Provided by: rsync_3.2.3-8ubuntu3_amd64

#### NAME

       rsync - a fast, versatile, remote (and local) file-copying tool



#### SYNOPSIS

       Local:
rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [DEST]

Access via remote shell:
Pull:
rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST:SRC... [DEST]
Push:
rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST:DEST

Access via rsync daemon:
Pull:
rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST::SRC... [DEST]
rsync [OPTION...] rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC... [DEST]
Push:
rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST::DEST
rsync [OPTION...] SRC... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST)

Usages  with  just  one  SRC  arg  and  no  DEST arg will list the source files instead of
copying.



#### DESCRIPTION

       Rsync is a fast and extraordinarily versatile file copying tool.   It  can  copy  locally,
to/from another host over any remote shell, or to/from a remote rsync daemon.  It offers a
large number of options that control every aspect of its behavior and permit very flexible
specification  of  the  set  of  files  to be copied.  It is famous for its delta-transfer
algorithm, which reduces the amount of data sent over the  network  by  sending  only  the
differences  between the source files and the existing files in the destination.  Rsync is
widely used for backups and mirroring and as an improved copy command for everyday use.

Rsync finds files that need to be transferred using a "quick check" algorithm (by default)
that  looks  for files that have changed in size or in last-modified time.  Any changes in
the other preserved attributes (as requested by options) are made on the destination  file
directly when the quick check indicates that the file's data does not need to be updated.

Some of the additional features of rsync are:

o      support for copying links, devices, owners, groups, and permissions

o      exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar

o      a CVS exclude mode for ignoring the same files that CVS would ignore

o      can use any transparent remote shell, including ssh or rsh

o      does not require super-user privileges

o      pipelining of file transfers to minimize latency costs

o      support for anonymous or authenticated rsync daemons (ideal for mirroring)



#### GENERAL

       Rsync  copies  files  either  to or from a remote host, or locally on the current host (it
does not support copying files between two remote hosts).

There are two different ways for rsync to contact a remote system:  using  a  remote-shell
program  as  the transport (such as ssh or rsh) or contacting an rsync daemon directly via
TCP.  The remote-shell transport is used whenever the source or destination path  contains
a  single  colon  (:)  separator  after  a host specification.  Contacting an rsync daemon
directly happens when the  source  or  destination  path  contains  a  double  colon  (::)
separator  after  a host specification, OR when an rsync:// URL is specified (see also the
"USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION" section for  an  exception  to
this latter rule).

As  a  special  case, if a single source arg is specified without a destination, the files
are listed in an output format similar to "ls -l".

As expected, if neither the source or destination path specify a  remote  host,  the  copy

Rsync  refers  to  the  local side as the client and the remote side as the server.  Don't
confuse server with an rsync daemon.  A daemon is always a server, but  a  server  can  be
either a daemon or a remote-shell spawned process.



#### SETUP

       See the file README.md for installation instructions.

Once  installed,  you  can use rsync to any machine that you can access via a remote shell
(as well as some that you can access using the rsync daemon-mode  protocol).   For  remote
transfers, a modern rsync uses ssh for its communications, but it may have been configured
to use a different remote shell by default, such as rsh or remsh.

You can also specify any remote shell you like,  either  by  using  the  -e  command  line
option, or by setting the RSYNC_RSH environment variable.

Note that rsync must be installed on both the source and destination machines.



#### USAGE

       You  use  rsync in the same way you use rcp.  You must specify a source and a destination,
one of which may be remote.

Perhaps the best way to explain the syntax is with some examples:

rsync -t *.c foo:src/

This would transfer all files matching the pattern *.c from the current directory  to  the
directory  src on the machine foo.  If any of the files already exist on the remote system
then the rsync remote-update protocol is used to update  the  file  by  sending  only  the
differences  in  the data.  Note that the expansion of wildcards on the command-line (*.c)
into a list of files is handled by the shell before it runs rsync and not by rsync  itself
(exactly the same as all other Posix-style programs).

rsync -avz foo:src/bar /data/tmp

This  would  recursively  transfer all files from the directory src/bar on the machine foo
into the /data/tmp/bar directory on the local  machine.   The  files  are  transferred  in
archive  mode,  which  ensures  that  symbolic  links,  devices,  attributes, permissions,
ownerships, etc. are preserved in the transfer.  Additionally, compression will be used to
reduce the size of data portions of the transfer.

rsync -avz foo:src/bar/ /data/tmp

A  trailing  slash  on  the  source  changes this behavior to avoid creating an additional
directory level at the destination.  You can think of a trailing / on a source as  meaning
"copy  the  contents of this directory" as opposed to "copy the directory by name", but in
both cases the attributes of the containing directory are transferred  to  the  containing
directory  on  the destination.  In other words, each of the following commands copies the
files in the same way, including their setting of the attributes of /dest/foo:

rsync -av /src/foo /dest
rsync -av /src/foo/ /dest/foo

Note also that host and module references don't require  a  trailing  slash  to  copy  the
contents of the default directory.  For example, both of these copy the remote directory's
contents into "/dest":

rsync -av host: /dest
rsync -av host::module /dest

You can also use rsync in local-only mode, where both the  source  and  destination  don't
have a ':' in the name.  In this case it behaves like an improved copy command.

Finally,  you can list all the (listable) modules available from a particular rsync daemon
by leaving off the module name:

rsync somehost.mydomain.com::

See the following section for more details.



       The syntax for requesting multiple  files  from  a  remote  host  is  done  by  specifying
additional  remote-host args in the same style as the first, or with the hostname omitted.
For instance, all these work:

rsync -av host:file1 :file2 host:file{3,4} /dest/
rsync -av host::modname/file{1,2} host::modname/file3 /dest/
rsync -av host::modname/file1 ::modname/file{3,4}

Older versions of rsync required using quoted spaces in the SRC, like these examples:

rsync -av host:'dir1/file1 dir2/file2' /dest
rsync host::'modname/dir1/file1 modname/dir2/file2' /dest

This word-splitting still works (by default) in the latest rsync, but is not  as  easy  to
use as the first method.

If  you  need  to transfer a filename that contains whitespace, you can either specify the
--protect-args (-s) option, or you'll need to escape the whitespace  in  a  way  that  the
remote shell will understand.  For instance:

rsync -av host:'file\ name\ with\ spaces' /dest



#### CONNECTINGTOANRSYNCDAEMON

       It  is  also  possible to use rsync without a remote shell as the transport.  In this case
you will directly connect to a remote rsync daemon, typically using TCP  port  873.  (This
obviously requires the daemon to be running on the remote system, so refer to the STARTING
AN RSYNC DAEMON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS section below for information on that.)

Using rsync in this way is the same as using it with a remote shell except that:

o      you either use a double colon :: instead of a single colon to separate the hostname
from the path, or you use an rsync:// URL.

o      the first word of the "path" is actually a module name.

o      the remote daemon may print a message of the day when you connect.

o      if  you specify no path name on the remote daemon then the list of accessible paths
on the daemon will be shown.

o      if you specify no local destination then a listing of the specified  files  on  the
remote daemon is provided.

o      you  must  not  specify  the  --rsh  (-e)  option  (since that overrides the daemon
connection to use  ssh --  see  USING  RSYNC-DAEMON  FEATURES  VIA  A  REMOTE-SHELL
CONNECTION below).

An example that copies all the files in a remote module named "src":

rsync -av host::src /dest

Some  modules  on the remote daemon may require authentication.  If so, you will receive a
password prompt when you connect.  You can  avoid  the  password  prompt  by  setting  the
environment  variable  RSYNC_PASSWORD  to  the  password  you  want  to  use  or using the
--password-file option.  This may be useful when scripting rsync.

WARNING: On some systems environment variables are visible to all users.  On those systems

You  may  establish  the  connection  via  a web proxy by setting the environment variable
RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair pointing to  your  web  proxy.   Note  that  your  web
proxy's configuration must support proxy connections to port 873.

You  may  also  establish  a  daemon  connection using a program as a proxy by setting the
environment variable RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG to the commands you wish to run in place of making
a  direct  socket  connection.   The  string  may contain the escape "%H" to represent the
hostname specified in the rsync command (so use "%%" if you need  a  single  "%"  in  your
string).  For example:

export RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG='ssh proxyhost nc %H 873'
rsync -av targethost1::module/src/ /dest/
rsync -av rsync://targethost2/module/src/ /dest/

The command specified above uses ssh to run nc (netcat) on a proxyhost, which forwards all
data to port 873 (the rsync daemon) on the targethost (%H).

Note also that if the RSYNC_SHELL environment variable is set, that program will  be  used
to  run  the RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG command instead of using the default shell of the system()
call.



#### USINGRSYNC-DAEMONFEATURESVIAAREMOTE-SHELLCONNECTION

       It is sometimes useful to use various features of an rsync daemon (such as named  modules)
without  actually  allowing  any  new socket connections into a system (other than what is
already required to allow remote-shell access).  Rsync supports connecting to a host using
a  remote  shell  and  then spawning a single-use "daemon" server that expects to read its
config file in the home dir of the remote user.  This can be useful if you want to encrypt
a  daemon-style  transfer's  data,  but since the daemon is started up fresh by the remote
user, you may not be able to use features such as chroot or change the  uid  used  by  the
daemon.  (For  another  way  to  encrypt a daemon transfer, consider using ssh to tunnel a
local port to a remote machine and configure a normal rsync daemon on that remote host  to
only allow connections from "localhost".)

From  the  user's perspective, a daemon transfer via a remote-shell connection uses nearly
the same command-line syntax as a normal rsync-daemon transfer, with  the  only  exception
being  that  you must explicitly set the remote shell program on the command-line with the
--rsh=COMMAND option. (Setting the RSYNC_RSH in the environment  will  not  turn  on  this
functionality.) For example:

rsync -av --rsh=ssh host::module /dest

If  you  need to specify a different remote-shell user, keep in mind that the user@ prefix
in front of the host is specifying the rsync-user value (for a module that requires  user-
based  authentication).   This  means  that you must give the '-l user' option to ssh when
specifying the remote-shell, as in this example that uses the short version of  the  --rsh
option:

rsync -av -e "ssh -l ssh-user" rsync-user@host::module /dest

The  "ssh-user"  will be used at the ssh level; the "rsync-user" will be used to log-in to
the "module".



#### STARTINGANRSYNCDAEMONTOACCEPTCONNECTIONS

       In order to connect to an rsync daemon, the remote system needs to have a  daemon  already
running  (or it needs to have configured something like inetd to spawn an rsync daemon for
incoming connections on a particular port).  For full information on how to start a daemon
that will handling incoming socket connections, see the rsyncd.conf(5) man page -- that is
the config file for the daemon, and it contains the full details for how to run the daemon
(including stand-alone and inetd configurations).

If  you're  using one of the remote-shell transports for the transfer, there is no need to
manually start an rsync daemon.



#### SORTEDTRANSFERORDER

       Rsync always sorts the specified filenames into its internal transfer list.  This  handles
the  merging  together  of the contents of identically named directories, makes it easy to
remove duplicate filenames, and may confuse someone when the files are  transferred  in  a
different order than what was given on the command-line.

If  you  need  a  particular  file to be transferred prior to another, either separate the
files into different rsync calls, or consider using --delay-updates (which doesn't  affect
the  sorted  transfer  order, but does make the final file-updating phase happen much more
rapidly).



#### EXAMPLES

       Here are some examples of how I use rsync.

To backup my wife's home directory, which  consists  of  large  MS  Word  files  and  mail
folders, I use a cron job that runs

rsync -Cavz . arvidsjaur:backup

each night over a PPP connection to a duplicate directory on my machine "arvidsjaur".

To synchronize my samba source trees I use the following Makefile targets:

get:
rsync -avuzb --exclude '*~' samba:samba/ .
put:
rsync -Cavuzb . samba:samba/
sync: get put

This allows me to sync with a CVS directory at the other end of the connection.  I then do
CVS operations on the remote machine, which saves a lot of time as the remote CVS protocol
isn't very efficient.

I mirror a directory between my "old" and "new" ftp sites with the command:

rsync -az -e ssh --delete ~ftp/pub/samba nimbus:"~ftp/pub/tridge"

This is launched from cron every few hours.



#### OPTIONSUMMARY

       Here  is  a short summary of the options available in rsync.  Please refer to the detailed
description below for a complete description.

--verbose, -v            increase verbosity
--info=FLAGS             fine-grained informational verbosity
--debug=FLAGS            fine-grained debug verbosity
--stderr=e|a|c           change stderr output mode (default: errors)
--quiet, -q              suppress non-error messages
--no-motd                suppress daemon-mode MOTD
--checksum, -c           skip based on checksum, not mod-time & size
--archive, -a            archive mode is -rlptgoD (no -A,-X,-U,-N,-H)
--no-OPTION              turn off an implied OPTION (e.g. --no-D)
--recursive, -r          recurse into directories
--relative, -R           use relative path names
--no-implied-dirs        don't send implied dirs with --relative
--backup, -b             make backups (see --suffix & --backup-dir)
--backup-dir=DIR         make backups into hierarchy based in DIR
--suffix=SUFFIX          backup suffix (default ~ w/o --backup-dir)
--inplace                update destination files in-place
--append                 append data onto shorter files
--append-verify          --append w/old data in file checksum
--dirs, -d               transfer directories without recursing
--mkpath                 create the destination's path component
--perms, -p              preserve permissions
--executability, -E      preserve executability
--chmod=CHMOD            affect file and/or directory permissions
--acls, -A               preserve ACLs (implies --perms)
--xattrs, -X             preserve extended attributes
--owner, -o              preserve owner (super-user only)
--group, -g              preserve group
--devices                preserve device files (super-user only)
--copy-devices           copy device contents as regular file
--specials               preserve special files
-D                       same as --devices --specials
--times, -t              preserve modification times
--atimes, -U             preserve access (use) times
--open-noatime           avoid changing the atime on opened files
--crtimes, -N            preserve create times (newness)
--omit-dir-times, -O     omit directories from --times
--fake-super             store/recover privileged attrs using xattrs
--sparse, -S             turn sequences of nulls into sparse blocks
--preallocate            allocate dest files before writing them
--write-devices          write to devices as files (implies --inplace)
--dry-run, -n            perform a trial run with no changes made
--whole-file, -W         copy files whole (w/o delta-xfer algorithm)
--checksum-choice=STR    choose the checksum algorithm (aka --cc)
--one-file-system, -x    don't cross filesystem boundaries
--block-size=SIZE, -B    force a fixed checksum block-size
--rsh=COMMAND, -e        specify the remote shell to use
--rsync-path=PROGRAM     specify the rsync to run on remote machine
--existing               skip creating new files on receiver
--ignore-existing        skip updating files that exist on receiver
--remove-source-files    sender removes synchronized files (non-dir)
--del                    an alias for --delete-during
--delete                 delete extraneous files from dest dirs
--delete-before          receiver deletes before xfer, not during
--delete-during          receiver deletes during the transfer
--delete-delay           find deletions during, delete after
--delete-after           receiver deletes after transfer, not during
--delete-excluded        also delete excluded files from dest dirs
--ignore-missing-args    ignore missing source args without error
--delete-missing-args    delete missing source args from destination
--ignore-errors          delete even if there are I/O errors
--force                  force deletion of dirs even if not empty
--max-delete=NUM         don't delete more than NUM files
--max-size=SIZE          don't transfer any file larger than SIZE
--min-size=SIZE          don't transfer any file smaller than SIZE
--max-alloc=SIZE         change a limit relating to memory alloc
--partial                keep partially transferred files
--partial-dir=DIR        put a partially transferred file into DIR
--delay-updates          put all updated files into place at end
--prune-empty-dirs, -m   prune empty directory chains from file-list
--numeric-ids            don't map uid/gid values by user/group name
--groupmap=STRING        custom groupname mapping
--timeout=SECONDS        set I/O timeout in seconds
--contimeout=SECONDS     set daemon connection timeout in seconds
--ignore-times, -I       don't skip files that match size and time
--size-only              skip files that match in size
--modify-window=NUM, -@  set the accuracy for mod-time comparisons
--temp-dir=DIR, -T       create temporary files in directory DIR
--fuzzy, -y              find similar file for basis if no dest file
--compare-dest=DIR       also compare destination files relative to DIR
--copy-dest=DIR          ... and include copies of unchanged files
--compress, -z           compress file data during the transfer
--compress-choice=STR    choose the compression algorithm (aka --zc)
--compress-level=NUM     explicitly set compression level (aka --zl)
--skip-compress=LIST     skip compressing files with suffix in LIST
--cvs-exclude, -C        auto-ignore files in the same way CVS does
--filter=RULE, -f        add a file-filtering RULE
-F                       same as --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'
repeated: --filter='- .rsync-filter'
--exclude=PATTERN        exclude files matching PATTERN
--exclude-from=FILE      read exclude patterns from FILE
--include=PATTERN        don't exclude files matching PATTERN
--include-from=FILE      read include patterns from FILE
--files-from=FILE        read list of source-file names from FILE
--from0, -0              all *-from/filter files are delimited by 0s
--protect-args, -s       no space-splitting; wildcard chars only
--copy-as=USER[:GROUP]   specify user & optional group for the copy
--port=PORT              specify double-colon alternate port number
--sockopts=OPTIONS       specify custom TCP options
--blocking-io            use blocking I/O for the remote shell
--outbuf=N|L|B           set out buffering to None, Line, or Block
--stats                  give some file-transfer stats
--8-bit-output, -8       leave high-bit chars unescaped in output
--progress               show progress during transfer
-P                       same as --partial --progress
--itemize-changes, -i    output a change-summary for all updates
--remote-option=OPT, -M  send OPTION to the remote side only
--out-format=FORMAT      output updates using the specified FORMAT
--log-file=FILE          log what we're doing to the specified FILE
--log-file-format=FMT    log updates using the specified FMT
--early-input=FILE       use FILE for daemon's early exec input
--list-only              list the files instead of copying them
--bwlimit=RATE           limit socket I/O bandwidth
--stop-after=MINS        Stop rsync after MINS minutes have elapsed
--stop-at=y-m-dTh:m      Stop rsync at the specified point in time
--write-batch=FILE       write a batched update to FILE
--only-write-batch=FILE  like --write-batch but w/o updating dest
--protocol=NUM           force an older protocol version to be used
--iconv=CONVERT_SPEC     request charset conversion of filenames
--checksum-seed=NUM      set block/file checksum seed (advanced)
--ipv4, -4               prefer IPv4
--ipv6, -6               prefer IPv6
--version, -V            print the version + other info and exit
--help, -h (*)           show this help (* -h is help only on its own)

Rsync can also be run as a daemon, in which case the following options are accepted:

--daemon                 run as an rsync daemon
--bwlimit=RATE           limit socket I/O bandwidth
--config=FILE            specify alternate rsyncd.conf file
--dparam=OVERRIDE, -M    override global daemon config parameter
--no-detach              do not detach from the parent
--port=PORT              listen on alternate port number
--log-file=FILE          override the "log file" setting
--log-file-format=FMT    override the "log format" setting
--sockopts=OPTIONS       specify custom TCP options
--verbose, -v            increase verbosity
--ipv4, -4               prefer IPv4
--ipv6, -6               prefer IPv6
--help, -h               show this help (when used with --daemon)



#### OPTIONS

       Rsync accepts both long (double-dash + word) and short  (single-dash  +  letter)  options.
The full list of the available options are described below.  If an option can be specified
in more than one way, the choices are comma-separated.  Some  options  only  have  a  long
variant, not a short.  If the option takes a parameter, the parameter is only listed after
the long variant, even though it must also be specified for the short.  When specifying  a
parameter,  you can either use the form --option=param or replace the '=' with whitespace.
The parameter may need to be quoted in some manner for it to survive the shell's  command-
line  parsing.  Keep in mind that a leading tilde (~) in a filename is substituted by your
shell, so --option=~/foo will not change the tilde into your home  directory  (remove  the
'=' for that).

