).

       Some examples:

           merge /etc/rsync/default.rules
           . /etc/rsync/default.rules
           dir-merge .per-dir-filter
           dir-merge,n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes
           :n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes

       The following modifiers are accepted after a merge or dir-merge rule:

       o      A - specifies that the file should consist of only exclude patterns, with no  other
              rule-parsing except for in-file comments.

       o      A  + specifies that the file should consist of only include patterns, with no other
              rule-parsing except for in-file comments.

       o      A C is a way to specify that the file should be read in  a  CVS-compatible  manner.
              This  turns on 'n', 'w', and '-', but also allows the list-clearing token (!) to be
              specified.  If no filename is provided, ".cvsignore" is assumed.

       o      A e will exclude the merge-file name from the transfer; e.g.  "dir-merge,e  .rules"
              is like "dir-merge .rules" and "- .rules".

       o      An n specifies that the rules are not inherited by subdirectories.

       o      A  w  specifies  that  the rules are word-split on whitespace instead of the normal
              line-splitting.  This also turns off comments.  Note: the space that separates  the
              prefix  from the rule is treated specially, so "- foo + bar" is parsed as two rules
              (assuming that prefix-parsing wasn't also disabled).

       o      You may also specify any of the modifiers for the "+" or "-" rules (above) in order
              to  have  the  rules that are read in from the file default to having that modifier
              set (except for the  !  modifier,  which  would  not  be  useful).   For  instance,
              "merge,-/ .excl" would treat the contents of .excl as absolute-path excludes, while
              "dir-merge,s .filt" and ":sC" would each make all their per-directory  rules  apply
              only  on  the sending side.  If the merge rule specifies sides to affect (via the s
              or r modifier or both), then the rules in the file must not specify  sides  (via  a
              modifier or a rule prefix such as hide).

       Per-directory  rules are inherited in all subdirectories of the directory where the merge-
       file was found unless the 'n' modifier was used.  Each subdirectory's rules  are  prefixed
       to  the  inherited  per-directory  rules  from its parents, which gives the newest rules a
       higher priority than the inherited rules.  The entire set of dir-merge rules  are  grouped
       together  in  the  spot  where the merge-file was specified, so it is possible to override
       dir-merge rules via a rule that got specified earlier in the list of global  rules.   When
       the  list-clearing  rule  ("!")  is  read  from  a  per-directory file, it only clears the
       inherited rules for the current merge file.

       Another way to prevent a single rule from a dir-merge file  from  being  inherited  is  to
       anchor it with a leading slash.  Anchored rules in a per-directory merge-file are relative
       to the merge-file's directory, so a pattern "/foo" would only match the file "foo" in  the
       directory where the dir-merge filter file was found.

       Here's an example filter file which you'd specify via --filter=". file":

           merge /home/user/.global-filter
           - *.gz
           dir-merge .rules
           + *.[ch]
           - *.o
           - foo*

       This  will  merge  the  contents of the /home/user/.global-filter file at the start of the
       list and also turns the ".rules" filename into a per-directory  filter  file.   All  rules
       read in prior to the start of the directory scan follow the global anchoring rules (i.e. a
       leading slash matches at the root of the transfer).

       If a per-directory merge-file is specified with a path that is a parent directory  of  the
       first  transfer directory, rsync will scan all the parent dirs from that starting point to
       the transfer directory for the indicated per-directory file.   For  instance,  here  is  a
       common filter (see -F):

           --filter=': /.rsync-filter'

       That  rule tells rsync to scan for the file .rsync-filter in all directories from the root
       down through the parent directory of the  transfer  prior  to  the  start  of  the  normal
       directory  scan  of  the  file in the directories that are sent as a part of the transfer.
       (Note: for an rsync daemon, the root is always the same as the module's "path".)

       Some examples of this pre-scanning for per-directory files:

           rsync -avF /src/path/ /dest/dir
           rsync -av --filter=': ../../.rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir
           rsync -av --filter=': .rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir

       The first two commands above will look for ".rsync-filter" in "/" and  "/src"  before  the
       normal  scan  begins looking for the file in "/src/path" and its subdirectories.  The last
       command avoids the parent-dir scan and only looks for the ".rsync-filter"  files  in  each
       directory that is a part of the transfer.

