Provided by: screen_4.9.0-1_amd64 bug


       screen - screen manager with VT100/ANSI terminal emulation


       screen [ -options ] [ cmd [ args ] ]
       screen -r [[pid.]tty[.host]]
       screen -r sessionowner/[[pid.]tty[.host]]


       Screen  is  a  full-screen  window  manager  that  multiplexes a physical terminal between
       several processes (typically interactive shells).   Each  virtual  terminal  provides  the
       functions of a DEC VT100 terminal and, in addition, several control functions from the ISO
       6429 (ECMA 48, ANSI X3.64) and ISO 2022 standards (e.g. insert/delete line and support for
       multiple  character sets).  There is a scrollback history buffer for each virtual terminal
       and a copy-and-paste mechanism that allows moving text regions between windows.

       When screen is called, it creates a single window with a shell in  it  (or  the  specified
       command)  and  then  gets  out of your way so that you can use the program as you normally
       would.  Then, at any time, you can create new (full-screen) windows with other programs in
       them  (including  more shells), kill existing windows, view a list of windows, turn output
       logging on and off, copy-and-paste text between  windows,  view  the  scrollback  history,
       switch  between  windows  in whatever manner you wish, etc. All windows run their programs
       completely independent of each other. Programs  continue  to  run  when  their  window  is
       currently  not  visible and even when the whole screen session is detached from the user's
       terminal.  When a program terminates, screen (per default) kills the window that contained
       it.  If this window was in the foreground, the display switches to the previous window; if
       none are left, screen exits. Shells usually distinguish between running as login-shell  or
       sub-shell.   Screen  runs  them  as sub-shells, unless told otherwise (See shell .screenrc

       Everything you type is sent to the program  running  in  the  current  window.   The  only
       exception  to  this  is the one keystroke that is used to initiate a command to the window
       manager.  By default, each command begins with a control-a (abbreviated C-a from now  on),
       and  is  followed  by one other keystroke.  The command character and all the key bindings
       can be fully customized to be anything you like, though they are always two characters  in

       Screen  does  not understand the prefix C- to mean control, although this notation is used
       in this manual for readability.  Please use the caret notation  (^A  instead  of  C-a)  as
       arguments to e.g. the escape command or the -e option.  Screen will also print out control
       characters in caret notation.

       The standard way to create a new window is to type C-a  c.   This  creates  a  new  window
       running  a  shell  and switches to that window immediately, regardless of the state of the
       process running in the current window.  Similarly, you can create  a  new  window  with  a
       custom  command  in it by first binding the command to a keystroke (in your .screenrc file
       or at the C-a : command line) and then using it just like the C-a c command.  In addition,
       new windows can be created by running a command like:

              screen emacs prog.c

       from a shell prompt within a previously created window.  This will not run another copy of
       screen, but will instead supply the command name and its arguments to the  window  manager
       (specified  in  the  $STY  environment variable) who will use it to create the new window.
       The above example would start the emacs editor (editing prog.c) and switch to its  window.
       -  Note  that  you  cannot  transport environment variables from the invoking shell to the
       application (emacs in this case), because it is forked from the parent screen process, not
       from the invoking shell.

       If /run/utmp is writable by screen, an appropriate record will be written to this file for
       each window, and removed when the window is terminated.  This is useful for  working  with
       talk,  script,  shutdown, rsend, sccs and other similar programs that use the utmp file to
       determine who you are. As long as screen is active on your terminal,  the  terminal's  own
       record is removed from the utmp file. See also C-a L.


       Before  you  begin to use screen you'll need to make sure you have correctly selected your
       terminal type, just as you would for any other termcap/terminfo program.  (You can do this
       by using test for example.)

       If  you're  impatient and want to get started without doing a lot more reading, you should
       remember this one command:  C-a ?.  Typing these two characters will display a list of the
       available  screen  commands and their bindings. Each keystroke is discussed in the section
       DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS. The manual section CUSTOMIZATION deals with  the  contents  of  your

       If your terminal is a true auto-margin terminal (it doesn't allow the last position on the
       screen to be updated without scrolling the  screen)  consider  using  a  version  of  your
       terminal's termcap that has automatic margins turned off. This will ensure an accurate and
       optimal update of the screen in all circumstances.  Most  terminals  nowadays  have  magic
       margins  (automatic  margins  plus  usable  last column). This is the VT100 style type and
       perfectly suited for screen.  If all you've got is a true auto-margin terminal screen will
       be  content  to  use it, but updating a character put into the last position on the screen
       may not be possible until the screen scrolls  or  the  character  is  moved  into  a  safe
       position  in  some other way. This delay can be shortened by using a terminal with insert-
       character capability.