--help, -h (*)
Print  a  short  help page describing the options available in rsync and exit.  (*)
The -h short option will only invoke --help when used without other  options  since

--version, -V
Print the rsync version plus other info and exit.

The  output  includes  the default list of checksum algorithms, the default list of
compression algorithms, a list of compiled-in capabilities, a link to the rsync web

--verbose, -v
This  option increases the amount of information you are given during the transfer.
By default, rsync works silently.  A single -v will give you information about what
files  are  being  transferred and a brief summary at the end.  Two -v options will
give you information on what files are being skipped and slightly more  information
at  the  end.   More  than  two -v options should only be used if you are debugging
rsync.

In a modern rsync, the -v option is equivalent to the setting of groups  of  --info
and  --debug options.  You can choose to use these newer options in addition to, or
in place of using --verbose, as any  fine-grained  settings  override  the  implied
settings  of -v.  Both --info and --debug have a way to ask for help that tells you
exactly what flags are set for each increase in verbosity.

However, do keep in mind that a daemon's "max verbosity"  setting  will  limit  how
high  of  a  level the various individual flags can be set on the daemon side.  For
instance, if the max is 2, then any info and/or debug flag that is set to a  higher
value  than  what  would  be  set by -vv will be downgraded to the -vv level in the
daemon's logging.

--info=FLAGS
This option lets you have fine-grained control over the information output you want
to  see.  An individual flag name may be followed by a level number, with 0 meaning
to silence that output, 1 being  the  default  output  level,  and  higher  numbers
increasing  the  output  of  that flag (for those that support higher levels).  Use
--info=help to see all the available flag names, what they output,  and  what  flag
names are added for each increase in the verbose level.  Some examples:

rsync -a --info=progress2 src/ dest/
rsync -avv --info=stats2,misc1,flist0 src/ dest/

Note  that  --info=name's  output  is  affected  by the --out-format and --itemize-
changes (-i) options.  See those options for more information on what is output and
when.

This  option  was added to 3.1.0, so an older rsync on the server side might reject
your attempts at fine-grained control (if one or more flags needed to  be  send  to
the  server  and  the  server  was  too  old  to  understand  them).   See also the
"max verbosity" caveat above when dealing with a daemon.

--debug=FLAGS
This option lets you have fine-grained control over the debug output  you  want  to
see.   An individual flag name may be followed by a level number, with 0 meaning to
silence that  output,  1  being  the  default  output  level,  and  higher  numbers
increasing  the  output  of  that flag (for those that support higher levels).  Use
--debug=help to see all the available flag names, what they output, and  what  flag
names are added for each increase in the verbose level.  Some examples:

rsync -avvv --debug=none src/ dest/
rsync -avA --del --debug=del2,acl src/ dest/

Note  that  some debug messages will only be output when --stderr=all is specified,
especially those pertaining to I/O and buffer debugging.

Beginning in 3.2.0, this option is no longer auto-forwarded to the server  side  in
order to allow you to specify different debug values for each side of the transfer,
as well as to specify a new debug option that is only present in one of  the  rsync
versions.   If  you  want  to  duplicate the same option on both sides, using brace
expansion is an easy way to save you some typing.  This works in zsh and bash:

rsync -aiv {-M,}--debug=del2 src/ dest/

--stderr=errors|all|client
This option controls which processes output to stderr and if info messages are also
changed  to  stderr.   The  mode  strings can be abbreviated, so feel free to use a
single letter value.  The 3 possible choices are:

o      errors - (the default) causes all the  rsync  processes  to  send  an  error
directly  to  stderr,  even  if  the  process  is  on the remote side of the
transfer.  Info messages are sent  to  the  client  side  via  the  protocol
stream.   If  stderr  is not available (i.e. when directly connecting with a
daemon via a socket) errors fall back to being sent via the protocol stream.

o      all - causes all rsync messages (info and error) to get written directly  to
stderr  from  all  (possible) processes.  This causes stderr to become line-
buffered (instead of raw) and eliminates the ability to divide up  the  info
and  error  messages  by  file  handle.   For those doing debugging or using
several levels of verbosity, this option can help to avoid clogging  up  the
transfer  stream  (which should prevent any chance of a deadlock bug hanging
things up).  It also  allows  --debug  to  enable  some  extra  I/O  related
messages.

o      client  -  causes  all  rsync messages to be sent to the client side via the
protocol stream.  One client process outputs all messages,  with  errors  on
stderr  and  info  messages  on stdout.  This was the default in older rsync
versions, but can cause error delays when a lot of transfer data is ahead of
the  messages.   If  you're pushing files to an older rsync, you may want to
use --stderr=all since that idiom has been around for several releases.

This option was added in rsync 3.2.3.  This version also began the forwarding of  a
non-default  setting  to the remote side, though rsync uses the backward-compatible
options  --msgs2stderr  and  --no-msgs2stderr  to  represent  the  all  and  client
settings,  respectively.   A newer rsync will continue to accept these older option
names to maintain compatibility.

--quiet, -q
This option decreases the amount of information you are given during the  transfer,
notably  suppressing  information  messages from the remote server.  This option is
useful when invoking rsync from cron.

--no-motd
This option affects the information that is output by the client at the start of  a
daemon  transfer.   This suppresses the message-of-the-day (MOTD) text, but it also
affects the list of modules that the daemon sends in response to the "rsync host::"
request  (due  to  a  limitation in the rsync protocol), so omit this option if you
want to request the list of modules from the daemon.

--ignore-times, -I
Normally rsync will skip any files that are already the same size and have the same
modification timestamp.  This option turns off this "quick check" behavior, causing
all files to be updated.

--size-only
This modifies rsync's "quick check" algorithm for finding files  that  need  to  be
transferred,  changing  it  from  the  default  of transferring files with either a
changed size or a changed last-modified time to just looking for  files  that  have
changed  in  size.   This  is useful when starting to use rsync after using another
mirroring system which may not preserve timestamps exactly.

--modify-window=NUM, -@
When comparing two timestamps, rsync treats the timestamps as being equal  if  they
differ  by  no  more than the modify-window value.  The default is 0, which matches
just integer seconds.  If you specify a negative value  (and  the  receiver  is  at
least  version 3.1.3) then nanoseconds will also be taken into account.  Specifying
1 is useful for copies to/from MS Windows FAT filesystems, because  FAT  represents
times  with a 2-second resolution (allowing times to differ from the original by up
to 1 second).

If you want all your transfers to default to comparing nanoseconds, you can  create
a ~/.popt file and put these lines in it:

rsync alias -a -a@-1
rsync alias -t -t@-1

With  that  as  the  default,  you'd need to specify --modify-window=0 (aka -@0) to
override it and ignore nanoseconds, e.g. if you're copying between ext3  and  ext4,
or if the receiving rsync is older than 3.1.3.

--checksum, -c
This changes the way rsync checks if the files have been changed and are in need of
a transfer.  Without this option, rsync uses a  "quick  check"  that  (by  default)
checks  if  each file's size and time of last modification match between the sender
and receiver.  This option changes this to compare a 128-bit checksum for each file
that  has  a  matching  size.   Generating the checksums means that both sides will
expend a lot of disk I/O reading all the data in the files in the transfer, so this
can  slow  things down significantly (and this is prior to any reading that will be
done to transfer changed files)

The sending side generates its checksums while it is  doing  the  file-system  scan
that  builds the list of the available files.  The receiver generates its checksums
when it is scanning for changed files, and will checksum any file that has the same
size  as  the  corresponding  sender's  file: files with either a changed size or a
changed checksum are selected for transfer.

Note  that  rsync  always  verifies  that  each  transferred  file  was   correctly
reconstructed  on  the  receiving  side  by  checking a whole-file checksum that is
generated as  the  file  is  transferred,  but  that  automatic  after-the-transfer
verification  has  nothing  to do with this option's before-the-transfer "Does this
file need to be updated?" check.

The checksum used is auto-negotiated between the client and the server, but can  be
overridden  using  either  the  --checksum-choice  (--cc)  option or an environment
variable that is discussed in that option's section.

--archive, -a
This is equivalent to -rlptgoD.  It is a quick way of saying you want recursion and
want  to  preserve almost everything.  Be aware that it does not include preserving
ACLs (-A), xattrs (-X), atimes (-U), crtimes (-N), nor the finding  and  preserving

The  only  exception to the above equivalence is when --files-from is specified, in
which case -r is not implied.

--no-OPTION
You may turn off one or more implied options by  prefixing  the  option  name  with
"no-".  Not all options may be prefixed with a "no-": only options that are implied
by other options (e.g. --no-D, --no-perms) or have different  defaults  in  various
circumstances (e.g. --no-whole-file, --no-blocking-io, --no-dirs).  You may specify
either the short or the long option name after the "no-" prefix (e.g. --no-R is the
same as --no-relative).

For example: if you want to use -a (--archive) but don't want -o (--owner), instead
of converting -a into -rlptgD, you could specify -a --no-o (or -a --no-owner).

The order of the options is important: if you  specify  --no-r -a,  the  -r  option
would  end up being turned on, the opposite of -a --no-r.  Note also that the side-
effects of the --files-from option are NOT positional, as it  affects  the  default
state  of  several options and slightly changes the meaning of -a (see the --files-
from option for more details).

--recursive, -r

Beginning with rsync 3.0.0, the recursive algorithm used is now an incremental scan
that  uses  much less memory than before and begins the transfer after the scanning
of the first few directories have  been  completed.   This  incremental  scan  only
affects  our recursion algorithm, and does not change a non-recursive transfer.  It
is also only possible when both ends of the transfer are at least version 3.0.0.

Some options require rsync to know the full file list, so these options disable the
incremental   recursion  mode.   These  include:  --delete-before,  --delete-after,
--prune-empty-dirs, and --delay-updates.  Because of this, the default delete  mode
when  you  specify --delete is now --delete-during when both ends of the connection
are at least 3.0.0 (use --del or --delete-during to request this improved  deletion
mode  explicitly).  See also the --delete-delay option that is a better choice than
using --delete-after.

Incremental recursion can be disabled using the --no-inc-recursive  option  or  its
shorter --no-i-r alias.

--relative, -R
Use  relative  paths.  This means that the full path names specified on the command
line are sent to the server rather than just the last parts of the filenames.  This
is  particularly  useful when you want to send several different directories at the
same time.  For example, if you used this command:

rsync -av /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

would create a file named baz.c in /tmp/ on the remote  machine.   If  instead  you
used

rsync -avR /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

then  a  file  named  /tmp/foo/bar/baz.c  would  be  created on the remote machine,
preserving  its  full  path.   These  extra  path  elements  are  called   "implied
directories" (i.e. the "foo" and the "foo/bar" directories in the above example).

Beginning  with  rsync  3.0.0, rsync always sends these implied directories as real
directories in the file list, even if a path element is really  a  symlink  on  the
sending side.  This prevents some really unexpected behaviors when copying the full
path of a file that you didn't realize had a symlink in its path.  If you  want  to
duplicate  a  server-side  symlink,  include  both  the  symlink  via its path, and
referent directory via its real path.  If you're dealing with an older rsync on the
sending side, you may need to use the --no-implied-dirs option.

It is also possible to limit the amount of path information that is sent as implied
directories for each path you specify.  With a modern rsync  on  the  sending  side
(beginning with 2.6.7), you can insert a dot and a slash into the source path, like
this:

rsync -avR /foo/./bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

That would create /tmp/bar/baz.c on the remote machine. (Note that the dot must  be
followed  by  a  slash,  so  "/foo/."  would  not  be abbreviated.) For older rsync
versions, you would need to use a chdir to limit the  source  path.   For  example,
when pushing files:

(cd /foo; rsync -avR bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/)

(Note  that  the  parens  put  the  two commands into a sub-shell, so that the "cd"
command doesn't remain in effect for future commands.) If you're pulling files from
an older rsync, use this idiom (but only for a non-daemon transfer):

rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /foo; rsync" \
remote:bar/baz.c /tmp/

--no-implied-dirs
This  option  affects  the  default  behavior of the --relative option.  When it is
specified, the attributes of the implied directories from the source names are  not
included  in  the transfer.  This means that the corresponding path elements on the
destination system are left unchanged  if  they  exist,  and  any  missing  implied
directories  are  created  with default attributes.  This even allows these implied
path elements to have big differences, such as being a symlink to  a  directory  on
the receiving side.

For  instance,  if  a command-line arg or a files-from entry told rsync to transfer
the file "path/foo/file", the directories "path" and "path/foo"  are  implied  when
--relative is used.  If "path/foo" is a symlink to "bar" on the destination system,
the receiving rsync would ordinarily delete "path/foo", recreate it as a directory,
and receive the file into the new directory.  With --no-implied-dirs, the receiving
rsync updates "path/foo/file" using the existing path elements,  which  means  that
the  file ends up being created in "path/bar".  Another way to accomplish this link
preservation is to use the --keep-dirlinks option (which will also affect  symlinks
to directories in the rest of the transfer).

When  pulling files from an rsync older than 3.0.0, you may need to use this option
if the sending side has a symlink in the path you request and you wish the  implied
directories to be transferred as normal directories.

--backup, -b
With  this  option,  preexisting  destination  files  are  renamed  as each file is
transferred or deleted.  You can control where the backup file goes  and  what  (if
any) suffix gets appended using the --backup-dir and --suffix options.

Note  that  if you don't specify --backup-dir, (1) the --omit-dir-times option will
be forced on, and (2) if --delete is also in  effect  (without  --delete-excluded),
rsync will add a "protect" filter-rule for the backup suffix to the end of all your
existing excludes (e.g. -f "P *~").  This will prevent previously  backed-up  files
from  being deleted.  Note that if you are supplying your own filter rules, you may
need to manually insert your own exclude/protect rule somewhere higher  up  in  the
list  so  that  it  has a high enough priority to be effective (e.g., if your rules
specify a trailing inclusion/exclusion of *, the auto-added  rule  would  never  be
reached).

--backup-dir=DIR
This  implies  the  --backup  option,  and  tells rsync to store all backups in the
specified directory on the receiving  side.   This  can  be  used  for  incremental
backups.   You  can  additionally specify a backup suffix using the --suffix option
(otherwise the files backed up in the specified directory will keep their  original
filenames).

Note  that if you specify a relative path, the backup directory will be relative to
the destination directory, so you probably want to specify either an absolute  path
or  a  path that starts with "../".  If an rsync daemon is the receiver, the backup
dir cannot go outside the module's path hierarchy, so take extra care not to delete
it or copy into it.

--suffix=SUFFIX
This option allows you to override the default backup suffix used with the --backup
(-b) option.  The default suffix is a ~ if no --backup-dir was specified, otherwise
it is an empty string.

--update, -u
This  forces  rsync  to  skip  any  files which exist on the destination and have a
modified time that is newer than the source file. (If an existing destination  file
has a modification time equal to the source file's, it will be updated if the sizes
are different.)

Note that this does not affect the copying of  dirs,  symlinks,  or  other  special
files.  Also, a difference of file format between the sender and receiver is always
considered to be important enough for an update, no matter  what  date  is  on  the
objects.  In other words, if the source has a directory where the destination has a
file, the transfer would occur regardless of the timestamps.

This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't affect the data  that
goes into the file-lists, and thus it doesn't affect deletions.  It just limits the
files that the receiver requests to be transferred.

--inplace
This option changes how rsync transfers a file when its data needs to  be  updated:
instead of the default method of creating a new copy of the file and moving it into
place when it is complete, rsync instead writes the updated data  directly  to  the
destination file.

This has several effects:

o      Hard  links are not broken.  This means the new data will be visible through
other hard links to  the  destination  file.   Moreover,  attempts  to  copy
differing  source  files onto a multiply-linked destination file will result
in a "tug of war" with the destination data changing back and forth.

o      In-use binaries cannot be updated (either the  OS  will  prevent  this  from
happening,  or binaries that attempt to swap-in their data will misbehave or
crash).

o      The file's data will be in an inconsistent state  during  the  transfer  and
will be left that way if the transfer is interrupted or if an update fails.

o      A file that rsync cannot write to cannot be updated.  While a super user can
update any file, a normal user needs to be granted write permission for  the
open of the file for writing to be successful.

o      The  efficiency  of  rsync's delta-transfer algorithm may be reduced if some
data in the destination file is overwritten before it can  be  copied  to  a
position  later in the file.  This does not apply if you use --backup, since
rsync is smart enough to use the backup file  as  the  basis  file  for  the
transfer.

WARNING:  you should not use this option to update files that are being accessed by
others, so be careful when choosing to use this for a copy.

This option is useful for transferring large  files  with  block-based  changes  or
appended  data, and also on systems that are disk bound, not network bound.  It can
also help keep a  copy-on-write  filesystem  snapshot  from  diverging  the  entire
contents of a file that only has minor changes.

The  option  implies  --partial  (since an interrupted transfer does not delete the
file), but conflicts with --partial-dir and --delay-updates.  Prior to rsync  2.6.4
--inplace was also incompatible with --compare-dest and --link-dest.

--append
This  special copy mode only works to efficiently update files that are known to be
growing larger where any existing content on the receiving side is also known to be
the same as the content on the sender.  The use of --append can be dangerous if you
aren't 100% sure that all the files in the transfer are shared, growing files.  You
should  thus use filter rules to ensure that you weed out any files that do not fit
this criteria.

Rsync updates these growing file in-place without verifying  any  of  the  existing
content  in  the  file  (it only verifies the content that it is appending).  Rsync
skips any files that exist on the receiving side that  are  not  shorter  than  the
associated file on the sending side (which means that new files are transferred).

This  does not interfere with the updating of a file's non-content attributes (e.g.
permissions, ownership, etc.) when the file does not need to  be  transferred,  nor
does it affect the updating of any directories or non-regular files.

--append-verify
This  special copy mode works like --append except that all the data in the file is
included in the checksum verification (making  it  much  less  efficient  but  also
potentially  safer).  This option can be dangerous if you aren't 100% sure that all
the files in the transfer are shared, growing files.  See the --append  option  for
more details.

Note:  prior to rsync 3.0.0, the --append option worked like --append-verify, so if
you are interacting with an older rsync (or the transfer is using a protocol  prior
to 30), specifying either append option will initiate an --append-verify transfer.

--dirs, -d
Tell  the  sending  side  to  include any directories that are encountered.  Unlike
--recursive, a directory's contents  are  not  copied  unless  the  directory  name
specified  is  "." or ends with a trailing slash (e.g. ".", "dir/.", "dir/", etc.).
Without this option or the --recursive option, rsync will skip all  directories  it
encounters (and output a message to that effect for each one).  If you specify both
--dirs and --recursive, --recursive takes precedence.

The --dirs option is implied by the --files-from option or the  --list-only  option
(including  an  implied --list-only usage) if --recursive wasn't specified (so that
directories are seen in the listing).  Specify --no-dirs (or --no-d) if you want to
turn this off.

There  is also a backward-compatibility helper option, --old-dirs (or --old-d) that
tells rsync to use a hack of -r --exclude='/*/*' to get an older rsync  to  list  a
single directory without recursing.