       If you want to include the contents of a ".cvsignore" in your patterns, you should use the
       rule ":C", which creates a dir-merge  of  the  .cvsignore  file,  but  parsed  in  a  CVS-
       compatible  manner.   You  can  use  this  to affect where the --cvs-exclude (-C) option's
       inclusion of the per-directory .cvsignore file gets placed into your rules by putting  the
       ":C"  wherever you like in your filter rules.  Without this, rsync would add the dir-merge
       rule for the .cvsignore file at the end of  all  your  other  rules  (giving  it  a  lower
       priority than your command-line rules).  For example:

           cat <<EOT | rsync -avC --filter='. -' a/ b
           + foo.o
           - *.old
           rsync -avC --include=foo.o -f :C --exclude='*.old' a/ b

       Both of the above rsync commands are identical.  Each one will merge all the per-directory
       .cvsignore rules in the middle of the list rather than at the end.  This allows their dir-
       specific  rules  to supersede the rules that follow the :C instead of being subservient to
       all your rules.  To affect  the  other  CVS  exclude  rules  (i.e.  the  default  list  of
       exclusions, the contents of $HOME/.cvsignore, and the value of $CVSIGNORE) you should omit
       the -C command-line option and instead insert a "-C" rule into  your  filter  rules;  e.g.


       You can clear the current include/exclude list by using the "!" filter rule (as introduced
       in the FILTER RULES section above).  The "current" list is either the global list of rules
       (if  the  rule  is encountered while parsing the filter options) or a set of per-directory
       rules (which are inherited in their own sub-list, so a subdirectory can use this to  clear
       out the parent's rules).


       As  mentioned  earlier,  global  include/exclude patterns are anchored at the "root of the
       transfer" (as opposed to per-directory patterns, which are anchored  at  the  merge-file's
       directory).   If  you think of the transfer as a subtree of names that are being sent from
       sender to receiver, the transfer-root is where the tree starts to  be  duplicated  in  the
       destination directory.  This root governs where patterns that start with a / match.

       Because  the  matching  is relative to the transfer-root, changing the trailing slash on a
       source path or changing your use of the --relative option affects the path you need to use
       in  your  matching (in addition to changing how much of the file tree is duplicated on the
       destination host).  The following examples demonstrate this.

       Let's say that we  want  to  match  two  source  files,  one  with  an  absolute  path  of
       "/home/me/foo/bar",  and  one with a path of "/home/you/bar/baz".  Here is how the various
       command choices differ for a 2-source transfer:

           Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me /home/you /dest
           +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar
           +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz
           Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
           Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

           Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me/ /home/you/ /dest
           +/- pattern: /foo/bar               (note missing "me")
           +/- pattern: /bar/baz               (note missing "you")
           Target file: /dest/foo/bar
           Target file: /dest/bar/baz

           Example cmd: rsync -a --relative /home/me/ /home/you /dest
           +/- pattern: /home/me/foo/bar       (note full path)
           +/- pattern: /home/you/bar/baz      (ditto)
           Target file: /dest/home/me/foo/bar
           Target file: /dest/home/you/bar/baz

           Example cmd: cd /home; rsync -a --relative me/foo you/ /dest
           +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar      (starts at specified path)
           +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz     (ditto)
           Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
           Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

       The easiest way to see what name you should filter is to just  look  at  the  output  when
       using  --verbose  and put a / in front of the name (use the --dry-run option if you're not
       yet ready to copy any files).


       Without a delete option, per-directory rules are only relevant on the sending side, so you
       can  feel  free  to exclude the merge files themselves without affecting the transfer.  To
       make this easy, the 'e' modifier  adds  this  exclude  for  you,  as  seen  in  these  two
       equivalent commands:

           rsync -av --filter=': .excl' --exclude=.excl host:src/dir /dest
           rsync -av --filter=':e .excl' host:src/dir /dest