       Screen has the following command-line options:

       -a   include all capabilities (with some minor exceptions) in each window's termcap,  even
            if screen must redraw parts of the display in order to implement a function.

       -A   Adapt  the  sizes  of  all  windows to the size of the current terminal.  By default,
            screen tries to restore its old window sizes when attaching  to  resizable  terminals
            (those with WS in its description, e.g. suncmd or some xterm).

       -c file
            override the default configuration file from $HOME/.screenrc to file.

       -d|-D []
            does  not start screen, but detaches the elsewhere running screen session. It has the
            same effect as typing C-a d from screen's controlling terminal. -D is the  equivalent
            to  the  power detach key.  If no session can be detached, this option is ignored. In
            combination with the -r/-R option more powerful effects can be achieved:

       -d -r   Reattach a session and if necessary detach it first.

       -d -R   Reattach a session and if necessary detach or even create it first.

       -d -RR  Reattach a session and if necessary detach or create it. Use the first session  if
               more than one session is available.

       -D -r   Reattach a session. If necessary detach and logout remotely first.

       -D -R   Attach here and now. In detail this means: If a session is running, then reattach.
               If necessary detach and logout remotely first.  If it was not  running  create  it
               and notify the user. This is the author's favorite.

       -D -RR  Attach here and now. Whatever that means, just do it.

            Note:  It  is  always  a  good  idea to check the status of your sessions by means of
            screen -list.

       -e xy
            specifies the command character to be  x  and  the  character  generating  a  literal
            command  character to y (when typed after the command character).  The default is C-a
            and `a', which can be specified as -e^Aa.   When  creating  a  screen  session,  this
            option  sets  the  default  command character. In a multiuser session all users added
            will start off with this command character. But when attaching to an already  running
            session,  this option changes only the command character of the attaching user.  This
            option is equivalent to either the commands defescape or escape respectively.

       -f, -fn, and -fa
            turns flow-control on, off, or automatic switching mode.  This can  also  be  defined
            through the defflow .screenrc command.

       -h num
            Specifies the history scrollback buffer to be num lines high.

       -i   will  cause the interrupt key (usually C-c) to interrupt the display immediately when
            flow-control is on.  See the defflow .screenrc command for details.  The use of  this
            option is discouraged.

       -l and -ln
            turns  login  mode  on  or  off  (for  /run/utmp updating).  This can also be defined
            through the deflogin .screenrc command.

       -ls [match]
       -list [match]
            does not start screen, but  prints  a  list  of  strings  and  creation
            timestamps  identifying  your  screen  sessions.   Sessions  marked `detached' can be
            resumed with screen -r. Those marked `attached' are running and  have  a  controlling
            terminal.  If  the  session  runs  in  multiuser mode, it is marked `multi'. Sessions
            marked as  `unreachable'  either  live  on  a  different  host  or  are  `dead'.   An
            unreachable  session is considered dead, when its name matches either the name of the
            local host, or the specified parameter, if any.  See the -r flag  for  a  description
            how to construct matches.  Sessions marked as `dead' should be thoroughly checked and
            removed.  Ask your system administrator if you are not sure. Remove sessions with the
            -wipe option.

       -L   tells screen to turn on automatic output logging for the windows.

       -Logfile file
            By  default  logfile  name  is  screenlog.0.  You  can  set new logfile name with the
            -Logfile option.

       -m   causes screen to ignore the $STY environment variable. With screen -m creation  of  a
            new  session  is  enforced,  regardless  whether screen is called from within another
            screen session or not. This flag has a special meaning in connection  with  the  `-d'

       -d -m   Start  screen  in  detached mode. This creates a new session but doesn't attach to
               it. This is useful for system startup scripts.

       -D -m   This also starts screen in detached mode, but doesn't  fork  a  new  process.  The
               command exits if the session terminates.

       -O   selects  an  optimal  output  mode for your terminal rather than true VT100 emulation
            (only affects auto-margin terminals without `LP').  This can  also  be  set  in  your
            .screenrc by specifying `OP' in a termcap command.