--mkpath
Create  a  missing  path  component  of  the destination arg.  This allows rsync to
create multiple levels of missing destination dirs and to create a path in which to
put  a  single  renamed  file.   Keep in mind that you'll need to supply a trailing
slash if you want the entire destination path to be treated  as  a  directory  when
copying  a  single  arg (making rsync behave the same way that it would if the path

For example, the following creates a copy  of  file  foo  as  bar  in  the  sub/dir
directory, creating dirs "sub" and "sub/dir" if either do not yet exist:

rsync -ai --mkpath foo sub/dir/bar

If you instead ran the following, it would have created file foo in the sub/dir/bar
directory:

rsync -ai --mkpath foo sub/dir/bar/

When symlinks are encountered, the item  that  they  point  to  (the  referent)  is
copied,  rather than the symlink.  In older versions of rsync, this option also had
to directories.  In a modern rsync such as this one, you'll need to specify --keep-
dirlinks (-K) to get this extra behavior.  The only exception is when sending files
to  an  rsync  that is too old to understand -K -- in that case, the -L option will
still have the side-effect of -K on that older receiving rsync.

This tells rsync to copy the referent of symbolic  links  that  point  outside  the
copied  tree.   Absolute  symlinks are also treated like ordinary files, and so are
any symlinks in the source path itself when --relative is used.  This option has no

Note  that  the  cut-off point is the top of the transfer, which is the part of the
path that rsync isn't mentioning in the verbose output.  If you copy  "/src/subdir"
to "/dest/" then the "subdir" directory is a name inside the transfer tree, not the
top of the transfer (which is /src) so it is legal for created relative symlinks to
refer  to  other  names inside the /src and /dest directories.  If you instead copy
"/src/subdir/" (with a trailing slash)  to  "/dest/subdir"  that  would  not  allow
symlinks to any files outside of "subdir".

This  tells rsync to ignore any symbolic links which point outside the copied tree.
All absolute symlinks are also ignored.  Using  this  option  in  conjunction  with
--relative may give unexpected results.

This  option  tells rsync to (1) modify all symlinks on the receiving side in a way
that makes them unusable but recoverable (see below), or (2) to unmunge symlinks on
the  sending  side  that  had been stored in a munged state.  This is useful if you
don't quite trust the source of the data to not try to  slip  in  a  symlink  to  a
unexpected place.

The  way  rsync  disables the use of symlinks is to prefix each one with the string
"/rsyncd-munged/".  This prevents the  links  from  being  used  as  long  as  that
directory does not exist.  When this option is enabled, rsync will refuse to run if
that path is a directory or a symlink to a directory.

The option only affects the client side of the transfer,  so  if  you  need  it  to
affect  the server, specify it via --remote-option. (Note that in a local transfer,
the client side is the sender.)

This option has no affect on a daemon, since the daemon configures whether it wants
perl script in the support directory of the source code.

This option causes the sending side to treat a symlink to a directory as though  it
were  a  real  directory.   This  is  useful  if  you  don't  want symlinks to non-
directories to be affected, as they would be using --copy-links.

Without this option, if the sending side has replaced a directory with a symlink to
a  directory, the receiving side will delete anything that is in the way of the new
symlink, including a directory hierarchy (as long as  --force  or  --delete  is  in
effect).

--copy-dirlinks  applies to all symlinks to directories in the source.  If you want
to follow only a few specified symlinks, a trick you can use is  to  pass  them  as
additional  source  args  with a trailing slash, using --relative to make the paths
match up right.  For example:

rsync -r --relative src/./ src/./follow-me/ dest/

This works because rsync calls lstat(2)  on  the  source  arg  as  given,  and  the
trailing slash makes lstat(2) follow the symlink, giving rise to a directory in the
file-list which overrides the symlink found during the scan of "src/./".

This option causes the receiving side to treat a symlink to a directory  as  though
it  were a real directory, but only if it matches a real directory from the sender.
Without this option, the receiver's symlink would be deleted and  replaced  with  a
real directory.

For  example,  suppose  you transfer a directory "foo" that contains a file "file",
but "foo" is a symlink  to  directory  "bar"  on  the  receiver.   Without  --keep-
the symlink and "file" ends up in "bar".

One note of caution: if you use --keep-dirlinks, you must trust all the symlinks in
the copy! If it is possible for an untrusted user to create their  own  symlink  to
any  directory, the user could then (on a subsequent copy) replace the symlink with
a real  directory  and  affect  the  content  of  whatever  directory  the  symlink
references.   For  backup  copies,  you  are better off using something like a bind

This tells rsync to look for hard-linked files in the source and link together  the
corresponding  files on the destination.  Without this option, hard-linked files in
the source are treated as though they were separate files.

This option does NOT necessarily ensure that the  pattern  of  hard  links  on  the
destination exactly matches that on the source.  Cases in which the destination may
end up with extra hard links include the following:

o      If the destination contains extraneous hard-links (more linking than what is
present  in the source file list), the copying algorithm will not break them
explicitly.  However, if one or more of the paths have content  differences,
the  normal file-update process will break those extra links (unless you are
using the --inplace option).

of  the destination files against the --link-dest files can cause some paths
associations.

Note  that  rsync  can  only  detect  hard  links between files that are inside the
transfer set.  If rsync updates a file that  has  extra  hard-link  connections  to
files outside the transfer, that linkage will be broken.  If you are tempted to use
the --inplace option to avoid this breakage, be very careful that you know how your
files  are  being updated so that you are certain that no unintended changes happen
due to lingering hard links (and see the --inplace option for more caveats).

If incremental recursion is active (see --recursive), rsync may transfer a  missing
hard-linked  file  before  it  finds  that  another  link  for that contents exists
elsewhere in the hierarchy.  This does not affect  the  accuracy  of  the  transfer
(i.e.  which files are hard-linked together), just its efficiency (i.e. copying the
data for a new, early copy of a hard-linked file that could have been  found  later
in  the  transfer  in  another member of the hard-linked set of files).  One way to
avoid this inefficiency is to disable incremental  recursion  using  the  --no-inc-
recursive option.

--perms, -p
This option causes the receiving rsync to set the destination permissions to be the
same as the source permissions. (See also the --chmod option for a  way  to  modify
what rsync considers to be the source permissions.)

When this option is off, permissions are set as follows:

o      Existing  files (including updated files) retain their existing permissions,
though the --executability option might change just the  execute  permission
for the file.

o      New  files  get  their  "normal"  permission  bits  set to the source file's
permissions  masked  with  the  receiving  directory's  default  permissions
(either  the receiving process's umask, or the permissions specified via the
destination directory's default ACL),  and  their  special  permission  bits
disabled except in the case where a new directory inherits a setgid bit from
its parent directory.

Thus, when --perms and --executability are both disabled, rsync's behavior  is  the
same as that of other file-copy utilities, such as cp(1) and tar(1).

In  summary:  to  give destination files (both old and new) the source permissions,
use --perms.  To give new files the destination-default permissions (while  leaving
existing  files  unchanged),  make  sure  that  the  --perms  option is off and use
--chmod=ugo=rwX (which ensures that all non-masked bits  get  enabled).   If  you'd
care to make this latter behavior easier to type, you could define a popt alias for
it, such as putting this line in the file ~/.popt (the  following  defines  the  -Z
option, and includes --no-g to use the default group of the destination dir):

rsync alias -Z --no-p --no-g --chmod=ugo=rwX

You could then use this new option in a command such as this one:

rsync -avZ src/ dest/

(Caveat:  make sure that -a does not follow -Z, or it will re-enable the two --no-*
options mentioned above.)

The preservation of the destination's setgid bit on newly-created directories  when
--perms  is  off  was  added  in  rsync  2.6.7.   Older  rsync versions erroneously
preserved the three special permission bits for newly-created  files  when  --perms
was  off,  while overriding the destination's setgid bit setting on a newly-created
directory.  Default ACL observance was added to the ACL patch for rsync  2.6.7,  so
older  (or  non-ACL-enabled) rsyncs use the umask even if default ACLs are present.
(Keep in mind that it is the version of the  receiving  rsync  that  affects  these
behaviors.)

--executability, -E
This  option  causes  rsync to preserve the executability (or non-executability) of
regular files when --perms is not enabled.  A regular  file  is  considered  to  be
executable  if  at least one 'x' is turned on in its permissions.  When an existing
destination file's executability differs from  that  of  the  corresponding  source
file, rsync modifies the destination file's permissions as follows:

o      To make a file non-executable, rsync turns off all its 'x' permissions.

o      To  make  a  file  executable, rsync turns on each 'x' permission that has a
corresponding 'r' permission enabled.

If --perms is enabled, this option is ignored.

--acls, -A
This option causes rsync to update the destination ACLs  to  be  the  same  as  the
source ACLs.  The option also implies --perms.

The source and destination systems must have compatible ACL entries for this option
to work properly.  See the --fake-super option for a way to backup and restore ACLs
that are not compatible.

--xattrs, -X
This  option  causes  rsync to update the destination extended attributes to be the
same as the source ones.

For systems that support extended-attribute namespaces, a  copy  being  done  by  a
super-user  copies  all  namespaces except system.*.  A normal user only copies the
user.* namespace.  To be able to backup and restore non-user namespaces as a normal
user, see the --fake-super option.

The above name filtering can be overridden by using one or more filter options with
the x modifier.  When you specify an xattr-affecting filter  rule,  rsync  requires
that you do your own system/user filtering, as well as any additional filtering for
what xattr names are copied and what names are allowed to be deleted.  For example,
to skip the system namespace, you could specify:

--filter='-x system.*'

To  skip all namespaces except the user namespace, you could specify a negated-user
match:

--filter='-x! user.*'

To prevent any attributes from being deleted, you  could  specify  a  receiver-only
rule that excludes all names:

--filter='-xr *'

Note  that  the  -X  option does not copy rsync's special xattr values (e.g.  those
used by --fake-super) unless you repeat the option  (e.g.  -XX).   This  "copy  all
xattrs" mode cannot be used with --fake-super.

--chmod=CHMOD
This  option  tells rsync to apply one or more comma-separated "chmod" modes to the
permission of the files in the transfer.  The resulting value is treated as  though
it  were  the  permissions that the sending side supplied for the file, which means
that this option can seem to have no effect on existing files  if  --perms  is  not
enabled.

In  addition to the normal parsing rules specified in the chmod(1) manpage, you can
specify an item that should only apply to a directory by prefixing it with  a  'D',
or  specify  an  item  that should only apply to a file by prefixing it with a 'F'.
For example, the following will ensure that all  directories  get  marked  set-gid,
that  no  files are other-writable, that both are user-writable and group-writable,
and that both have consistent executability across all bits:

--chmod=Dg+s,ug+w,Fo-w,+X

Using octal mode numbers is also allowed:

--chmod=D2775,F664

It is also legal to specify multiple --chmod options, as each additional option  is
just appended to the list of changes to make.

See  the --perms and --executability options for how the resulting permission value
can be applied to the files in the transfer.

--owner, -o
This option causes rsync to set the owner of the destination file to be the same as
the  source  file,  but  only if the receiving rsync is being run as the super-user
(see also the --super and --fake-super options).  Without this option, the owner of
new and/or transferred files are set to the invoking user on the receiving side.

The  preservation  of  ownership  will associate matching names by default, but may
fall back to using the ID number in some circumstances (see also the  --numeric-ids
option for a full discussion).

--group, -g
This option causes rsync to set the group of the destination file to be the same as
the source file.  If the receiving program is not running as the super-user (or  if
--no-super was specified), only groups that the invoking user on the receiving side
is a member of will be preserved.  Without this option, the group  is  set  to  the
default group of the invoking user on the receiving side.

The preservation of group information will associate matching names by default, but
may fall back to using the ID number in some circumstances (see also the --numeric-
ids option for a full discussion).

--devices
This option causes rsync to transfer character and block device files to the remote
system to recreate these devices.  This option has no effect if the receiving rsync
is not run as the super-user (see also the --super and --fake-super options).

--specials
This option causes rsync to transfer special files such as named sockets and fifos.

-D     The -D option is equivalent to --devices --specials.

--write-devices
This  tells  rsync  to  treat  a  device  on  the receiving side as a regular file,
allowing the writing of file data into a device.

This option implies the --inplace option.

Be careful using this, as you should know what devices are present on the receiving
side of the transfer, especially if running rsync as root.

This option is refused by an rsync daemon.

--times, -t
This  tells  rsync  to  transfer modification times along with the files and update
them on the remote system.  Note that if this option is not used, the  optimization
that  excludes  files  that  have  not  been modified cannot be effective; in other
words, a missing -t or -a will cause the next transfer to behave as if it used  -I,
causing  all files to be updated (though rsync's delta-transfer algorithm will make
the update fairly efficient if the files  haven't  actually  changed,  you're  much
better off using -t).

--atimes, -U
This tells rsync to set the access (use) times of the destination files to the same
value as the source files.

If repeated, it also sets the --open-noatime option, which can help you to make the
sending  and  receiving systems have the same access times on the transferred files
without needing to run rsync an extra time after a file is transferred.

Note that some older rsync versions (prior to 3.2.0) may have  been  built  with  a
pre-release  --atimes  patch that does not imply --open-noatime when this option is
repeated.

--open-noatime
This tells rsync to open files with the O_NOATIME flag (on systems that support it)
to avoid changing the access time of the files that are being transferred.  If your
OS does not support the O_NOATIME flag then rsync will silently ignore this option.
Note  also  that  some  filesystems are mounted to avoid updating the atime on read
access even without the O_NOATIME flag being set.

--crtimes, -N,
This tells rsync to set the create times (newness) of the destination files to  the
same value as the source files.

--omit-dir-times, -O
This  tells rsync to omit directories when it is preserving modification times (see
--times).  If NFS is sharing the directories on the receiving side, it  is  a  good
idea to use -O.  This option is inferred if you use --backup without --backup-dir.

This  option  also has the side-effect of avoiding early creation of directories in
incremental recursion copies.  The default --inc-recursive copying normally does an
early-create  pass of all the sub-directories in a parent directory in order for it
to be able to then set the modify time of the parent directory right away  (without
having to delay that until a bunch of recursive copying has finished).  This early-
create idiom is not necessary if directory modify times are not being preserved, so
it  is skipped.  Since early-create directories don't have accurate mode, mtime, or
ownership, the use of this option can  help  when  someone  wants  to  avoid  these
partially-finished directories.

This  tells  rsync  to  omit symlinks when it is preserving modification times (see
--times).

--super
This tells the  receiving  side  to  attempt  super-user  activities  even  if  the
receiving rsync wasn't run by the super-user.  These activities include: preserving
users via the --owner option, preserving all groups (not just  the  current  user's
groups) via the --group option, and copying devices via the --devices option.  This
is useful for systems that allow such activities without being the super-user,  and
also for ensuring that you will get errors if the receiving side isn't being run as
the super-user.  To turn off super-user activities, the super-user  can  use  --no-
super.

--fake-super
When   this   option   is   enabled,   rsync  simulates  super-user  activities  by
saving/restoring the privileged attributes via special extended attributes that are
attached to each file (as needed).  This includes the file's owner and group (if it
is not the default), the file's device info (device & special files are created  as
empty  text  files),  and  any permission bits that we won't allow to be set on the
real file (e.g. the real file gets u-s,g-s,o-t for safety) or that would limit  the
owner's  access  (since  the  real  super-user can always access/change a file, the
files we create can always be accessed/changed by the creating user).  This  option
also  handles  ACLs  (if --acls was specified) and non-user extended attributes (if
--xattrs was specified).

This is a good way to backup data without using a super-user,  and  to  store  ACLs
from incompatible systems.

The  --fake-super option only affects the side where the option is used.  To affect
the remote side of a remote-shell connection, use the --remote-option (-M) option:

rsync -av -M--fake-super /src/ host:/dest/

For a local copy, this option affects both the source and the destination.  If  you
wish  a  local  copy  to enable this option just for the destination files, specify
-M--fake-super.  If you wish a local copy to enable this option just for the source
files, combine --fake-super with -M--super.

This option is overridden by both --super and --no-super.

--sparse, -S
Try  to  handle  sparse  files  efficiently  so  they  take  up  less  space on the
destination.  If combined with --inplace the file created might  not  end  up  with
sparse  blocks with some combinations of kernel version and/or filesystem type.  If
--whole-file is in effect (e.g. for a local copy) then it will always work  because
rsync truncates the file prior to writing out the updated version.

Note  that  versions  of  rsync  older  than  3.1.3  will reject the combination of
--sparse and --inplace.

--preallocate
This tells the receiver to allocate each destination  file  to  its  eventual  size
before  writing  data  to  the file.  Rsync will only use the real filesystem-level
preallocation support provided by Linux's  fallocate(2)  system  call  or  Cygwin's
posix_fallocate(3),  not the slow glibc implementation that writes a null byte into
each block.

Without this option, larger files may not be entirely contiguous on the filesystem,
but  with  this option rsync will probably copy more slowly.  If the destination is
not an extent-supporting filesystem (such as ext4, xfs, NTFS,  etc.),  this  option
may have no positive effect at all.

If  combined  with  --sparse,  the file will only have sparse blocks (as opposed to
allocated sequences of null bytes)  if  the  kernel  version  and  filesystem  type
support creating holes in the allocated data.

--dry-run, -n
This  makes  rsync  perform a trial run that doesn't make any changes (and produces
mostly the same output as a real run).  It is most  commonly  used  in  combination
with  the  --verbose,  -v and/or --itemize-changes, -i options to see what an rsync
command is going to do before one actually runs it.

The output of --itemize-changes is supposed to be exactly the same on a dry run and
a  subsequent  real run (barring intentional trickery and system call failures); if
it isn't, that's a bug.  Other output should be mostly unchanged, but may differ in
some  areas.   Notably, a dry run does not send the actual data for file transfers,
so --progress has no effect, the "bytes sent", "bytes  received",  "literal  data",
and  "matched data" statistics are too small, and the "speedup" value is equivalent
to a run where no file transfers were needed.

--whole-file, -W
This option disables rsync's delta-transfer algorithm, which causes all transferred
files to be sent whole.  The transfer may be faster if this option is used when the
bandwidth between the source and destination machines is higher than the  bandwidth
to  disk  (especially when the "disk" is actually a networked filesystem).  This is
the default when both the source and destination are specified as local paths,  but
only if no batch-writing option is in effect.

--checksum-choice=STR, --cc=STR
This option overrides the checksum algorithms.  If one algorithm name is specified,
it is used for both the transfer checksums and (assuming --checksum  is  specified)
the  pre-transfer  checksums.  If two comma-separated names are supplied, the first
name affects the transfer checksums, and the second name affects  the  pre-transfer
checksums (-c).

The checksum options that you may be able to use are:

o      auto (the default automatic choice)

o      xxh128

o      xxh3

o      xxh64 (aka xxhash)

o      md5

o      md4

o      none

Run  rsync --version  to  see  the default checksum list compiled into your version
(which may differ from the list above).

If "none" is specified for the first (or only) name,  the  --whole-file  option  is
forced  on  and  no checksum verification is performed on the transferred data.  If
"none" is specified for the second (or only) name, the --checksum option cannot  be
used.

The  "auto"  option  is  the  default,  where rsync bases its algorithm choice on a
negotiation between the client and the server as follows:

When both sides of the transfer  are  at  least  3.2.0,  rsync  chooses  the  first
algorithm  in  the  client's  list  of choices that is also in the server's list of
choices.  If no common checksum choice is found, rsync exits with an error.  If the
remote rsync is too old to support checksum negotiation, a value is chosen based on
the protocol version (which chooses between MD5 and various flavors of MD4 based on
protocol age).