       However,  if  you  want to do a delete on the receiving side AND you want some files to be
       excluded from being deleted, you'll need to be sure that the  receiving  side  knows  what
       files  to  exclude.   The  easiest  way is to include the per-directory merge files in the
       transfer and use --delete-after, because this ensures that the receiving side gets all the
       same exclude rules as the sending side before it tries to delete anything:

           rsync -avF --delete-after host:src/dir /dest

       However,  if the merge files are not a part of the transfer, you'll need to either specify
       some global exclude rules (i.e. specified on the command line), or you'll need to maintain
       your own per-directory merge files on the receiving side.  An example of the first is this
       (assume that the remote .rules files exclude themselves):

           rsync -av --filter=': .rules' --filter='. /my/extra.rules'
              --delete host:src/dir /dest

       In the above example the extra.rules file can affect both sides of the transfer,  but  (on
       the  sending  side)  the  rules  are subservient to the rules merged from the .rules files
       because they were specified after the per-directory merge rule.

       In one final example, the remote side  is  excluding  the  .rsync-filter  files  from  the
       transfer,  but  we want to use our own .rsync-filter files to control what gets deleted on
       the receiving side.  To do this we must specifically exclude the per-directory merge files
       (so  that  they don't get deleted) and then put rules into the local files to control what
       else should not get deleted.  Like one of these commands:

           rsync -av --filter=':e /.rsync-filter' --delete \
               host:src/dir /dest
           rsync -avFF --delete host:src/dir /dest


       Batch mode can be used to apply the  same  set  of  updates  to  many  identical  systems.
       Suppose one has a tree which is replicated on a number of hosts.  Now suppose some changes
       have been made to this source tree and those changes need to be propagated  to  the  other
       hosts.   In order to do this using batch mode, rsync is run with the write-batch option to
       apply the changes made to the source tree to one of the  destination  trees.   The  write-
       batch option causes the rsync client to store in a "batch file" all the information needed
       to repeat this operation against other, identical destination trees.

       Generating the batch file once saves having to perform the file status, checksum, and data
       block  generation  more  than  once  when  updating multiple destination trees.  Multicast
       transport protocols can be used to transfer the batch update files  in  parallel  to  many
       hosts at once, instead of sending the same data to every host individually.

       To  apply  the recorded changes to another destination tree, run rsync with the read-batch
       option, specifying the name of the same batch  file,  and  the  destination  tree.   Rsync
       updates the destination tree using the information stored in the batch file.

       For  your  convenience, a script file is also created when the write-batch option is used:
       it will be named the same as the  batch  file  with  ".sh"  appended.   This  script  file
       contains  a  command-line  suitable  for  updating a destination tree using the associated
       batch file.  It can be executed using a Bourne (or Bourne-like) shell, optionally  passing
       in  an  alternate  destination  tree  pathname  which is then used instead of the original
       destination path.  This is useful when the destination  tree  path  on  the  current  host
       differs from the one used to create the batch file.


           $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a host:/source/dir/ /adest/dir/
           $ scp foo* remote:
           $ ssh remote ./ /bdest/dir/

           $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a /source/dir/ /adest/dir/
           $ ssh remote rsync --read-batch=- -a /bdest/dir/ <foo

       In  these  examples,  rsync  is  used  to  update  /adest/dir/  from  /source/dir/ and the
       information to repeat this operation is stored in "foo" and "".  The  host  "remote"
       is  then  updated  with  the  batched  data  going  into  the  directory  /bdest/dir.  The
       differences between the two examples reveals some of the flexibility you have in  how  you
       deal with batches:

       o      The  first  example shows that the initial copy doesn't have to be local -- you can
              push or pull data to/from a remote host using either  the  remote-shell  syntax  or
              rsync daemon syntax, as desired.

       o      The  first  example  uses  the created "" file to get the right rsync options
              when running the read-batch command on the remote host.

       o      The second example reads the batch data via standard input so that the  batch  file
              doesn't  need  to  be  copied to the remote machine first.  This example avoids the
     script because it needed to use a  modified  --read-batch  option,  but  you
              could  edit  the  script file if you wished to make use of it (just be sure that no
              other option is trying to  use  standard  input,  such  as  the  "--exclude-from=-"


       The  read-batch option expects the destination tree that it is updating to be identical to
       the destination tree that was used to create the batch update fileset.  When a  difference
       between  the destination trees is encountered the update might be discarded with a warning
       (if the file appears to be up-to-date already) or the file-update  may  be  attempted  and
       then, if the file fails to verify, the update discarded with an error.  This means that it
       should be safe to re-run a read-batch operation if the command got  interrupted.   If  you
       wish  to force the batched-update to always be attempted regardless of the file's size and
       date, use the -I option (when reading the batch).  If an  error  occurs,  the  destination
       tree  will  probably  be in a partially updated state.  In that case, rsync can be used in
       its regular (non-batch) mode of operation to fix up the destination tree.