       -p number_or_name|-|=|+
            Preselect  a window. This is useful when you want to reattach to a specific window or
            you want to send a command via the -X option to a specific window. As  with  screen's
            select  command, - selects the blank window. As a special case for reattach, = brings
            up the windowlist on the blank window, while a  +  will  create  a  new  window.  The
            command will not be executed if the specified window could not be found.

       -q   Suppress  printing  of  error  messages. In combination with -ls the exit value is as
            follows: 9 indicates a directory without sessions.  10  indicates  a  directory  with
            running  but  not  attachable  sessions.  11  (or  more) indicates 1 (or more) usable
            sessions.  In combination with -r the exit value is as  follows:  10  indicates  that
            there  is  no  session  to  resume. 12 (or more) indicates that there are 2 (or more)
            sessions to resume and you should specify which one to choose.  In all other cases -q
            has no effect.

       -Q   Some  commands  now can be queried from a remote session using this flag, e.g. screen
            -Q windows. The commands will send  the  response  to  the  stdout  of  the  querying
            process.  If  there  was an error in the command, then the querying process will exit
            with a non-zero status.

            The commands that can be queried now are:

       -r []
       -r sessionowner/[]
            resumes a detached screen session.  No other options (except combinations with -d/-D)
            may  be  specified,  though  an  optional  prefix  of [pid.] may be needed to
            distinguish between multiple detached screen sessions.  The second form  is  used  to
            connect to another user's screen session which runs in multiuser mode. This indicates
            that screen should look for sessions  in  another  user's  directory.  This  requires

       -R   resumes  screen only when it's unambiguous which one to attach, usually when only one
            screen is detached. Otherwise lists available sessions.  -RR attempts to  resume  the
            youngest  (in  terms  of  creation  time)  detached  screen  session  it  finds.   If
            successful, all other command-line options  are  ignored.   If  no  detached  session
            exists,  starts a new session using the specified options, just as if -R had not been
            specified. The option is set by default if screen is run as a  login-shell  (actually
            screen  uses  -xRR  in that case).  For combinations with the -d/-D option see there.
            Note: Time-based session selection is a Debian addition.

       -s program
            sets the default shell to  the  program  specified,  instead  of  the  value  in  the
            environment  variable  $SHELL  (or /bin/sh if not defined).  This can also be defined
            through the shell .screenrc command.  See also there.

       -S sessionname
            When creating a new session, this option can be used to specify a meaningful name for
            the session. This name identifies the session for screen -list and screen -r actions.
            It substitutes the default [] suffix. This name should not be longer then  80

       -t name
            sets  the  title  (a.k.a.)  for the default shell or specified program.  See also the
            shelltitle .screenrc command.

       -T term
            Set the $TERM environment variable using the specified term as opposed to the default
            setting of screen.

       -U   Run  screen  in  UTF-8  mode.  This  option tells screen that your terminal sends and
            understands UTF-8 encoded characters. It also  sets  the  default  encoding  for  new
            windows to `utf8'.

       -v   Print version number.

       -wipe [match]
            does  the  same as screen -ls, but removes destroyed sessions instead of marking them
            as `dead'.  An unreachable session is considered dead, when its name  matches  either
            the  name  of  the local host, or the explicitly given parameter, if any.  See the -r
            flag for a description how to construct matches.

       -x   Attach to a not detached screen session. (Multi display  mode).   Screen  refuses  to
            attach  from  within  itself.   But  when  cascading  multiple screens, loops are not
            detected; take care.

       -X   Send the specified command to a running screen session. You may use the -S option  to
            specify  the  screen session if you have several screen sessions running. You can use
            the -d or -r option to tell screen to look  only  for  attached  or  detached  screen
            sessions. Note that this command doesn't work if the session is password protected.

       -4   Resolve hostnames only to IPv4 addresses.

       -6   Resolve hostnames only to IPv6 addresses.


       As  mentioned, each screen command consists of a C-a followed by one other character.  For
       your convenience, all commands that are bound to lower-case  letters  are  also  bound  to
       their control character counterparts (with the exception of C-a a; see below), thus, C-a c
       as well as C-a C-c can be used to  create  a  window.  See  section  CUSTOMIZATION  for  a
       description of the command.

       The  following  table  shows  the  default key bindings. The trailing commas in boxes with
       multiple keystroke entries are separators, not part of the bindings.