The   default   order  can  be  customized  by  setting  the  environment  variable
RSYNC_CHECKSUM_LIST to a space-separated list of acceptable checksum names.  If the
string  contains  a "&" character, it is separated into the "client string & server
string", otherwise the same string applies to  both.   If  the  string  (or  string
portion)  contains no non-whitespace characters, the default checksum list is used.
This method does not allow you to specify the transfer checksum separately from the
pre-transfer  checksum,  and  it discards "auto" and all unknown checksum names.  A
list with only invalid names results in a failed negotiation.

The use of the --checksum-choice option overrides this environment list.

--one-file-system, -x
This tells rsync to avoid crossing a filesystem boundary when recursing.  This does
not  limit  the  user's ability to specify items to copy from multiple filesystems,
just rsync's recursion through the  hierarchy  of  each  directory  that  the  user
specified,  and also the analogous recursion on the receiving side during deletion.
Also keep in mind that rsync treats a "bind" mount to the same device as  being  on
the same filesystem.

If  this option is repeated, rsync omits all mount-point directories from the copy.
Otherwise, it includes an empty directory at each mount-point it encounters  (using
the attributes of the mounted directory because those of the underlying mount-point
directory are inaccessible).

If rsync has been told to collapse symlinks  (via  --copy-links  or  --copy-unsafe-
links),  a  symlink to a directory on another device is treated like a mount-point.
Symlinks to non-directories are unaffected by this option.

--existing, --ignore-non-existing
This tells rsync to skip creating files (including directories) that do  not  exist
yet  on  the  destination.   If  this option is combined with the --ignore-existing
option, no files will be updated (which can be useful if all  you  want  to  do  is
delete extraneous files).

This  option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't affect the data that
goes into the file-lists, and thus it doesn't affect deletions.  It just limits the
files that the receiver requests to be transferred.

--ignore-existing
This tells rsync to skip updating files that already exist on the destination (this
does not ignore existing  directories,  or  nothing  would  get  done).   See  also
--existing.

This  option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't affect the data that
goes into the file-lists, and thus it doesn't affect deletions.  It just limits the
files that the receiver requests to be transferred.

This option can be useful for those doing backups using the --link-dest option when
they need to continue a backup run that got interrupted.  Since a  --link-dest  run
is  copied  into  a  new  directory  hierarchy  (when  it  is used properly), using
--ignore-existing will ensure that the  already-handled  files  don't  get  tweaked
(which  avoids  a  change in permissions on the hard-linked files).  This does mean
that this option is only looking at the existing files in the destination hierarchy
itself.

--remove-source-files
This  tells  rsync  to  remove  from  the  sending  side  the  files  (meaning non-
directories) that are a part of the transfer and have been successfully  duplicated
on the receiving side.

Note  that  you should only use this option on source files that are quiescent.  If
you are using this to move files that show up in a  particular  directory  over  to
another  host,  make  sure  that  the  finished  files  get renamed into the source
directory, not directly written into it, so that rsync can't  possibly  transfer  a
file  that  is  not  yet  fully written.  If you can't first write the files into a
different  directory,  you  should  use  a  naming  idiom  that  lets  rsync  avoid
transferring  files that are not yet finished (e.g. name the file "foo.new" when it
is written, rename  it  to  "foo"  when  it  is  done,  and  then  use  the  option
--exclude='*.new' for the rsync transfer).

Starting  with 3.1.0, rsync will skip the sender-side removal (and output an error)
if the file's size or modify time has not stayed unchanged.

--delete
This tells rsync to delete extraneous files from  the  receiving  side  (ones  that
aren't  on  the  sending  side),  but  only  for  the  directories  that  are being
synchronized.  You must have asked rsync to send the whole directory (e.g. "dir" or
"dir/")  without using a wildcard for the directory's contents (e.g. "dir/*") since
the wildcard is expanded by the shell and rsync thus gets  a  request  to  transfer
individual  files,  not  the files' parent directory.  Files that are excluded from
the transfer are also excluded from being deleted  unless  you  use  the  --delete-
excluded  option  or  mark  the rules as only matching on the sending side (see the
include/exclude modifiers in the FILTER RULES section).

Prior to rsync 2.6.7, this option would  have  no  effect  unless  --recursive  was
enabled.   Beginning  with  2.6.7,  deletions  will  also occur when --dirs (-d) is
enabled, but only for directories whose contents are being copied.

This option can be dangerous if used incorrectly! It is a very good idea  to  first
try  a  run  using  the  --dry-run  option  (-n)  to see what files are going to be
deleted.

If the sending side detects any I/O errors, then the deletion of any files  at  the
destination   will  be  automatically  disabled.   This  is  to  prevent  temporary
filesystem failures (such as NFS errors) on the sending side from causing a massive
deletion  of  files  on  the destination.  You can override this with the --ignore-
errors option.

The --delete option may be combined with one of the --delete-WHEN  options  without
conflict,  as  well  as  --delete-excluded.   However, if none of the --delete-WHEN
options are specified, rsync will choose the --delete-during algorithm when talking
to rsync 3.0.0 or newer, and the --delete-before algorithm when talking to an older

--delete-before
Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be done before  the  transfer
starts.  See --delete (which is implied) for more details on file-deletion.

Deleting  before  the  transfer is helpful if the filesystem is tight for space and
removing extraneous files would help to make the transfer  possible.   However,  it
does introduce a delay before the start of the transfer, and this delay might cause
the transfer to timeout (if --timeout was specified).  It also forces rsync to  use
the  old,  non-incremental  recursion algorithm that requires rsync to scan all the
files in the transfer into memory at once (see --recursive).

--delete-during, --del
Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be done incrementally as  the
transfer  happens.   The  per-directory  delete  scan  is  done  right  before each
directory is checked for updates, so it behaves like  a  more  efficient  --delete-
before, including doing the deletions prior to any per-directory filter files being
updated.  This option was first added in rsync version 2.6.4.  See --delete  (which
is implied) for more details on file-deletion.

--delete-delay
Request  that  the  file-deletions  on  the  receiving  side be computed during the
transfer (like --delete-during), and then removed  after  the  transfer  completes.
This  is  useful  when  combined  with  --delay-updates and/or --fuzzy, and is more
efficient than using --delete-after (but can behave  differently,  since  --delete-
after  computes  the  deletions in a separate pass after all updates are done).  If
the number of removed files overflows an internal buffer, a temporary file will  be
created  on  the receiving side to hold the names (it is removed while open, so you
shouldn't see it during the transfer).  If  the  creation  of  the  temporary  file
fails,  rsync  will try to fall back to using --delete-after (which it cannot do if
--recursive is doing an incremental scan).  See --delete  (which  is  implied)  for
more details on file-deletion.

--delete-after
Request  that  the  file-deletions on the receiving side be done after the transfer
has completed.  This is useful if you are sending new per-directory merge files  as
a  part of the transfer and you want their exclusions to take effect for the delete
phase of the current  transfer.   It  also  forces  rsync  to  use  the  old,  non-
incremental  recursion  algorithm  that requires rsync to scan all the files in the
transfer into memory at once (see --recursive). See --delete (which is implied) for
more details on file-deletion.

--delete-excluded
In addition to deleting the files on the receiving side that are not on the sending
side, this tells rsync to also delete any files on  the  receiving  side  that  are
excluded  (see  --exclude).   See  the  FILTER  RULES  section  for  a  way to make
individual exclusions behave this way on the receiver, and for  a  way  to  protect
files  from --delete-excluded.  See --delete (which is implied) for more details on
file-deletion.

--ignore-missing-args
When rsync  is  first  processing  the  explicitly  requested  source  files  (e.g.
command-line  arguments  or  --files-from  entries), it is normally an error if the
file cannot be found.  This option suppresses that  error,  and  does  not  try  to
transfer  the file.  This does not affect subsequent vanished-file errors if a file
was initially found to be present and later is no longer there.

--delete-missing-args
This option takes the behavior of (the implied) --ignore-missing-args option a step
farther:  each  missing  arg  will  become  a deletion request of the corresponding
destination file on the receiving side (should it exist).  If the destination  file
is  a  non-empty  directory,  it  will  only  be successfully deleted if --force or
--delete are in effect.  Other than that, this option is independent of  any  other
type of delete processing.

The missing source files are represented by special file-list entries which display
as a "*missing" entry in the --list-only output.

--ignore-errors
Tells --delete to go ahead and delete files even when there are I/O errors.

--force
This option tells rsync to delete a non-empty directory when it is to  be  replaced
by  a  non-directory.   This  is  only  relevant  if  deletions are not active (see
--delete for details).

Note for older rsync versions:  --force  used  to  still  be  required  when  using
--delete-after,  and it used to be non-functional unless the --recursive option was
also enabled.

--max-delete=NUM
This tells rsync not to delete more than NUM files or directories.  If  that  limit
is exceeded, all further deletions are skipped through the end of the transfer.  At
the end, rsync outputs a warning (including a count of the skipped  deletions)  and
exits  with  an  error  code of 25 (unless some more important error condition also
occurred).

Beginning with version 3.0.0, you may specify --max-delete=0 to be warned about any
extraneous  files  in  the destination without removing any of them.  Older clients
interpreted this as "unlimited", so if you don't know what version the  client  is,
you  can  use  the  less  obvious  --max-delete=-1  as a backward-compatible way to
specify that no deletions be allowed (though really old versions didn't  warn  when
the limit was exceeded).

--max-size=SIZE
This  tells  rsync to avoid transferring any file that is larger than the specified
SIZE.  A numeric value can be suffixed with a string to indicate the numeric  units
or  left  unqualified  to specify bytes.  Feel free to use a fractional value along
with the units, such as --max-size=1.5m.

This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't affect the data  that
goes into the file-lists, and thus it doesn't affect deletions.  It just limits the
files that the receiver requests to be transferred.

The first letter of a units string can be B (bytes), K (kilo), M (mega), G  (giga),
T  (tera),  or  P  (peta).   If the string is a single char or has "ib" added to it
(e.g. "G" or "GiB") then the units are multiples of 1024.  If you use a  two-letter
suffix  that  ends  with a "B" (e.g. "kb") then you get units that are multiples of
1000.  The string's letters can be any mix of upper and lower-case that you want to
use.

Finally,  if  the string ends with either "+1" or "-1", it is offset by one byte in
the indicated direction.  The largest possible value is usually 8192P-1.

Examples: --max-size=1.5mb-1 is 1499999 bytes, and  --max-size=2g+1  is  2147483649
bytes.

Note that rsync versions prior to 3.1.0 did not allow --max-size=0.

--min-size=SIZE
This  tells rsync to avoid transferring any file that is smaller than the specified
SIZE, which can help in not transferring small, junk  files.   See  the  --max-size
option for a description of SIZE and other information.

Note that rsync versions prior to 3.1.0 did not allow --min-size=0.

--max-alloc=SIZE
By  default  rsync  limits  an individual malloc/realloc to about 1GB in size.  For
most people this limit works just fine and prevents a protocol error causing  rsync
to  request massive amounts of memory.  However, if you have many millions of files
in a transfer, a large amount of server memory, and you don't want to split up your
transfer  into  multiple  parts,  you  can  increase  the  per-allocation  limit to
something larger and rsync will consume more memory.

Keep in mind that this is not a limit on the total size of allocated memory.  It is
a sanity-check value for each individual allocation.

See  the  --max-size  option  for  a description of how SIZE can be specified.  The
default suffix if none is given is bytes.

Beginning in 3.2.3, a value of 0 specifies no limit.

You can set a default value using the environment  variable  RSYNC_MAX_ALLOC  using
the  same  SIZE  values  as  supported by this option.  If the remote rsync doesn't
understand the --max-alloc option, you  can  override  an  environmental  value  by
specifying  --max-alloc=1g,  which  will make rsync avoid sending the option to the
remote side (because "1G" is the default).

--block-size=SIZE, -B
This forces the block size used in rsync's  delta-transfer  algorithm  to  a  fixed
value.   It is normally selected based on the size of each file being updated.  See
the technical report for details.

Beginning in 3.2.3 the SIZE can be specified with  a  suffix  as  detailed  in  the
--max-size option.  Older versions only accepted a byte count.

--rsh=COMMAND, -e
This  option  allows  you  to choose an alternative remote shell program to use for
communication between the local and remote copies of rsync.   Typically,  rsync  is
configured to use ssh by default, but you may prefer to use rsh on a local network.

If this option is used with [user@]host::module/path, then the remote shell COMMAND
will be used to run an rsync daemon on the  remote  host,  and  all  data  will  be
transmitted  through  that  remote  shell  connection, rather than through a direct
socket connection to a running rsync daemon on the remote host.   See  the  section
"USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION" above.

Beginning  with rsync 3.2.0, the RSYNC_PORT environment variable will be set when a
daemon connection is being made via a remote-shell connection.  It is set to  0  if
the  default  daemon  port is being assumed, or it is set to the value of the rsync
port that was specified via either the --port option or a non-empty port  value  in
an  rsync:// URL.  This allows the script to discern if a non-default port is being
requested, allowing for things such as an SSL or stunnel helper script  to  connect
to a default or alternate port.

Command-line  arguments are permitted in COMMAND provided that COMMAND is presented
to rsync as a single argument.  You must use spaces (not tabs or other  whitespace)
to  separate  the  command and args from each other, and you can use single- and/or
double-quotes to preserve spaces in an argument (but not backslashes).   Note  that
doubling  a  single-quote  inside  a single-quoted string gives you a single-quote;
likewise for double-quotes (though you need to pay attention to which  quotes  your
shell is parsing and which quotes rsync is parsing).  Some examples:

-e 'ssh -p 2234'
-e 'ssh -o "ProxyCommand nohup ssh firewall nc -w1 %h %p"'

(Note  that  ssh  users  can alternately customize site-specific connect options in
their .ssh/config file.)

You can also choose the  remote  shell  program  using  the  RSYNC_RSH  environment
variable, which accepts the same range of values as -e.

--rsync-path=PROGRAM
Use  this  to  specify  what program is to be run on the remote machine to start-up
rsync.  Often used when rsync is not  in  the  default  remote-shell's  path  (e.g.
--rsync-path=/usr/local/bin/rsync).   Note  that  PROGRAM is run with the help of a
shell, so it can be any program, script, or command sequence you'd care to run,  so
long  as  it does not corrupt the standard-in & standard-out that rsync is using to
communicate.

One tricky example is to set a different default directory on  the  remote  machine
for use with the --relative option.  For instance:

rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /a/b && rsync" host:c/d /e/

--remote-option=OPTION, -M
This  option is used for more advanced situations where you want certain effects to
be limited to one side of the transfer only.  For instance, if  you  want  to  pass
--log-file=FILE and --fake-super to the remote system, specify it like this:

rsync -av -M --log-file=foo -M--fake-super src/ dest/

If  you  want  to  have  an option affect only the local side of a transfer when it
normally affects both sides, send its negation to the remote side.  Like this:

rsync -av -x -M--no-x src/ dest/

Be cautious using this, as it is possible to toggle an option that will cause rsync
to  have  a different idea about what data to expect next over the socket, and that
will make it fail in a cryptic fashion.

Note that it is best to use a separate --remote-option for each option you want  to
pass.   This  makes  your usage compatible with the --protect-args option.  If that
option is off, any spaces in your remote options will be split by the remote  shell
unless you take steps to protect them.

When  performing  a local transfer, the "local" side is the sender and the "remote"

Note some versions of the popt option-parsing library  have  a  bug  in  them  that
prevents  you from using an adjacent arg with an equal in it next to a short option
letter (e.g. -M--log-file=/tmp/foo).  If this bug affects your version of popt, you
can use the version of popt that is included with rsync.

--cvs-exclude, -C
This  is  a  useful  shorthand  for excluding a broad range of files that you often
don't want to transfer between systems.  It uses a  similar  algorithm  to  CVS  to
determine if a file should be ignored.

The exclude list is initialized to exclude the following items (these initial items
are marked as perishable -- see the FILTER RULES section):

RCS SCCS CVS CVS.adm RCSLOG cvslog.*  tags TAGS .make.state .nse_depinfo *~  #*
.#*  ,*  _$* *$ *.old *.bak *.BAK *.orig *.rej .del-* *.a *.olb *.o *.obj *.so
*.exe *.Z *.elc *.ln core .svn/ .git/ .hg/ .bzr/

then, files listed in a $HOME/.cvsignore are added to the list and any files listed in the CVSIGNORE environment variable (all cvsignore names are delimited by whitespace). Finally, any file is ignored if it is in the same directory as a .cvsignore file and matches one of the patterns listed therein. Unlike rsync's filter/exclude files, these patterns are split on whitespace. See the cvs(1) manual for more information. If you're combining -C with your own --filter rules, you should note that these CVS excludes are appended at the end of your own rules, regardless of where the -C was placed on the command-line. This makes them a lower priority than any rules you specified explicitly. If you want to control where these CVS excludes get inserted into your filter rules, you should omit the -C as a command-line option and use a combination of --filter=:C and --filter=-C (either on your command-line or by putting the ":C" and "-C" rules into a filter file with your other rules). The first option turns on the per-directory scanning for the .cvsignore file. The second option does a one-time import of the CVS excludes mentioned above. --filter=RULE, -f This option allows you to add rules to selectively exclude certain files from the list of files to be transferred. This is most useful in combination with a recursive transfer. You may use as many --filter options on the command line as you like to build up the list of files to exclude. If the filter contains whitespace, be sure to quote it so that the shell gives the rule to rsync as a single argument. The text below also mentions that you can use an underscore to replace the space that separates a rule from its arg. See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option. -F The -F option is a shorthand for adding two --filter rules to your command. The first time it is used is a shorthand for this rule: --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter' This tells rsync to look for per-directory .rsync-filter files that have been sprinkled through the hierarchy and use their rules to filter the files in the transfer. If -F is repeated, it is a shorthand for this rule: --filter='exclude .rsync-filter' This filters out the .rsync-filter files themselves from the transfer. See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on how these options work. --exclude=PATTERN This option is a simplified form of the --filter option that defaults to an exclude rule and does not allow the full rule-parsing syntax of normal filter rules. See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option. --exclude-from=FILE This option is related to the --exclude option, but it specifies a FILE that contains exclude patterns (one per line). Blank lines in the file are ignored, as are whole-line comments that start with ';' or '#' (filename rules that contain those characters are unaffected). If FILE is '-', the list will be read from standard input. --include=PATTERN This option is a simplified form of the --filter option that defaults to an include rule and does not allow the full rule-parsing syntax of normal filter rules. See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option. --include-from=FILE This option is related to the --include option, but it specifies a FILE that contains include patterns (one per line). Blank lines in the file are ignored, as are whole-line comments that start with ';' or '#' (filename rules that contain those characters are unaffected). If FILE is '-', the list will be read from standard input. --files-from=FILE Using this option allows you to specify the exact list of files to transfer (as read from the specified FILE or '-' for standard input). It also tweaks the default behavior of rsync to make transferring just the specified files and directories easier: o The --relative (-R) option is implied, which preserves the path information that is specified for each item in the file (use --no-relative or --no-R if you want to turn that off). o The --dirs (-d) option is implied, which will create directories specified in the list on the destination rather than noisily skipping them (use --no- dirs or --no-d if you want to turn that off). o The --archive (-a) option's behavior does not imply --recursive (-r), so specify it explicitly, if you want it. o These side-effects change the default state of rsync, so the position of the --files-from option on the command-line has no bearing on how other options are parsed (e.g. -a works the same before or after --files-from, as does --no-R and all other options). The filenames that are read from the FILE are all relative to the source dir -- any leading slashes are removed and no ".." references are allowed to go higher than the source dir. For example, take this command: rsync -a --files-from=/tmp/foo /usr remote:/backup If /tmp/foo contains the string "bin" (or even "/bin"), the /usr/bin directory will be created as /backup/bin on the remote host. If it contains "bin/" (note the trailing slash), the immediate contents of the directory would also be sent (without needing to be explicitly mentioned in the file -- this began in version 2.6.4). In both cases, if the -r option was enabled, that dir's entire hierarchy would also be transferred (keep in mind that -r needs to be specified explicitly with --files-from, since it is not implied by -a). Also note that the effect of the (enabled by default) --relative option is to duplicate only the path info that is read from the file -- it does not force the duplication of the source-spec path (/usr in this case). In addition, the --files-from file can be read from the remote host instead of the local host if you specify a "host:" in front of the file (the host must match one end of the transfer). As a short-cut, you can specify just a prefix of ":" to mean "use the remote end of the transfer". For example: rsync -a --files-from=:/path/file-list src:/ /tmp/copy This would copy all the files specified in the /path/file-list file that was located on the remote "src" host. If the --iconv and --protect-args options are specified and the --files-from filenames are being sent from one host to another, the filenames will be translated from the sending host's charset to the receiving host's charset. NOTE: sorting the list of files in the --files-from input helps rsync to be more efficient, as it will avoid re-visiting the path elements that are shared between adjacent entries. If the input is not sorted, some path elements (implied directories) may end up being scanned multiple times, and rsync will eventually unduplicate them after they get turned into file-list elements. --from0, -0 This tells rsync that the rules/filenames it reads from a file are terminated by a null ('\0') character, not a NL, CR, or CR+LF. This affects --exclude-from, --include-from, --files-from, and any merged files specified in a --filter rule. It does not affect --cvs-exclude (since all names read from a .cvsignore file are split on whitespace). --protect-args, -s This option sends all filenames and most options to the remote rsync without allowing the remote shell to interpret them. This means that spaces are not split in names, and any non-wildcard special characters are not translated (such as ~,$,
;,  &,  etc.).   Wildcards are expanded on the remote host by rsync (instead of the
shell doing it).