       The rsync version used on all destinations must be at least as new  as  the  one  used  to
       generate  the  batch  file.   Rsync  will die with an error if the protocol version in the
       batch file is too new for the batch-reading rsync to  handle.   See  also  the  --protocol
       option  for a way to have the creating rsync generate a batch file that an older rsync can
       understand.  (Note that batch files changed format in version 2.6.3,  so  mixing  versions
       older than that with newer versions will not work.)

       When reading a batch file, rsync will force the value of certain options to match the data
       in the batch file if you didn't set them to the same as the batch-writing command.   Other
       options  can (and should) be changed.  For instance --write-batch changes to --read-batch,
       --files-from is dropped, and the --filter / --include / --exclude options are  not  needed
       unless one of the --delete options is specified.

       The code that creates the file transforms any filter/include/exclude options into
       a single list that is appended as a "here" document to the shell script file.  An advanced
       user  can use this to modify the exclude list if a change in what gets deleted by --delete
       is desired.  A normal user can ignore this detail and just use the shell script as an easy
       way to run the appropriate --read-batch command for the batched data.

       The  original batch mode in rsync was based on "rsync+", but the latest version uses a new


       Three basic behaviors are possible when rsync encounters a symbolic  link  in  the  source

       By  default,  symbolic links are not transferred at all.  A message "skipping non-regular"
       file is emitted for any symlinks that exist.

       If --links is specified,  then  symlinks  are  recreated  with  the  same  target  on  the
       destination.  Note that --archive implies --links.

       If  --copy-links  is  specified,  then symlinks are "collapsed" by copying their referent,
       rather than the symlink.

       Rsync can also distinguish "safe" and "unsafe" symbolic  links.   An  example  where  this
       might  be  used  is  a web site mirror that wishes to ensure that the rsync module that is
       copied does not include symbolic links to /etc/passwd in the public section of  the  site.
       Using  --copy-unsafe-links  will cause any links to be copied as the file they point to on
       the destination.  Using --safe-links will cause unsafe links  to  be  omitted  altogether.
       (Note that you must specify --links for --safe-links to have any effect.)

       Symbolic  links are considered unsafe if they are absolute symlinks (start with /), empty,
       or if they contain enough ".."  components to ascend from the directory being copied.

       Here's a summary of how the symlink options are interpreted.  The  list  is  in  order  of
       precedence,  so if your combination of options isn't mentioned, use the first line that is
       a complete subset of your options:

              Turn all symlinks into normal files (leaving no symlinks for any other  options  to

       --links --copy-unsafe-links
              Turn all unsafe symlinks into files and duplicate all safe symlinks.

              Turn all unsafe symlinks into files, noisily skip all safe symlinks.

       --links --safe-links
              Duplicate safe symlinks and skip unsafe ones.

              Duplicate all symlinks.


       rsync  occasionally  produces error messages that may seem a little cryptic.  The one that
       seems to cause the most confusion is "protocol version mismatch -- is your shell clean?".

       This message is usually caused by your startup scripts or remote shell facility  producing
       unwanted garbage on the stream that rsync is using for its transport.  The way to diagnose
       this problem is to run your remote shell like this:

           ssh remotehost /bin/true > out.dat

       then look at out.dat.  If everything is working correctly then out.dat should  be  a  zero
       length  file.   If  you are getting the above error from rsync then you will probably find
       that out.dat contains some text or data.  Look at the contents and try to work out what is
       producing it.  The most common cause is incorrectly configured shell startup scripts (such
       as .cshrc or .profile) that contain output statements for non-interactive logins.