If you use this option with --iconv, the args related to the remote side will  also
be  translated from the local to the remote character-set.  The translation happens

You may also control this option via the RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS  environment  variable.
If  this  variable  has  a  non-zero value, this option will be enabled by default,
otherwise it will be disabled by default.  Either state is overridden by a manually
specified  positive  or negative version of this option (note that --no-s and --no-
protect-args are the negative versions).  Since this option was first introduced in
3.0.0,  you'll  need to make sure it's disabled if you ever need to interact with a
remote rsync that is older than that.

Rsync can also be configured (at build time) to have this option enabled by default
(with   is   overridden  by  both  the  environment  and  the  command-line).   Run
rsync --version to check if this is the case, as it will display "default  protect-
args" or "optional protect-args" depending on how it was compiled.

This  option  will  eventually  become  a  new  default  setting  at  some  as-yet-
undetermined point in the future.

--copy-as=USER[:GROUP]
This option instructs rsync to use the USER and (if specified after  a  colon)  the
GROUP  for  the copy operations.  This only works if the user that is running rsync
has the ability to change users.  If the group is not  specified  then  the  user's
default groups are used.

This  option  can help to reduce the risk of an rsync being run as root into or out
of a directory that might have live changes happening to it and you  want  to  make
sure that root-level read or write actions of system files are not possible.  While
you could alternatively run all of rsync as the specified user, sometimes you  need
the  root-level  host-access  credentials  to be used, so this allows rsync to drop
root for the copying part  of  the  operation  after  the  remote-shell  or  daemon
connection is established.

The  option  only affects one side of the transfer unless the transfer is local, in
which case it affects both sides.  Use the --remote-option  to  affect  the  remote
side,  such  as -M--copy-as=joe.  For a local transfer, the lsh (or lsh.sh) support
file provides a local-shell helper script that can be used to allow a  "localhost:"
or  "lh:"  host-spec  to  be  specified without needing to setup any remote shells,
allowing you to specify remote options that affect the side of the transfer that is
using  the  host-spec  (and using hostname "lh" avoids the overriding of the remote
directory to the user's home dir).

For example, the following rsync writes the local files as user "joe":

sudo rsync -aiv --copy-as=joe host1:backups/joe/ /home/joe/

This makes all files owned by user "joe", limits  the  groups  to  those  that  are
available  to  that  user,  and  makes it impossible for the joe user to do a timed
exploit of the path to induce a  change  to  a  file  that  the  joe  user  has  no
permissions to change.

The  following  command  does  a  local  copy  into  the  "dest/" dir as user "joe"
(assuming you've installed support/lsh into a dir on your $PATH): sudo rsync -aive lsh -M--copy-as=joe src/ lh:dest/ --temp-dir=DIR, -T This option instructs rsync to use DIR as a scratch directory when creating temporary copies of the files transferred on the receiving side. The default behavior is to create each temporary file in the same directory as the associated destination file. Beginning with rsync 3.1.1, the temp-file names inside the specified DIR will not be prefixed with an extra dot (though they will still have a random suffix added). This option is most often used when the receiving disk partition does not have enough free space to hold a copy of the largest file in the transfer. In this case (i.e. when the scratch directory is on a different disk partition), rsync will not be able to rename each received temporary file over the top of the associated destination file, but instead must copy it into place. Rsync does this by copying the file over the top of the destination file, which means that the destination file will contain truncated data during this copy. If this were not done this way (even if the destination file were first removed, the data locally copied to a temporary file in the destination directory, and then renamed into place) it would be possible for the old file to continue taking up disk space (if someone had it open), and thus there might not be enough room to fit the new version on the disk at the same time. If you are using this option for reasons other than a shortage of disk space, you may wish to combine it with the --delay-updates option, which will ensure that all copied files get put into subdirectories in the destination hierarchy, awaiting the end of the transfer. If you don't have enough room to duplicate all the arriving files on the destination partition, another way to tell rsync that you aren't overly concerned about disk space is to use the --partial-dir option with a relative path; because this tells rsync that it is OK to stash off a copy of a single file in a subdir in the destination hierarchy, rsync will use the partial- dir as a staging area to bring over the copied file, and then rename it into place from there. (Specifying a --partial-dir with an absolute path does not have this side-effect.) --fuzzy, -y This option tells rsync that it should look for a basis file for any destination file that is missing. The current algorithm looks in the same directory as the destination file for either a file that has an identical size and modified-time, or a similarly-named file. If found, rsync uses the fuzzy basis file to try to speed up the transfer. If the option is repeated, the fuzzy scan will also be done in any matching alternate destination directories that are specified via --compare-dest, --copy- dest, or --link-dest. Note that the use of the --delete option might get rid of any potential fuzzy-match files, so either use --delete-after or specify some filename exclusions if you need to prevent this. --compare-dest=DIR This option instructs rsync to use DIR on the destination machine as an additional hierarchy to compare destination files against doing transfers (if the files are missing in the destination directory). If a file is found in DIR that is identical to the sender's file, the file will NOT be transferred to the destination directory. This is useful for creating a sparse backup of just files that have changed from an earlier backup. This option is typically used to copy into an empty (or newly created) directory. Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --compare-dest directories may be provided, which will cause rsync to search the list in the order specified for an exact match. If a match is found that differs only in attributes, a local copy is made and the attributes updated. If a match is not found, a basis file from one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the transfer. If DIR is a relative path, it is relative to the destination directory. See also --copy-dest and --link-dest. NOTE: beginning with version 3.1.0, rsync will remove a file from a non-empty destination hierarchy if an exact match is found in one of the compare-dest hierarchies (making the end result more closely match a fresh copy). --copy-dest=DIR This option behaves like --compare-dest, but rsync will also copy unchanged files found in DIR to the destination directory using a local copy. This is useful for doing transfers to a new destination while leaving existing files intact, and then doing a flash-cutover when all files have been successfully transferred. Multiple --copy-dest directories may be provided, which will cause rsync to search the list in the order specified for an unchanged file. If a match is not found, a basis file from one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the transfer. If DIR is a relative path, it is relative to the destination directory. See also --compare-dest and --link-dest. --link-dest=DIR This option behaves like --copy-dest, but unchanged files are hard linked from DIR to the destination directory. The files must be identical in all preserved attributes (e.g. permissions, possibly ownership) in order for the files to be linked together. An example: rsync -av --link-dest=$PWD/prior_dir host:src_dir/ new_dir/

If file's aren't linking,  double-check  their  attributes.   Also  check  if  some
attributes  are getting forced outside of rsync's control, such a mount option that
squishes root to a single user, or mounts a removable drive with generic  ownership
(such as OS X's "Ignore ownership on this volume" option).

Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --link-dest directories may be provided, which
will cause rsync to search the list in the  order  specified  for  an  exact  match
(there  is  a limit of 20 such directories).  If a match is found that differs only
in attributes, a local copy is made and the attributes updated.  If a match is  not
found,  a  basis  file from one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the
transfer.

This option works best  when  copying  into  an  empty  destination  hierarchy,  as
existing  files  may  get  their  attributes tweaked, and that can affect alternate
destination files via hard-links.   Also,  itemizing  of  changes  can  get  a  bit
muddled.   Note  that  prior  to  version 3.1.0, an alternate-directory exact match
would never be found (nor linked into the  destination)  when  a  destination  file

Note  that  if you combine this option with --ignore-times, rsync will not link any
files together because it only links identical files together as a  substitute  for
transferring the file, never as an additional check after the file is updated.

If  DIR  is a relative path, it is relative to the destination directory.  See also
--compare-dest and --copy-dest.

Note that rsync versions prior to 2.6.1 had a bug that  could  prevent  --link-dest
from  working  properly  for  a non-super-user when -o was specified (or implied by
-a).  You can work-around this bug by avoiding the -o option when sending to an old
rsync.

--compress, -z
With  this  option, rsync compresses the file data as it is sent to the destination
machine, which reduces the amount of data being transmitted --  something  that  is
useful over a slow connection.

Rsync  supports multiple compression methods and will choose one for you unless you
force the choice using the --compress-choice (--zc) option.

Run rsync --version to see the default compress list compiled into your version.

When both sides of the transfer  are  at  least  3.2.0,  rsync  chooses  the  first
algorithm  in  the  client's  list  of choices that is also in the server's list of
choices.  If no common compress choice is found, rsync exits with an error.  If the
remote  rsync is too old to support checksum negotiation, its list is assumed to be
"zlib".

The  default  order  can  be  customized  by  setting  the   environment   variable
RSYNC_COMPRESS_LIST  to a space-separated list of acceptable compression names.  If
the string contains a "&" character, it is separated  into  the  "client  string  &
server  string",  otherwise  the  same  string  applies to both.  If the string (or
string portion) contains no non-whitespace characters, the default compress list is
used.   Any  unknown compression names are discarded from the list, but a list with
only invalid names results in a failed negotiation.

There are some older rsync versions that were configured to reject a -z option  and
require  the  use  of -zz because their compression library was not compatible with
the default zlib compression method.  You can usually ignore this weirdness  unless
the rsync server complains and tells you to specify -zz.

See also the --skip-compress option for the default list of file suffixes that will
be transferred with no (or minimal) compression.

--compress-choice=STR, --zc=STR
This option can be used to override the automatic negotiation  of  the  compression
algorithm  that  occurs  when  --compress  is  used.  The option implies --compress
unless "none" was specified, which instead implies --no-compress.

The compression options that you may be able to use are:

o      zstd

o      lz4

o      zlibx

o      zlib

o      none

Run rsync --version to see the default compress list  compiled  into  your  version
(which may differ from the list above).

Note  that  if  you  see  an  error  about an option named --old-compress or --new-
compress, this is rsync trying to send the  --compress-choice=zlib  or  --compress-
choice=zlibx  option  in  a  backward-compatible  manner  that  more rsync versions
understand.  This error indicates that the older rsync version on the  server  will
not allow you to force the compression type.

Note  that  the  "zlibx"  compression  algorithm  is just the "zlib" algorithm with
matched data excluded  from  the  compression  stream  (to  try  to  make  it  more
compatible with an external zlib implementation).

--compress-level=NUM, --zl=NUM
Explicitly set the compression level to use (see --compress, -z) instead of letting
it default.  The --compress option is implied as long as the level chosen is not  a
"don't  compress"  level for the compression algorithm that is in effect (e.g. zlib
compression treats level 0 as "off").

The level values vary depending on the checksum  in  effect.   Because  rsync  will
negotiate  a  checksum  choice by default (when the remote rsync is new enough), it
can be good to combine this option with a --compress-choice  (--zc)  option  unless
you're sure of the choice in effect.  For example:

rsync -aiv --zc=zstd --zl=22 host:src/ dest/

For  zlib  &  zlibx  compression  the valid values are from 1 to 9 with 6 being the
default.  Specifying 0 turns compression off, and specifying -1 chooses the default
of 6.

For  zstd  compression  the  valid  values  are from -131072 to 22 with 3 being the
default. Specifying 0 chooses the default of 3.

For lz4 compression there are no levels, so the value is always 0.

If you specify a too-large or too-small value, the number is silently limited to  a
valid  value.   This  allows  you  to  specify something like --zl=999999999 and be
assured that you'll end up with  the  maximum  compression  level  no  matter  what
algorithm was chosen.

If  you  want to know the compression level that is in effect, specify --debug=nstr
to  see  the  "negotiated  string"  results.   This  will  report  something   like
"Client compress: zstd (level 3)" (along with the checksum choice in effect).

--skip-compress=LIST
Override  the  list of file suffixes that will be compressed as little as possible.
Rsync sets the compression level on a per-file basis based on  the  file's  suffix.
If  the  compression  algorithm  has  an  "off"  level (such as zlib/zlibx) then no
compression occurs for those files.  Other algorithms  that  support  changing  the
streaming  level  on-the-fly will have the level minimized to reduces the CPU usage
as much as possible for  a  matching  file.   At  this  time,  only  zlib  &  zlibx
compression support this changing of levels on a per-file basis.

The LIST should be one or more file suffixes (without the dot) separated by slashes
(/).  You may specify an empty string to indicate that no files should be skipped.

Simple character-class matching is supported:  each  must  consist  of  a  list  of
letters  inside  the square brackets (e.g. no special classes, such as "[:alpha:]",
are supported, and '-' has no special meaning).

The characters asterisk (*) and question-mark (?) have no special meaning.

Here's an example that specifies 6 suffixes to skip (since 1 of the 5 rules matches
2 suffixes):

--skip-compress=gz/jpg/mp[34]/7z/bz2

The default file suffixes in the skip-compress list in this version of rsync are:

3g2 3gp 7z aac ace apk avi bz2 deb dmg ear f4v flac flv gpg gz iso jar jpeg jpg
lrz lz lz4 lzma lzo m1a m1v m2a m2ts m2v m4a m4b m4p m4r m4v mka  mkv  mov  mp1
mp2  mp3  mp4  mpa mpeg mpg mpv mts odb odf odg odi odm odp ods odt oga ogg ogm
ogv ogx opus otg oth otp ots ott oxt png qt rar rpm rz rzip  spx  squashfs  sxc
sxd sxg sxm sxw sz tbz tbz2 tgz tlz ts txz tzo vob war webm webp xz z zip zst

This list will be replaced by your --skip-compress list in all but one situation: a
copy from a daemon rsync will add  your  skipped  suffixes  to  its  list  of  non-
compressing files (and its list may be configured to a different default).

--numeric-ids
With  this  option rsync will transfer numeric group and user IDs rather than using
user and group names and mapping them at both ends.

By default rsync will use the username and groupname to determine what ownership to
give  files.   The  special  uid  0  and  the  special group 0 are never mapped via
user/group names even if the --numeric-ids option is not specified.

If a user or group has no name on the source system or  it  has  no  match  on  the
destination  system,  then  the  numeric ID from the source system is used instead.
information  on how the chroot setting affects rsync's ability to look up the names
of the users and groups and what you can do about it.

--usermap=STRING, --groupmap=STRING
These options allow you to specify users and groups that should be mapped to  other
values  by  the  receiving side.  The STRING is one or more FROM:TO pairs of values
separated by commas.  Any matching FROM value from the sender is replaced with a TO
value from the receiver.  You may specify usernames or user IDs for the FROM and TO
values, and the FROM value may also be a wild-card string, which  will  be  matched
against  the sender's names (wild-cards do NOT match against ID numbers, though see
below for why a '*' matches everything).  You may instead specify  a  range  of  ID
numbers via an inclusive range: LOW-HIGH.  For example:

The  first  match in the list is the one that is used.  You should specify all your
user mappings using a single --usermap option, and/or all your group mappings using
a single --groupmap option.

Note  that  the  sender's  name for the 0 user and group are not transmitted to the
receiver, so you should either match these values using a 0, or use  the  names  in
effect  on the receiving side (typically "root").  All other FROM names match those
in use on the sending side.  All TO names match those in use on the receiving side.

Any IDs that do not have a name on the sending side are treated as having an  empty
name  for  the  purpose  of  matching.  This allows them to be matched via a "*" or
using an empty name.  For instance:

--usermap=:nobody --groupmap=*:nobody

When the --numeric-ids option is used, the sender does not send any names,  so  all
the  IDs  are  treated  as  having an empty name.  This means that you will need to
specify numeric FROM values if you want to map  these  nameless  IDs  to  different
values.

For  the  --usermap option to have any effect, the -o (--owner) option must be used
(or implied), and the receiver will need to be running as a  super-user  (see  also
the  --fake-super  option).   For  the --groupmap option to have any effect, the -g
(--group) option must be used (or implied), and the  receiver  will  need  to  have
permissions to set that group.

--chown=USER:GROUP
This  option  forces  all  files  to  be owned by USER with group GROUP.  This is a
simpler  interface  than  using  --usermap  and  --groupmap  directly,  but  it  is
implemented  using those options internally, so you cannot mix them.  If either the
USER or GROUP is empty, no mapping for the omitted user/group will occur.  If GROUP
is  empty, the trailing colon may be omitted, but if USER is empty, a leading colon
must be supplied.

If  you  specify  "--chown=foo:bar",  this  is  exactly  the  same  as   specifying
wildcards, use --protect-args (-s).

--timeout=SECONDS
This option allows you to set a maximum I/O timeout in  seconds.   If  no  data  is
transferred  for  the specified time then rsync will exit.  The default is 0, which
means no timeout.

--contimeout=SECONDS
This option allows you to set the amount of time  that  rsync  will  wait  for  its
connection  to  an rsync daemon to succeed.  If the timeout is reached, rsync exits
with an error.

By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address  when  connecting  to  an  rsync
daemon.   The  --address  option  allows  you  to specify a specific IP address (or
hostname) to bind to.  See also this option in the --daemon mode section.

--port=PORT
This specifies an alternate TCP port number to use rather than the default of  873.
This  is  only needed if you are using the double-colon (::) syntax to connect with
an rsync daemon (since the URL syntax has a way to specify the port as  a  part  of

--sockopts=OPTIONS
This  option  can  provide endless fun for people who like to tune their systems to
the utmost degree.  You can  set  all  sorts  of  socket  options  which  may  make
transfers  faster (or slower!).  Read the man page for the setsockopt() system call
for details on some of the options you may be able to set.  By default  no  special
socket  options  are  set.  This only affects direct socket connections to a remote
rsync daemon.

This option also exists in the --daemon mode section.

--blocking-io
This tells rsync to use blocking I/O when launching a remote shell  transport.   If
the  remote  shell  is  either  rsh or remsh, rsync defaults to using blocking I/O,
otherwise it defaults to using  non-blocking  I/O.  (Note  that  ssh  prefers  non-
blocking I/O.)

--outbuf=MODE
This  sets the output buffering mode.  The mode can be None (aka Unbuffered), Line,
or Block (aka Full).  You may specify as little as a single letter  for  the  mode,
and use upper or lower case.

The  main  use  of  this  option is to change Full buffering to Line buffering when
rsync's output is going to a file or pipe.

--itemize-changes, -i
Requests a simple itemized list of the changes that are being made  to  each  file,
including  attribute  changes.   This  is  exactly  the  same  as specifying --out-
format='%i %n%L'.  If you repeat the option, unchanged files will also  be  output,
but  only  if  the  receiving rsync is at least version 2.6.7 (you can use -vv with
older versions of rsync, but that  also  turns  on  the  output  of  other  verbose
messages).

The  "%i"  escape has a cryptic output that is 11 letters long.  The general format
is like the string YXcstpoguax, where Y is replaced by the  type  of  update  being
done,  X  is  replaced by the file-type, and the other letters represent attributes
that may be output if they are being modified.

The update types that replace the Y are as follows:

o      A < means that a file is being transferred to the remote host (sent).

o      A > means that a file is being transferred to the local host (received).

o      A c means that a local change/creation is occurring for the  item  (such  as
the creation of a directory or the changing of a symlink, etc.).

o      A  h  means  that  the item is a hard link to another item (requires --hard-

o      A . means that  the  item  is  not  being  updated  (though  it  might  have
attributes that are being modified).

o      A * means that the rest of the itemized-output area contains a message (e.g.
"deleting").

The file-types that replace the X are: f for a file, a d for a directory, an L  for
a  symlink,  a  D  for a device, and a S for a special file (e.g. named sockets and
fifos).

The other letters in the string indicate  if  some  attributes  of  the  file  have
changed, as follows:

o      "." - the attribute is unchanged.

o      "+" - the file is newly created.

o      " " - all the attributes are unchanged (all dots turn to spaces).

o      "?" - the change is unknown (when the remote rsync is old).

o      A letter indicates an attribute is being updated.

The attribute that is associated with each letter is as follows:

o      A  c  means  either  that  a regular file has a different checksum (requires
--checksum) or that a symlink, device, or special file has a changed  value.
Note  that  if you are sending files to an rsync prior to 3.0.1, this change
flag will be present only for checksum-differing regular files.

o      A s means the size of a regular file is different and will be updated by the
file transfer.

o      A  t  means  the  modification time is different and is being updated to the
sender's value (requires --times).  An alternate value of T means  that  the
modification  time  will  be  set to the transfer time, which happens when a
and  the  receiver  can't  set  its  time.  (Note: when using an rsync 3.0.0
client, you might see the s flag combined with t instead  of  the  proper  T
flag for this time-setting failure.)

o      A  p  means  the  permissions  are  different  and  are being updated to the
sender's value (requires --perms).

o      An o means the owner is different and is being updated to the sender's value
(requires --owner and super-user privileges).

o      A  g means the group is different and is being updated to the sender's value
(requires --group and the authority to set the group).

o      A u|n|b indicates the following information: u  means the access (use)  time
is different and is being updated to the sender's value (requires --atimes);
n means the create time (newness) is different and is being updated  to  the
sender's value (requires --crtimes); b means that both the access and create
times are being updated.

o      The a means that the ACL information is being changed.

o      The x means that the extended attribute information is being changed.

One other output is possible: when deleting files, the "%i" will output the  string
"*deleting" for each item that is being removed (assuming that you are talking to a
recent enough rsync that it logs deletions instead of outputting them as a  verbose
message).

--out-format=FORMAT
This  allows  you to specify exactly what the rsync client outputs to the user on a
per-update basis.  The format is a text string containing embedded single-character
escape sequences prefixed with a percent (%) character.  A default format of "%n%L"
is assumed if either --info=name or -v is specified (this tells you just  the  name
of  the  file and, if the item is a link, where it points).  For a full list of the
possible escape  characters,  see  the  "log format"  setting  in  the  rsyncd.conf
manpage.

Specifying  the  --out-format  option  implies  the  --info=name option, which will
mention each file, dir, etc. that gets updated in a significant way (a  transferred
file,  a  recreated  symlink/device,  or a touched directory).  In addition, if the
itemize-changes escape (%i) is included in  the  string  (e.g.  if  the  --itemize-
changes  option  was used), the logging of names increases to mention any item that
is changed in any way (as long as the receiving side is at least 2.6.4).   See  the
--itemize-changes option for a description of the output of "%i".

Rsync  will  output  the out-format string prior to a file's transfer unless one of
the transfer-statistic escapes is requested, in which case the logging is  done  at
the end of the file's transfer.  When this late logging is in effect and --progress
is also specified, rsync will also output the name of the  file  being  transferred
prior to its progress information (followed, of course, by the out-format output).

--log-file=FILE
This option causes rsync to log what it is doing to a file.  This is similar to the
logging that a daemon does, but can be requested for the  client  side  and/or  the
server  side  of  a non-daemon transfer.  If specified as a client option, transfer
logging will be enabled with a default format of "%i %n%L".   See  the  --log-file-
format option if you wish to override this.

Here's a example command that requests the remote side to log what is happening:

rsync -av --remote-option=--log-file=/tmp/rlog src/ dest/

This is very useful if you need to debug why a connection is closing unexpectedly.

--log-file-format=FORMAT
This  allows  you  to  specify exactly what per-update logging is put into the file
specified by the --log-file option (which must also be specified for this option to
have  any  effect).   If  you  specify  an  empty string, updated files will not be
mentioned in the log file.  For a list of the possible escape characters,  see  the
"log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

The  default  FORMAT  used if --log-file is specified and this option is not is '%i
%n%L'.

--stats
This tells rsync to print a  verbose  set  of  statistics  on  the  file  transfer,
allowing  you  to  tell  how effective rsync's delta-transfer algorithm is for your
data.  This option is equivalent to --info=stats2  if  combined  with  0  or  1  -v
options, or --info=stats3 if combined with 2 or more -v options.

The current statistics are as follows:

o      Number of files  is  the  count of all "files" (in the generic sense), which
includes directories, symlinks, etc.  The total count will be followed by  a
list  of counts by filetype (if the total is non-zero).  For example: "(reg:
5, dir: 3, link: 2, dev: 1, special: 1)" lists the totals for regular files,
directories, symlinks, devices, and special files.  If any of value is 0, it
is completely omitted from the list.

o      Number of created files is the count of how  many  "files"  (generic  sense)
were created (as opposed to updated).  The total count will be followed by a
list of counts by filetype (if the total is non-zero).

o      Number of deleted files is the count of how  many  "files"  (generic  sense)
were  deleted.   The  total  count  will  be followed by a list of counts by
filetype (if the total is non-zero).  Note that this line is only output  if
deletions  are in effect, and only if protocol 31 is being used (the default
for rsync 3.1.x).

o      Number of regular files transferred is the count of normal files  that  were
updated  via  rsync's delta-transfer algorithm, which does not include dirs,
symlinks, etc.  Note that rsync 3.1.0 added the  word  "regular"  into  this

o      Total file size  is  the  total sum of all file sizes in the transfer.  This
does not count any size for directories or special files, but  does  include

o      Total transferred file size is the total sum of all files sizes for just the
transferred files.

o      Literal data is how much unmatched file-update data we had to  send  to  the
receiver for it to recreate the updated files.

o      Matched data  is  how much data the receiver got locally when recreating the
updated files.

o      File list size is how big the file-list data was when the sender sent it  to
the receiver.  This is smaller than the in-memory size for the file list due
to some compressing of duplicated data when rsync sends the list.

o      File list generation time is the number of seconds  that  the  sender  spent
creating  the  file  list.  This requires a modern rsync on the sending side
for this to be present.

o      File list transfer time is the number  of  seconds  that  the  sender  spent
sending the file list to the receiver.

o      Total bytes sent  is  the  count  of  all the bytes that rsync sent from the
client side to the server side.

o      Total bytes received is the  count  of  all  non-message  bytes  that  rsync
received  by the client side from the server side. "Non-message" bytes means
that we don't count the bytes for a verbose message that the server sent  to
us, which makes the stats more consistent.

--8-bit-output, -8
This  tells  rsync to leave all high-bit characters unescaped in the output instead
of trying to test them to see if they're valid in the current locale  and  escaping
the  invalid  ones.   All  control  characters (but never tabs) are always escaped,
regardless of this option's setting.

The escape idiom that started in 2.6.7 is to output a literal backslash (\)  and  a
hash  (#), followed by exactly 3 octal digits.  For example, a newline would output
as "\#012".  A literal backslash that is in a filename is not escaped unless it  is
followed by a hash and 3 digits (0-9).

Output  numbers  in a more human-readable format.  There are 3 possible levels: (1)
output numbers with a separator between each set of 3 digits (either a comma  or  a
period,  depending  on if the decimal point is represented by a period or a comma);
(2) output numbers in units of 1000 (with a character suffix  for  larger  units --
see below); (3) output numbers in units of 1024.

The  default is human-readable level 1.  Each -h option increases the level by one.
You can take the level down to 0 (to output numbers as pure digits)  by  specifying

The  unit  letters  that  are appended in levels 2 and 3 are: K (kilo), M (mega), G
(giga), T (tera), or P (peta).  For example, a 1234567-byte file  would  output  as
1.23M in level-2 (assuming that a period is your local decimal point).

Backward compatibility note: versions of rsync prior to 3.1.0 do not support human-
readable level 1, and they default to level 0.  Thus,  specifying  one  or  two  -h
options  will  behave in a comparable manner in old and new versions as long as you
didn't specify a --no-h option prior to one or more -h options.   See  the  --list-
only option for one difference.

--partial
By  default,  rsync  will  delete any partially transferred file if the transfer is
interrupted.  In  some  circumstances  it  is  more  desirable  to  keep  partially
transferred files.  Using the --partial option tells rsync to keep the partial file
which should make a subsequent transfer of the rest of the file much faster.

--partial-dir=DIR
A better way to keep partial files than the --partial option is to  specify  a  DIR
that  will  be  used  to  hold  the  partial data (instead of writing it out to the
destination file).  On the next transfer, rsync will use a file found in  this  dir
as  data to speed up the resumption of the transfer and then delete it after it has
served its purpose.

Note that if --whole-file is specified (or implied), any partial-dir file  that  is
found  for  a  file  that  is  being updated will simply be removed (since rsync is
sending files without using rsync's delta-transfer algorithm).

Rsync will create the DIR if it is missing (just the  last  dir --  not  the  whole
path).   This  makes it easy to use a relative path (such as "--partial-dir=.rsync-
partial") to have rsync create the  partial-directory  in  the  destination  file's
directory  when  needed, and then remove it again when the partial file is deleted.
Note that the directory is only removed if it is a  relative  pathname,  as  it  is
expected  that  an absolute path is to a directory that is reserved for partial-dir
work.

If the partial-dir value is not an absolute path, rsync will add an exclude rule at
the  end  of  all  your  existing  excludes.   This will prevent the sending of any
partial-dir files that may exist on the sending side, and  will  also  prevent  the
untimely  deletion  of  partial-dir  items  on the receiving side.  An example: the
above --partial-dir option would add the equivalent of "-f '-p .rsync-partial/'" at
the end of any other filter rules.

exclude/hide/protect rule for the partial-dir because (1) the auto-added  rule  may
be  ineffective  at  the  end  of your other rules, or (2) you may wish to override
rsync's exclude choice.  For instance, if you want to make rsync clean-up any left-
over  partial-dirs  that may be lying around, you should specify --delete-after and
add a "risk" filter rule,  e.g.   -f 'R .rsync-partial/'.  (Avoid  using  --delete-
before  or  --delete-during unless you don't need rsync to use any of the left-over
partial-dir data during the current run.)

IMPORTANT: the --partial-dir should not be writable by  other  users  or  it  is  a
security risk.  E.g. AVOID "/tmp".

You  can also set the partial-dir value the RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR environment variable.
Setting this in the environment does not force --partial to be enabled, but  rather
it  affects  where  partial  files  go  when --partial is specified.  For instance,
instead of using --partial-dir=.rsync-tmp along  with  --progress,  you  could  set
RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR=.rsync-tmp in your environment and then just use the -P option to
turn on the use of the .rsync-tmp dir for partial transfers.  The only  times  that
the  --partial  option  does  not  look  for  this  environment  value are (1) when
--inplace was specified (since --inplace conflicts  with  --partial-dir),  and  (2)
when --delay-updates was specified (see below).

When a modern rsync resumes the transfer of a file in the partial-dir, that partial
file is now updated in-place instead of creating yet another tmp-file copy  (so  it
maxes  out at dest + tmp instead of dest + partial + tmp).  This requires both ends
of the transfer to be at least version 3.2.0.

For the purposes of the  daemon-config's  "refuse options"  setting,  --partial-dir
does not imply --partial.  This is so that a refusal of the --partial option can be
used to disallow the overwriting of destination  files  with  a  partial  transfer,
while still allowing the safer idiom provided by --partial-dir.

This option puts the temporary file from each updated file into a holding directory
until the end of the transfer, at which time all the files are renamed  into  place
in rapid succession.  This attempts to make the updating of the files a little more
atomic.  By default the files are placed into a  directory  named  .~tmp~  in  each
file's  destination  directory,  but  if you've specified the --partial-dir option,
that directory will be used instead.  See the comments in the --partial-dir section
for  a  discussion  of  how this .~tmp~ dir will be excluded from the transfer, and
what you can do if you want rsync to cleanup old .~tmp~ dirs that  might  be  lying
around.  Conflicts with --inplace and --append.

This  option implies --no-inc-recursive since it needs the full file list in memory
in order to be able to iterate over it at the end.

This option uses more memory on the receiving side (one bit per  file  transferred)
and  also  requires  enough  free  disk  space  on  the  receiving  side to hold an
additional copy of all the updated files.  Note also that you  should  not  use  an
absolute path to --partial-dir unless (1) there is no chance of any of the files in
the transfer having the same name (since all the updated files will be put  into  a
single  directory if the path is absolute) and (2) there are no mount points in the
hierarchy (since the delayed updates will  fail  if  they  can't  be  renamed  into
place).

See  also  the  "atomic-rsync"  perl  script  in the "support" subdir for an update
algorithm that is even more atomic (it uses --link-dest and a parallel hierarchy of
files).

--prune-empty-dirs, -m
This  option  tells  the  receiving  rsync to get rid of empty directories from the
file-list, including nested directories that have no non-directory children.   This
is  useful  for  avoiding  the  creation of a bunch of useless directories when the
sending   rsync   is   recursively   scanning   a   hierarchy   of   files    using
include/exclude/filter rules.

Note that the use of transfer rules, such as the --min-size option, does not affect
what goes into the file list, and thus does not leave directories  empty,  even  if
none of the files in a directory match the transfer rule.

Because  the  file-list  is  actually  being  pruned, this option also affects what
directories get deleted when a delete  is  active.   However,  keep  in  mind  that
excluded files and directories can prevent existing items from being deleted due to
an exclude both hiding source files and  protecting  destination  files.   See  the
perishable filter-rule option for how to avoid this.

You  can  prevent  the  pruning  of certain empty directories from the file-list by
using a global "protect" filter.  For instance, this option would ensure  that  the
directory "emptydir" was kept in the file-list:

--filter 'protect emptydir/'

Here's  an  example  that  copies  all .pdf files in a hierarchy, only creating the
necessary destination directories to hold the .pdf  files,  and  ensures  that  any
superfluous  files  and  directories  in the destination are removed (note the hide
filter of non-directories being used instead of an exclude):

rsync -avm --del --include='*.pdf' -f 'hide,! */' src/ dest

If you didn't want to remove superfluous destination files, the  more  time-honored
options of --include='*/' --exclude='*' would work fine in place of the hide-filter
(if that is more natural to you).

--progress
This option tells rsync to print information showing the progress of the  transfer.
This  gives  a bored user something to watch.  With a modern rsync this is the same
as specifying --info=flist2,name,progress, but any user-supplied settings for those
info flags takes precedence (e.g.  "--info=flist0 --progress").

While  rsync  is transferring a regular file, it updates a progress line that looks
like this:

782448  63%  110.64kB/s    0:00:04

In this example, the receiver has reconstructed 782448 bytes or 63% of the sender's
file,  which  is  being reconstructed at a rate of 110.64 kilobytes per second, and
the transfer will finish in 4 seconds if the current rate is maintained  until  the
end.

These  statistics  can be misleading if rsync's delta-transfer algorithm is in use.
For example, if the sender's file consists of the basis file followed by additional
data,  the  reported rate will probably drop dramatically when the receiver gets to
the literal data, and the transfer will probably take much longer  to  finish  than
the receiver estimated as it was finishing the matched part of the file.

When  the  file  transfer finishes, rsync replaces the progress line with a summary
line that looks like this:

1,238,099 100%  146.38kB/s    0:00:08  (xfr#5, to-chk=169/396)

In this example, the file was 1,238,099 bytes long in total, the  average  rate  of
transfer for the whole file was 146.38 kilobytes per second over the 8 seconds that
it took to complete, it was the 5th transfer of a regular file during  the  current
rsync  session,  and  there are 169 more files for the receiver to check (to see if
they are up-to-date or not) remaining out of the 396 total files in the file-list.

In an incremental recursion scan, rsync won't know the total number of files in the
file-list  until  it  reaches the ends of the scan, but since it starts to transfer
files during the scan,  it  will  display  a  line  with  the  text  "ir-chk"  (for
incremental  recursion check) instead of "to-chk" until the point that it knows the
full size of the list, at which point it will  switch  to  using  "to-chk".   Thus,
seeing  "ir-chk"  lets  you  know that the total count of files in the file list is
still going to increase (and each time it does, the count of files  left  to  check
will increase by the number of the files added to the list).

-P     The  -P  option  is  equivalent to --partial --progress.  Its purpose is to make it
much easier to  specify  these  two  options  for  a  long  transfer  that  may  be
interrupted.

There  is also a --info=progress2 option that outputs statistics based on the whole
transfer, rather than  individual  files.   Use  this  flag  without  outputting  a
filename  (e.g.  avoid  -v  or  specify  --info=name0)  if  you want to see how the
transfer is doing without scrolling the screen with a lot of names. (You don't need
to specify the --progress option in order to use --info=progress2.)

Finally, you can get an instant progress report by sending rsync a signal of either
SIGINFO or SIGVTALRM.  On BSD systems, a SIGINFO is generated by  typing  a  Ctrl+T
(Linux  doesn't  currently support a SIGINFO signal).  When the client-side process
receives one of those signals, it sets a flag to output a  single  progress  report
which  is  output  when the current file transfer finishes (so it may take a little
time if a big file is being handled when the signal arrives).  A filename is output
(if needed) followed by the --info=progress2 format of progress info.  If you don't
know which of the 3 rsync processes is the client process, it's OK to signal all of
them (since the non-client processes ignore the signal).