       If you are having trouble debugging filter patterns, then try specifying the  -vv  option.
       At  this  level  of  verbosity  rsync  will  show  why each individual file is included or


       0      Success

       1      Syntax or usage error

       2      Protocol incompatibility

       3      Errors selecting input/output files, dirs

       4      Requested action not supported: an attempt was made to manipulate 64-bit files on a
              platform  that cannot support them; or an option was specified that is supported by
              the client and not by the server.

       5      Error starting client-server protocol

       6      Daemon unable to append to log-file

       10     Error in socket I/O

       11     Error in file I/O

       12     Error in rsync protocol data stream

       13     Errors with program diagnostics

       14     Error in IPC code

       20     Received SIGUSR1 or SIGINT

       21     Some error returned by waitpid()

       22     Error allocating core memory buffers

       23     Partial transfer due to error

       24     Partial transfer due to vanished source files

       25     The --max-delete limit stopped deletions

       30     Timeout in data send/receive

       35     Timeout waiting for daemon connection


              The CVSIGNORE environment variable supplements any ignore  patterns  in  .cvsignore
              files.  See the --cvs-exclude option for more details.

              Specify a default --iconv setting using this environment variable. (First supported
              in 3.0.0.)

              Specify a non-zero numeric value if  you  want  the  --protect-args  option  to  be
              enabled  by  default,  or a zero value to make sure that it is disabled by default.
              (First supported in 3.1.0.)

              The RSYNC_RSH environment variable allows you to override the default shell used as
              the  transport  for  rsync.   Command  line options are permitted after the command
              name, just as in the -e option.

              The RSYNC_PROXY environment variable allows you to redirect your  rsync  client  to
              use a web proxy when connecting to a rsync daemon.  You should set RSYNC_PROXY to a
              hostname:port pair.

              Setting RSYNC_PASSWORD to the required password allows  you  to  run  authenticated
              rsync  connections  to  an  rsync daemon without user intervention.  Note that this
              does not supply a password to a remote shell transport such as ssh; to learn how to
              do that, consult the remote shell's documentation.

       USER or LOGNAME
              The  USER  or  LOGNAME  environment  variables  are  used  to determine the default
              username sent to an rsync daemon.  If neither is  set,  the  username  defaults  to

       HOME   The HOME environment variable is used to find the user's default .cvsignore file.


       /etc/rsyncd.conf or rsyncd.conf


       rsync-ssl(1), rsyncd.conf(5)


       times are transferred as *nix time_t values

       When transferring to FAT filesystems rsync may re-sync unmodified files.  See the comments
       on the --modify-window option.

       file permissions, devices, etc. are transferred as native numerical values

       see also the comments on the --delete option

       Please report bugs! See the web site at


       This man page is current for version 3.2.3 of rsync.


       The options --server and --sender are used internally by rsync, and should never be  typed
       by  a  user  under normal circumstances.  Some awareness of these options may be needed in
       certain scenarios, such as when setting up a login that can only  run  an  rsync  command.
       For  instance, the support directory of the rsync distribution has an example script named
       rrsync (for restricted rsync) that can be used with a restricted ssh login.


       rsync is distributed under the GNU General Public  License.   See  the  file  COPYING  for

       A  web  site  is  available at  The site includes an FAQ-O-Matic
       which may cover questions unanswered by this manual page.

       We would be delighted to hear from you if you  like  this  program.   Please  contact  the
       mailing-list at

       This  program  uses the excellent zlib compression library written by Jean-loup Gailly and
       Mark Adler.


       Special thanks go out to: John Van  Essen,  Matt  McCutchen,  Wesley  W.  Terpstra,  David
       Dykstra,  Jos  Backus,  Sebastian  Krahmer,  Martin  Pool,  and our gone-but-not-forgotten
       compadre, J.W. Schultz.

       Thanks also to Richard Brent, Brendan Mackay, Bill Waite, Stephen Rothwell and David Bell.
       I've probably missed some people, my apologies if I have.


       rsync  was  originally  written  by  Andrew Tridgell and Paul Mackerras.  Many people have
       later contributed to it. It is currently maintained by Wayne Davison.

       Mailing lists for support and development are available at