CAUTION: sending SIGVTALRM to an older rsync (pre-3.2.0) will kill it.

This  option  allows  you to provide a password for accessing an rsync daemon via a
file or via standard input if FILE is -.  The file should contain just the password
on  the first line (all other lines are ignored).  Rsync will exit with an error if
FILE is world readable or if a root-run rsync command finds a non-root-owned file.

This option does not supply a password to a remote shell transport such as ssh;  to
learn  how to do that, consult the remote shell's documentation.  When accessing an
rsync daemon using a remote shell as the transport, this  option  only  comes  into
effect  after  the  remote shell finishes its authentication (i.e. if you have also
specified a password in the daemon's config file).

--early-input=FILE
This option allows rsync to send up to 5K of data to the "early exec" script on its
stdin.   One  possible  use of this data is to give the script a secret that can be
used to mount an encrypted filesystem (which you should unmount in the  the  "post-
xfer exec" script).

The daemon must be at least version 3.2.1.

--list-only
This  option will cause the source files to be listed instead of transferred.  This
option is inferred if there is a single source arg and no destination specified, so
its  main uses are: (1) to turn a copy command that includes a destination arg into
a file-listing command, or (2) to be able to  specify  more  than  one  source  arg
(note:  be  sure  to include the destination).  Caution: keep in mind that a source
arg with a wild-card is expanded by the shell into multiple args, so  it  is  never
safe to try to list such an arg without using this option. For example:

rsync -av --list-only foo* dest/

Starting  with  rsync  3.1.0,  the  sizes output by --list-only are affected by the
--human-readable option.  By default they will contain digit separators, but higher
levels of readability will output the sizes with unit suffixes.  Note also that the
column width for the size output has increased from 11 to  14  characters  for  all
human-readable  levels.   Use  --no-h if you want just digits in the sizes, and the
old column width of 11 characters.

Compatibility note: when requesting a remote listing of files from an rsync that is
version  2.6.3  or older, you may encounter an error if you ask for a non-recursive
listing.  This is because a file listing implies the --dirs option w/o --recursive,
and older rsyncs don't have that option.  To avoid this problem, either specify the
--no-dirs option (if you don't need to expand a directory's content),  or  turn  on
recursion and exclude the content of subdirectories: -r --exclude='/*/*'.

--bwlimit=RATE
This  option allows you to specify the maximum transfer rate for the data sent over
the socket, specified in units per second.  The RATE value can be suffixed  with  a
string  to  indicate  a  size  multiplier,  and  may  be  a  fractional value (e.g.
"--bwlimit=1.5m").  If no suffix is specified, the value will be assumed to  be  in
units  of  1024  bytes  (as if "K" or "KiB" had been appended).  See the --max-size
option for a description of all the available suffixes.  A value of 0 specifies  no
limit.

For  backward-compatibility  reasons, the rate limit will be rounded to the nearest
KiB unit, so no rate smaller than 1024 bytes per second is possible.

Rsync writes data over the socket in blocks, and this option both limits  the  size
of the blocks that rsync writes, and tries to keep the average transfer rate at the
requested limit.  Some burstiness may be seen where rsync writes  out  a  block  of
data and then sleeps to bring the average rate into compliance.

Due to the internal buffering of data, the --progress option may not be an accurate
reflection on how fast the data is being sent.  This is because some files can show
up as being rapidly sent when the data is quickly buffered, while other can show up
as very slow when the flushing of the output buffer occurs.  This may be fixed in a
future version.

--stop-after=MINS
This  option  tells  rsync to stop copying when the specified number of minutes has
elapsed.

Rsync also accepts an earlier version of this option: --time-limit=MINS.

For maximal flexibility, rsync does not communicate this option to the remote rsync
since  it  is  usually  enough  that one side of the connection quits as specified.
This allows the option's use even when only one side of the connection supports it.
You  can  tell  the  remote  side  about the time limit using --remote-option (-M),
should the need arise.

--stop-at=y-m-dTh:m
This option tells rsync to stop copying when the specified point in time  has  been
reached.  The date & time can be fully specified in a numeric format of year-month-
dayThour:minute (e.g. 2000-12-31T23:59) in the local timezone.  You may  choose  to
separate the date numbers using slashes instead of dashes.

The  value  can  also  be  abbreviated  in  a variety of ways, such as specifying a
2-digit year and/or leaving off various values.  In all cases, the  value  will  be
taken to be the next possible point in time where the supplied information matches.
If the value specifies the current time or a past time, rsync exits with an error.

For example, "1-30" specifies the next  January  30th  (at  midnight  local  time),
"14:00"  specifies  the  next  2  P.M.,  "1" specifies the next 1st of the month at
midnight, "31" specifies the next month where we can stop  on  its  31st  day,  and
":59" specifies the next 59th minute after the hour.

For maximal flexibility, rsync does not communicate this option to the remote rsync
since it is usually enough that one side of  the  connection  quits  as  specified.
This allows the option's use even when only one side of the connection supports it.
You can tell the remote side about  the  time  limit  using  --remote-option  (-M),
should  the  need arise.  Do keep in mind that the remote host may have a different
default timezone than your local host.

--write-batch=FILE
Record a file that can later be  applied  to  another  identical  destination  with
--read-batch.  See the "BATCH MODE" section for details, and also the --only-write-
batch option.

This  option  overrides  the  negotiated  checksum  &  compress  lists  and  always
negotiates  a  choice based on old-school md5/md4/zlib choices.  If you want a more
modern choice, use the --checksum-choice  (--cc)  and/or  --compress-choice  (--zc)
options.

--only-write-batch=FILE
Works like --write-batch, except that no updates are made on the destination system
when creating the batch.  This lets you transport the changes  to  the  destination
system via some other means and then apply the changes via --read-batch.

Note  that you can feel free to write the batch directly to some portable media: if
this media fills to capacity before the end of the transfer,  you  can  just  apply
that  partial  transfer  to the destination and repeat the whole process to get the
rest of the changes (as long as you don't  mind  a  partially  updated  destination
system while the multi-update cycle is happening).

Also  note  that  you  only  save bandwidth when pushing changes to a remote system
because this allows the batched data to be diverted from the sender into the  batch
file without having to flow over the wire to the receiver (when pulling, the sender
is remote, and thus can't write the batch).

Apply all of the changes stored in FILE, a file previously  generated  by  --write-
batch.   If  FILE  is  -,  the batch data will be read from standard input. See the
"BATCH MODE" section for details.

--protocol=NUM
Force an older protocol version to be used.  This is useful for  creating  a  batch
file  that  is  compatible  with an older version of rsync.  For instance, if rsync
2.6.4 is being used with the --write-batch option, but rsync 2.6.3 is what will  be
used  to  run the --read-batch option, you should use "--protocol=28" when creating
the batch file to force the older protocol version to be used  in  the  batch  file

--iconv=CONVERT_SPEC
Rsync  can  convert  filenames  between  character sets using this option.  Using a
CONVERT_SPEC of "." tells rsync to look up the default character-set via the locale
setting.   Alternately,  you  can  fully  specify what conversion to do by giving a
local and a remote charset separated by a comma in the order  --iconv=LOCAL,REMOTE,
e.g.  --iconv=utf8,iso88591.  This order ensures that the option will stay the same
whether you're pushing or pulling files.  Finally, you  can  specify  either  --no-
iconv  or a CONVERT_SPEC of "-" to turn off any conversion.  The default setting of
this option is  site-specific,  and  can  also  be  affected  via  the  RSYNC_ICONV
environment variable.

For  a  list  of  what charset names your local iconv library supports, you can run
"iconv --list".

If you specify the --protect-args option (-s), rsync will translate  the  filenames
you  specify  on the command-line that are being sent to the remote host.  See also
the --files-from option.

Note that rsync does not do any conversion of  names  in  filter  files  (including
include/exclude  files).  It is up to you to ensure that you're specifying matching
rules that can match on both sides of the transfer.  For instance, you can  specify
extra include/exclude rules if there are filename differences on the two sides that
need to be accounted for.

When you pass an --iconv option to an rsync daemon that allows it, the daemon  uses
the  charset  specified  in its "charset" configuration parameter regardless of the
remote charset you actually pass.  Thus, you may feel  free  to  specify  just  the
local charset for a daemon transfer (e.g.  --iconv=utf8).

--ipv4, -4 or --ipv6, -6
Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating sockets or running ssh.  This affects
sockets that rsync has direct control  over,  such  as  the  outgoing  socket  when
directly  contacting  an  rsync  daemon,  as well as the forwarding of the -4 or -6
option to ssh when rsync can deduce that ssh is being used  as  the  remote  shell.
For other remote shells you'll need to specify the "--rsh SHELL -4" option directly
(or whatever ipv4/ipv6 hint options it uses).

These options also exist in the --daemon mode section.

If rsync was complied without support for IPv6, the  --ipv6  option  will  have  no
effect.  The rsync --version output will contain "no IPv6" if is the case.

--checksum-seed=NUM
Set the checksum seed to the integer NUM.  This 4 byte checksum seed is included in
each block and MD4 file checksum calculation (the more modern  MD5  file  checksums
don't  use  a  seed).   By default the checksum seed is generated by the server and
defaults to the current time().  This option is used to  set  a  specific  checksum
seed,  which is useful for applications that want repeatable block checksums, or in
the case where the user wants a more random checksum seed.  Setting NUM to 0 causes
rsync to use the default of time() for checksum seed.



#### DAEMONOPTIONS

       The options allowed when starting an rsync daemon are as follows:

--daemon
This  tells  rsync that it is to run as a daemon.  The daemon you start running may
be accessed using an rsync client using the  host::module  or  rsync://host/module/
syntax.

If  standard  input  is  a  socket  then rsync will assume that it is being run via
inetd, otherwise it will detach from the current terminal and become  a  background
daemon.  The daemon will read the config file (rsyncd.conf) on each connect made by
a client and respond to requests accordingly.  See the rsyncd.conf(5) man page  for
more details.

By  default  rsync  will bind to the wildcard address when run as a daemon with the
--daemon option.  The --address option allows you to specify a specific IP  address
(or  hostname) to bind to.  This makes virtual hosting possible in conjunction with
manpage.

--bwlimit=RATE
This option allows you to specify the maximum transfer rate for the data the daemon
sends over the socket.  The client can still specify a smaller --bwlimit value, but
no larger value will be allowed.  See the client version of this option (above) for
some extra details.

--config=FILE
This specifies an alternate config file than the default.  This  is  only  relevant
when  --daemon  is specified.  The default is /etc/rsyncd.conf unless the daemon is
running over a remote shell program and the remote user is not the  super-user;  in
that case the default is rsyncd.conf in the current directory (typically $HOME). --dparam=OVERRIDE, -M This option can be used to set a daemon-config parameter when starting up rsync in daemon mode. It is equivalent to adding the parameter at the end of the global settings prior to the first module's definition. The parameter names can be specified without spaces, if you so desire. For instance: rsync --daemon -M pidfile=/path/rsync.pid --no-detach When running as a daemon, this option instructs rsync to not detach itself and become a background process. This option is required when running as a service on Cygwin, and may also be useful when rsync is supervised by a program such as daemontools or AIX's System Resource Controller. --no-detach is also recommended when rsync is run under a debugger. This option has no effect if rsync is run from inetd or sshd. --port=PORT This specifies an alternate TCP port number for the daemon to listen on rather than the default of 873. See also the "port" global option in the rsyncd.conf manpage. --log-file=FILE This option tells the rsync daemon to use the given log-file name instead of using the "log file" setting in the config file. --log-file-format=FORMAT This option tells the rsync daemon to use the given FORMAT string instead of using the "log format" setting in the config file. It also enables "transfer logging" unless the string is empty, in which case transfer logging is turned off. --sockopts This overrides the socket options setting in the rsyncd.conf file and has the same syntax. --verbose, -v This option increases the amount of information the daemon logs during its startup phase. After the client connects, the daemon's verbosity level will be controlled by the options that the client used and the "max verbosity" setting in the module's config section. --ipv4, -4 or --ipv6, -6 Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating the incoming sockets that the rsync daemon will use to listen for connections. One of these options may be required in older versions of Linux to work around an IPv6 bug in the kernel (if you see an "address already in use" error when nothing else is using the port, try specifying --ipv6 or --ipv4 when starting the daemon). These options also exist in the regular rsync options section. If rsync was complied without support for IPv6, the --ipv6 option will have no effect. The rsync --version output will contain "no IPv6" if is the case. --help, -h When specified after --daemon, print a short help page describing the options available for starting an rsync daemon.  #### FILTERRULES  The filter rules allow for flexible selection of which files to transfer (include) and which files to skip (exclude). The rules either directly specify include/exclude patterns or they specify a way to acquire more include/exclude patterns (e.g. to read them from a file). As the list of files/directories to transfer is built, rsync checks each name to be transferred against the list of include/exclude patterns in turn, and the first matching pattern is acted on: if it is an exclude pattern, then that file is skipped; if it is an include pattern then that filename is not skipped; if no matching pattern is found, then the filename is not skipped. Rsync builds an ordered list of filter rules as specified on the command-line. Filter rules have the following syntax: RULE [PATTERN_OR_FILENAME] RULE,MODIFIERS [PATTERN_OR_FILENAME] You have your choice of using either short or long RULE names, as described below. If you use a short-named rule, the ',' separating the RULE from the MODIFIERS is optional. The PATTERN or FILENAME that follows (when present) must come after either a single space or an underscore (_). Here are the available rule prefixes: exclude, '-' specifies an exclude pattern. include, '+' specifies an include pattern. merge, '.' specifies a merge-file to read for more rules. dir-merge, ':' specifies a per-directory merge-file. hide, 'H' specifies a pattern for hiding files from the transfer. show, 'S' files that match the pattern are not hidden. protect, 'P' specifies a pattern for protecting files from deletion. risk, 'R' files that match the pattern are not protected. clear, '!' clears the current include/exclude list (takes no arg) When rules are being read from a file, empty lines are ignored, as are whole-line comments that start with a '#' (filename rules that contain a hash are unaffected). Note that the --include & --exclude command-line options do not allow the full range of rule parsing as described above -- they only allow the specification of include / exclude patterns plus a "!" token to clear the list (and the normal comment parsing when rules are read from a file). If a pattern does not begin with "- " (dash, space) or "+ " (plus, space), then the rule will be interpreted as if "+ " (for an include option) or "- " (for an exclude option) were prefixed to the string. A --filter option, on the other hand, must always contain either a short or long rule name at the start of the rule. Note also that the --filter, --include, and --exclude options take one rule/pattern each. To add multiple ones, you can repeat the options on the command-line, use the merge-file syntax of the --filter option, or the --include-from / --exclude-from options.  #### INCLUDE/EXCLUDEPATTERNRULES  You can include and exclude files by specifying patterns using the "+", "-", etc. filter rules (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above). The include/exclude rules each specify a pattern that is matched against the names of the files that are going to be transferred. These patterns can take several forms: o if the pattern starts with a / then it is anchored to a particular spot in the hierarchy of files, otherwise it is matched against the end of the pathname. This is similar to a leading ^ in regular expressions. Thus /foo would match a name of "foo" at either the "root of the transfer" (for a global rule) or in the merge- file's directory (for a per-directory rule). An unqualified foo would match a name of "foo" anywhere in the tree because the algorithm is applied recursively from the top down; it behaves as if each path component gets a turn at being the end of the filename. Even the unanchored "sub/foo" would match at any point in the hierarchy where a "foo" was found within a directory named "sub". See the section on ANCHORING INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS for a full discussion of how to specify a pattern that matches at the root of the transfer. o if the pattern ends with a / then it will only match a directory, not a regular file, symlink, or device. o rsync chooses between doing a simple string match and wildcard matching by checking if the pattern contains one of these three wildcard characters: '*', '?', and '[' . o a '*' matches any path component, but it stops at slashes. o use '**' to match anything, including slashes. o a '?' matches any character except a slash (/). o a '[' introduces a character class, such as [a-z] or [[:alpha:]]. o in a wildcard pattern, a backslash can be used to escape a wildcard character, but it is matched literally when no wildcards are present. This means that there is an extra level of backslash removal when a pattern contains wildcard characters compared to a pattern that has none. e.g. if you add a wildcard to "foo\bar" (which matches the backslash) you would need to use "foo\\bar*" to avoid the "\b" becoming just "b". o if the pattern contains a / (not counting a trailing /) or a "**", then it is matched against the full pathname, including any leading directories. If the pattern doesn't contain a / or a "**", then it is matched only against the final component of the filename. (Remember that the algorithm is applied recursively so "full filename" can actually be any portion of a path from the starting directory on down.) o a trailing "dir_name/***" will match both the directory (as if "dir_name/" had been specified) and everything in the directory (as if "dir_name/**" had been specified). This behavior was added in version 2.6.7. Note that, when using the --recursive (-r) option (which is implied by -a), every subdir component of every path is visited left to right, with each directory having a chance for exclusion before its content. In this way include/exclude patterns are applied recursively to the pathname of each node in the filesystem's tree (those inside the transfer). The exclude patterns short-circuit the directory traversal stage as rsync finds the files to send. For instance, to include "/foo/bar/baz", the directories "/foo" and "/foo/bar" must not be excluded. Excluding one of those parent directories prevents the examination of its content, cutting off rsync's recursion into those paths and rendering the include for "/foo/bar/baz" ineffectual (since rsync can't match something it never sees in the cut-off section of the directory hierarchy). The concept path exclusion is particularly important when using a trailing '*' rule. For instance, this won't work: + /some/path/this-file-will-not-be-found + /file-is-included - * This fails because the parent directory "some" is excluded by the '*' rule, so rsync never visits any of the files in the "some" or "some/path" directories. One solution is to ask for all directories in the hierarchy to be included by using a single rule: "+ */" (put it somewhere before the "- *" rule), and perhaps use the --prune-empty-dirs option. Another solution is to add specific include rules for all the parent dirs that need to be visited. For instance, this set of rules works fine: + /some/ + /some/path/ + /some/path/this-file-is-found + /file-also-included - * Here are some examples of exclude/include matching: o "- *.o" would exclude all names matching *.o o "- /foo" would exclude a file (or directory) named foo in the transfer-root directory o "- foo/" would exclude any directory named foo o "- /foo/*/bar" would exclude any file named bar which is at two levels below a directory named foo in the transfer-root directory o "- /foo/**/bar" would exclude any file named bar two or more levels below a directory named foo in the transfer-root directory o The combination of "+ */", "+ *.c", and "- *" would include all directories and C source files but nothing else (see also the --prune-empty-dirs option) o The combination of "+ foo/", "+ foo/bar.c", and "- *" would include only the foo directory and foo/bar.c (the foo directory must be explicitly included or it would be excluded by the "*") The following modifiers are accepted after a "+" or "-": o A / specifies that the include/exclude rule should be matched against the absolute pathname of the current item. For example, "-/ /etc/passwd" would exclude the passwd file any time the transfer was sending files from the "/etc" directory, and "-/ subdir/foo" would always exclude "foo" when it is in a dir named "subdir", even if "foo" is at the root of the current transfer. o A ! specifies that the include/exclude should take effect if the pattern fails to match. For instance, "-! */" would exclude all non-directories. o A C is used to indicate that all the global CVS-exclude rules should be inserted as excludes in place of the "-C". No arg should follow. o An s is used to indicate that the rule applies to the sending side. When a rule affects the sending side, it prevents files from being transferred. The default is for a rule to affect both sides unless --delete-excluded was specified, in which case default rules become sender-side only. See also the hide (H) and show (S) rules, which are an alternate way to specify sending-side includes/excludes. o An r is used to indicate that the rule applies to the receiving side. When a rule affects the receiving side, it prevents files from being deleted. See the s modifier for more info. See also the protect (P) and risk (R) rules, which are an alternate way to specify receiver-side includes/excludes. o A p indicates that a rule is perishable, meaning that it is ignored in directories that are being deleted. For instance, the -C option's default rules that exclude things like "CVS" and "*.o" are marked as perishable, and will not prevent a directory that was removed on the source from being deleted on the destination. o An x indicates that a rule affects xattr names in xattr copy/delete operations (and is thus ignored when matching file/dir names). If no xattr-matching rules are specified, a default xattr filtering rule is used (see the --xattrs option).  #### MERGE-FILEFILTERRULES  You can merge whole files into your filter rules by specifying either a merge (.) or a dir-merge (:) filter rule (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above). There are two kinds of merged files -- single-instance ('.') and per-directory (':'). A single-instance merge file is read one time, and its rules are incorporated into the filter list in the place of the "." rule. For per-directory merge files, rsync will scan every directory that it traverses for the named file, merging its contents when the file exists into the current list of inherited rules. These per-directory rule files must be created on the sending side because it is the sending side that is being scanned for the available files to transfer. These rule files may also need to be transferred to the receiving side if you want them to affect what files don't get deleted (see PER-DIRECTORY RULES AND DELETE below). Some examples: merge /etc/rsync/default.rules . /etc/rsync/default.rules dir-merge .per-dir-filter dir-merge,n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes :n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes The following modifiers are accepted after a merge or dir-merge rule: o A - specifies that the file should consist of only exclude patterns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file comments. o A + specifies that the file should consist of only include patterns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file comments. o A C is a way to specify that the file should be read in a CVS-compatible manner. This turns on 'n', 'w', and '-', but also allows the list-clearing token (!) to be specified. If no filename is provided, ".cvsignore" is assumed. o A e will exclude the merge-file name from the transfer; e.g. "dir-merge,e .rules" is like "dir-merge .rules" and "- .rules". o An n specifies that the rules are not inherited by subdirectories. o A w specifies that the rules are word-split on whitespace instead of the normal line-splitting. This also turns off comments. Note: the space that separates the prefix from the rule is treated specially, so "- foo + bar" is parsed as two rules (assuming that prefix-parsing wasn't also disabled). o You may also specify any of the modifiers for the "+" or "-" rules (above) in order to have the rules that are read in from the file default to having that modifier set (except for the ! modifier, which would not be useful). For instance, "merge,-/ .excl" would treat the contents of .excl as absolute-path excludes, while "dir-merge,s .filt" and ":sC" would each make all their per-directory rules apply only on the sending side. If the merge rule specifies sides to affect (via the s or r modifier or both), then the rules in the file must not specify sides (via a modifier or a rule prefix such as hide). Per-directory rules are inherited in all subdirectories of the directory where the merge- file was found unless the 'n' modifier was used. Each subdirectory's rules are prefixed to the inherited per-directory rules from its parents, which gives the newest rules a higher priority than the inherited rules. The entire set of dir-merge rules are grouped together in the spot where the merge-file was specified, so it is possible to override dir-merge rules via a rule that got specified earlier in the list of global rules. When the list-clearing rule ("!") is read from a per-directory file, it only clears the inherited rules for the current merge file. Another way to prevent a single rule from a dir-merge file from being inherited is to anchor it with a leading slash. Anchored rules in a per-directory merge-file are relative to the merge-file's directory, so a pattern "/foo" would only match the file "foo" in the directory where the dir-merge filter file was found. Here's an example filter file which you'd specify via --filter=". file": merge /home/user/.global-filter - *.gz dir-merge .rules + *.[ch] - *.o - foo* This will merge the contents of the /home/user/.global-filter file at the start of the list and also turns the ".rules" filename into a per-directory filter file. All rules read in prior to the start of the directory scan follow the global anchoring rules (i.e. a leading slash matches at the root of the transfer). If a per-directory merge-file is specified with a path that is a parent directory of the first transfer directory, rsync will scan all the parent dirs from that starting point to the transfer directory for the indicated per-directory file. For instance, here is a common filter (see -F): --filter=': /.rsync-filter' That rule tells rsync to scan for the file .rsync-filter in all directories from the root down through the parent directory of the transfer prior to the start of the normal directory scan of the file in the directories that are sent as a part of the transfer. (Note: for an rsync daemon, the root is always the same as the module's "path".) Some examples of this pre-scanning for per-directory files: rsync -avF /src/path/ /dest/dir rsync -av --filter=': ../../.rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir rsync -av --filter=': .rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir The first two commands above will look for ".rsync-filter" in "/" and "/src" before the normal scan begins looking for the file in "/src/path" and its subdirectories. The last command avoids the parent-dir scan and only looks for the ".rsync-filter" files in each directory that is a part of the transfer. If you want to include the contents of a ".cvsignore" in your patterns, you should use the rule ":C", which creates a dir-merge of the .cvsignore file, but parsed in a CVS- compatible manner. You can use this to affect where the --cvs-exclude (-C) option's inclusion of the per-directory .cvsignore file gets placed into your rules by putting the ":C" wherever you like in your filter rules. Without this, rsync would add the dir-merge rule for the .cvsignore file at the end of all your other rules (giving it a lower priority than your command-line rules). For example: cat <<EOT | rsync -avC --filter='. -' a/ b + foo.o :C - *.old EOT rsync -avC --include=foo.o -f :C --exclude='*.old' a/ b Both of the above rsync commands are identical. Each one will merge all the per-directory .cvsignore rules in the middle of the list rather than at the end. This allows their dir- specific rules to supersede the rules that follow the :C instead of being subservient to all your rules. To affect the other CVS exclude rules (i.e. the default list of exclusions, the contents of$HOME/.cvsignore, and the value of $CVSIGNORE) you should omit the -C command-line option and instead insert a "-C" rule into your filter rules; e.g. "--filter=-C".  #### LIST-CLEARINGFILTERRULE  You can clear the current include/exclude list by using the "!" filter rule (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above). The "current" list is either the global list of rules (if the rule is encountered while parsing the filter options) or a set of per-directory rules (which are inherited in their own sub-list, so a subdirectory can use this to clear out the parent's rules).  #### ANCHORINGINCLUDE/EXCLUDEPATTERNS  As mentioned earlier, global include/exclude patterns are anchored at the "root of the transfer" (as opposed to per-directory patterns, which are anchored at the merge-file's directory). If you think of the transfer as a subtree of names that are being sent from sender to receiver, the transfer-root is where the tree starts to be duplicated in the destination directory. This root governs where patterns that start with a / match. Because the matching is relative to the transfer-root, changing the trailing slash on a source path or changing your use of the --relative option affects the path you need to use in your matching (in addition to changing how much of the file tree is duplicated on the destination host). The following examples demonstrate this. Let's say that we want to match two source files, one with an absolute path of "/home/me/foo/bar", and one with a path of "/home/you/bar/baz". Here is how the various command choices differ for a 2-source transfer: Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me /home/you /dest +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me/ /home/you/ /dest +/- pattern: /foo/bar (note missing "me") +/- pattern: /bar/baz (note missing "you") Target file: /dest/foo/bar Target file: /dest/bar/baz Example cmd: rsync -a --relative /home/me/ /home/you /dest +/- pattern: /home/me/foo/bar (note full path) +/- pattern: /home/you/bar/baz (ditto) Target file: /dest/home/me/foo/bar Target file: /dest/home/you/bar/baz Example cmd: cd /home; rsync -a --relative me/foo you/ /dest +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar (starts at specified path) +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz (ditto) Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz The easiest way to see what name you should filter is to just look at the output when using --verbose and put a / in front of the name (use the --dry-run option if you're not yet ready to copy any files).  #### PER-DIRECTORYRULESANDDELETE  Without a delete option, per-directory rules are only relevant on the sending side, so you can feel free to exclude the merge files themselves without affecting the transfer. To make this easy, the 'e' modifier adds this exclude for you, as seen in these two equivalent commands: rsync -av --filter=': .excl' --exclude=.excl host:src/dir /dest rsync -av --filter=':e .excl' host:src/dir /dest However, if you want to do a delete on the receiving side AND you want some files to be excluded from being deleted, you'll need to be sure that the receiving side knows what files to exclude. The easiest way is to include the per-directory merge files in the transfer and use --delete-after, because this ensures that the receiving side gets all the same exclude rules as the sending side before it tries to delete anything: rsync -avF --delete-after host:src/dir /dest However, if the merge files are not a part of the transfer, you'll need to either specify some global exclude rules (i.e. specified on the command line), or you'll need to maintain your own per-directory merge files on the receiving side. An example of the first is this (assume that the remote .rules files exclude themselves): rsync -av --filter=': .rules' --filter='. /my/extra.rules' --delete host:src/dir /dest In the above example the extra.rules file can affect both sides of the transfer, but (on the sending side) the rules are subservient to the rules merged from the .rules files because they were specified after the per-directory merge rule. In one final example, the remote side is excluding the .rsync-filter files from the transfer, but we want to use our own .rsync-filter files to control what gets deleted on the receiving side. To do this we must specifically exclude the per-directory merge files (so that they don't get deleted) and then put rules into the local files to control what else should not get deleted. Like one of these commands: rsync -av --filter=':e /.rsync-filter' --delete \ host:src/dir /dest rsync -avFF --delete host:src/dir /dest  #### BATCHMODE  Batch mode can be used to apply the same set of updates to many identical systems. Suppose one has a tree which is replicated on a number of hosts. Now suppose some changes have been made to this source tree and those changes need to be propagated to the other hosts. In order to do this using batch mode, rsync is run with the write-batch option to apply the changes made to the source tree to one of the destination trees. The write- batch option causes the rsync client to store in a "batch file" all the information needed to repeat this operation against other, identical destination trees. Generating the batch file once saves having to perform the file status, checksum, and data block generation more than once when updating multiple destination trees. Multicast transport protocols can be used to transfer the batch update files in parallel to many hosts at once, instead of sending the same data to every host individually. To apply the recorded changes to another destination tree, run rsync with the read-batch option, specifying the name of the same batch file, and the destination tree. Rsync updates the destination tree using the information stored in the batch file. For your convenience, a script file is also created when the write-batch option is used: it will be named the same as the batch file with ".sh" appended. This script file contains a command-line suitable for updating a destination tree using the associated batch file. It can be executed using a Bourne (or Bourne-like) shell, optionally passing in an alternate destination tree pathname which is then used instead of the original destination path. This is useful when the destination tree path on the current host differs from the one used to create the batch file. Examples:$ rsync --write-batch=foo -a host:/source/dir/ /adest/dir/
$scp foo* remote:$ ssh remote ./foo.sh /bdest/dir/

$rsync --write-batch=foo -a /source/dir/ /adest/dir/$ ssh remote rsync --read-batch=- -a /bdest/dir/ <foo

In  these  examples,  rsync  is  used  to  update  /adest/dir/  from  /source/dir/ and the
information to repeat this operation is stored in "foo" and "foo.sh".  The  host  "remote"
is  then  updated  with  the  batched  data  going  into  the  directory  /bdest/dir.  The
differences between the two examples reveals some of the flexibility you have in  how  you
deal with batches:

o      The  first  example shows that the initial copy doesn't have to be local -- you can
push or pull data to/from a remote host using either  the  remote-shell  syntax  or
rsync daemon syntax, as desired.

o      The  first  example  uses  the created "foo.sh" file to get the right rsync options
when running the read-batch command on the remote host.

o      The second example reads the batch data via standard input so that the  batch  file
doesn't  need  to  be  copied to the remote machine first.  This example avoids the
foo.sh script because it needed to use a  modified  --read-batch  option,  but  you
could  edit  the  script file if you wished to make use of it (just be sure that no
other option is trying to  use  standard  input,  such  as  the  "--exclude-from=-"
option).

Caveats:

The  read-batch option expects the destination tree that it is updating to be identical to
the destination tree that was used to create the batch update fileset.  When a  difference
between  the destination trees is encountered the update might be discarded with a warning
(if the file appears to be up-to-date already) or the file-update  may  be  attempted  and
then, if the file fails to verify, the update discarded with an error.  This means that it
should be safe to re-run a read-batch operation if the command got  interrupted.   If  you
wish  to force the batched-update to always be attempted regardless of the file's size and
date, use the -I option (when reading the batch).  If an  error  occurs,  the  destination
tree  will  probably  be in a partially updated state.  In that case, rsync can be used in
its regular (non-batch) mode of operation to fix up the destination tree.

The rsync version used on all destinations must be at least as new  as  the  one  used  to
generate  the  batch  file.   Rsync  will die with an error if the protocol version in the
batch file is too new for the batch-reading rsync to  handle.   See  also  the  --protocol
option  for a way to have the creating rsync generate a batch file that an older rsync can
understand.  (Note that batch files changed format in version 2.6.3,  so  mixing  versions
older than that with newer versions will not work.)

When reading a batch file, rsync will force the value of certain options to match the data
in the batch file if you didn't set them to the same as the batch-writing command.   Other
options  can (and should) be changed.  For instance --write-batch changes to --read-batch,
--files-from is dropped, and the --filter / --include / --exclude options are  not  needed
unless one of the --delete options is specified.

The code that creates the BATCH.sh file transforms any filter/include/exclude options into
a single list that is appended as a "here" document to the shell script file.  An advanced
user  can use this to modify the exclude list if a change in what gets deleted by --delete
is desired.  A normal user can ignore this detail and just use the shell script as an easy
way to run the appropriate --read-batch command for the batched data.

The  original batch mode in rsync was based on "rsync+", but the latest version uses a new
implementation.



       Three basic behaviors are possible when rsync encounters a symbolic  link  in  the  source
directory.

By  default,  symbolic links are not transferred at all.  A message "skipping non-regular"
file is emitted for any symlinks that exist.

If --links is specified,  then  symlinks  are  recreated  with  the  same  target  on  the
destination.  Note that --archive implies --links.

If  --copy-links  is  specified,  then symlinks are "collapsed" by copying their referent,

Rsync can also distinguish "safe" and "unsafe" symbolic  links.   An  example  where  this
might  be  used  is  a web site mirror that wishes to ensure that the rsync module that is
copied does not include symbolic links to /etc/passwd in the public section of  the  site.
Using  --copy-unsafe-links  will cause any links to be copied as the file they point to on
the destination.  Using --safe-links will cause unsafe links  to  be  omitted  altogether.
(Note that you must specify --links for --safe-links to have any effect.)

or if they contain enough ".."  components to ascend from the directory being copied.

Here's a summary of how the symlink options are interpreted.  The  list  is  in  order  of
precedence,  so if your combination of options isn't mentioned, use the first line that is
a complete subset of your options:

Turn all symlinks into normal files (leaving no symlinks for any other  options  to
affect).

Duplicate safe symlinks and skip unsafe ones.



#### DIAGNOSTICS

       rsync  occasionally  produces error messages that may seem a little cryptic.  The one that
seems to cause the most confusion is "protocol version mismatch -- is your shell clean?".

This message is usually caused by your startup scripts or remote shell facility  producing
unwanted garbage on the stream that rsync is using for its transport.  The way to diagnose
this problem is to run your remote shell like this:

ssh remotehost /bin/true > out.dat

then look at out.dat.  If everything is working correctly then out.dat should  be  a  zero
length  file.   If  you are getting the above error from rsync then you will probably find
that out.dat contains some text or data.  Look at the contents and try to work out what is
producing it.  The most common cause is incorrectly configured shell startup scripts (such
as .cshrc or .profile) that contain output statements for non-interactive logins.

If you are having trouble debugging filter patterns, then try specifying the  -vv  option.
At  this  level  of  verbosity  rsync  will  show  why each individual file is included or
excluded.



#### EXITVALUES

       0      Success

1      Syntax or usage error

2      Protocol incompatibility

3      Errors selecting input/output files, dirs

4      Requested action not supported: an attempt was made to manipulate 64-bit files on a
platform  that cannot support them; or an option was specified that is supported by
the client and not by the server.

5      Error starting client-server protocol

6      Daemon unable to append to log-file

10     Error in socket I/O

11     Error in file I/O

12     Error in rsync protocol data stream

13     Errors with program diagnostics

14     Error in IPC code

21     Some error returned by waitpid()

22     Error allocating core memory buffers

23     Partial transfer due to error

24     Partial transfer due to vanished source files

25     The --max-delete limit stopped deletions

35     Timeout waiting for daemon connection



#### ENVIRONMENTVARIABLES

       CVSIGNORE
The CVSIGNORE environment variable supplements any ignore  patterns  in  .cvsignore
files.  See the --cvs-exclude option for more details.

RSYNC_ICONV
Specify a default --iconv setting using this environment variable. (First supported
in 3.0.0.)

RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS
Specify a non-zero numeric value if  you  want  the  --protect-args  option  to  be
enabled  by  default,  or a zero value to make sure that it is disabled by default.
(First supported in 3.1.0.)

RSYNC_RSH
The RSYNC_RSH environment variable allows you to override the default shell used as
the  transport  for  rsync.   Command  line options are permitted after the command
name, just as in the -e option.

RSYNC_PROXY
The RSYNC_PROXY environment variable allows you to redirect your  rsync  client  to
use a web proxy when connecting to a rsync daemon.  You should set RSYNC_PROXY to a
hostname:port pair.

rsync  connections  to  an  rsync daemon without user intervention.  Note that this
does not supply a password to a remote shell transport such as ssh; to learn how to
do that, consult the remote shell's documentation.

USER or LOGNAME
The  USER  or  LOGNAME  environment  variables  are  used  to determine the default
username sent to an rsync daemon.  If neither is  set,  the  username  defaults  to
"nobody".

HOME   The HOME environment variable is used to find the user's default .cvsignore file.



#### FILES

       /etc/rsyncd.conf or rsyncd.conf



#### SEEALSO

       rsync-ssl(1), rsyncd.conf(5)



#### BUGS

       times are transferred as *nix time_t values

When transferring to FAT filesystems rsync may re-sync unmodified files.  See the comments
on the --modify-window option.

file permissions, devices, etc. are transferred as native numerical values

Please report bugs! See the web site at https://rsync.samba.org/.



#### VERSION

       This man page is current for version 3.2.3 of rsync.



#### INTERNALOPTIONS

       The options --server and --sender are used internally by rsync, and should never be  typed
by  a  user  under normal circumstances.  Some awareness of these options may be needed in
certain scenarios, such as when setting up a login that can only  run  an  rsync  command.
For  instance, the support directory of the rsync distribution has an example script named
rrsync (for restricted rsync) that can be used with a restricted ssh login.



#### CREDITS

       rsync is distributed under the GNU General Public  License.   See  the  file  COPYING  for
details.

A  web  site  is  available at https://rsync.samba.org/.  The site includes an FAQ-O-Matic
which may cover questions unanswered by this manual page.

We would be delighted to hear from you if you  like  this  program.   Please  contact  the
mailing-list at rsync@lists.samba.org.

This  program  uses the excellent zlib compression library written by Jean-loup Gailly and



#### THANKS

       Special thanks go out to: John Van  Essen,  Matt  McCutchen,  Wesley  W.  Terpstra,  David
Dykstra,  Jos  Backus,  Sebastian  Krahmer,  Martin  Pool,  and our gone-but-not-forgotten

       rsync  was  originally  written  by  Andrew Tridgell and Paul Mackerras.  Many people have