       C-a '              (select)          Prompt for a window name
                                            or number to switch to.
       C-a "              (windowlist -b)   Present  a  list  of all
                                            windows for selection.
       C-a digit          (select 0-9)      Switch to window  number
                                            0 - 9
       C-a -              (select -)        Switch  to window number
                                            0 - 9, or to  the  blank
       C-a tab            (focus)           Switch  the  input focus
                                            to the next region.  See
                                            also    split,   remove,
       C-a C-a            (other)           Toggle  to  the   window
                                            displayed    previously.
                                            Note that  this  binding
                                            defaults  to the command
                                            character  typed  twice,
                                            unless  overridden.  For
                                            instance, if you use the
                                            option     -e]x,    this
                                            command becomes ]].
       C-a a              (meta)            Send     the     command
                                            character    (C-a)    to
                                            window.    See    escape

       C-a A              (title)           Allow  the user to enter
                                            a name for  the  current
       C-a b,             (break)           Send a break to window.
       C-a C-b
       C-a B              (pow_break)       Reopen the terminal line
                                            and send a break.
       C-a c,             (screen)          Create a new window with
       C-a C-c                              a  shell  and  switch to
                                            that window.
       C-a C              (clear)           Clear the screen.
       C-a d,             (detach)          Detach screen from  this
       C-a C-d                              terminal.
       C-a D D            (pow_detach)      Detach and logout.
       C-a f,             (flow)            Toggle  flow  on, off or
       C-a C-f                              auto.
       C-a F              (fit)             Resize the window to the
                                            current region size.
       C-a C-g            (vbell)           Toggles  screen's visual
                                            bell mode.
       C-a h              (hardcopy)        Write a hardcopy of  the
                                            current  window  to  the
                                            file hardcopy.n.
       C-a H              (log)             Begins/ends  logging  of
                                            the  current  window  to
                                            the file screenlog.n.
       C-a i,             (info)            Show  info  about   this
       C-a C-i                              window.
       C-a k,             (kill)            Destroy current window.
       C-a C-k
       C-a l,             (redisplay)       Fully   refresh  current
       C-a C-l                              window.
       C-a L              (login)           Toggle   this    windows
                                            login   slot.  Available
                                            only   if   screen    is
                                            configured to update the
                                            utmp database.
       C-a m,             (lastmsg)         Repeat the last  message
       C-a C-m                              displayed in the message
       C-a M              (monitor)         Toggles  monitoring   of
                                            the current window.
       C-a space,         (next)            Switch   to   the   next
       C-a n,                               window.
       C-a C-n

       C-a N              (number)          Show  the  number   (and
                                            title)  of  the  current
       C-a backspace,     (prev)            Switch to  the  previous
       C-a C-h,                             window  (opposite of C-a
       C-a p,                               n).
       C-a C-p
       C-a q,             (xon)             Send a control-q to  the
       C-a C-q                              current window.
       C-a Q              (only)            Delete  all  regions but
                                            the  current  one.   See
                                            also    split,   remove,
       C-a r,             (wrap)            Toggle    the    current
       C-a C-r                              window's       line-wrap
                                            setting    (turn     the
                                            current         window's
                                            automatic margins on and
       C-a s,             (xoff)            Send  a control-s to the
       C-a C-s;                             current window.
       C-a S              (split)           Split the current region
                                            horizontally   into  two
                                            new  ones.    See   also
                                            only, remove, focus.
       C-a t,             (time)            Show system information.
       C-a C-t
       C-a v              (version)         Display  the version and
                                            compilation date.
       C-a C-v            (digraph)         Enter digraph.
       C-a w,             (windows)         Show a list of window.
       C-a C-w
       C-a W              (width)           Toggle 80/132 columns.
       C-a x or C-a C-x   (lockscreen)      Lock this terminal.
       C-a X              (remove)          Kill the current region.
                                            See  also  split,  only,
       C-a z,             (suspend)         Suspend  screen.    Your
       C-a C-z                              system must support BSD-
                                            style job-control.
       C-a Z              (reset)           Reset    the     virtual
                                            terminal to its power-on
       C-a .              (dumptermcap)     Write  out  a   .termcap
       C-a ?              (help)            Show key bindings.
       C-a \              (quit)            Kill   all  windows  and
                                            terminate screen.

       C-a :              (colon)           Enter command line mode.
       C-a [,             (copy)            Enter    copy/scrollback
       C-a C-[,                             mode.
       C-a esc
       C-a C-],           (paste .)         Write  the  contents  of
       C-a ]                                the paste buffer to  the
                                            stdin   queue   of   the
                                            current window.
       C-a {,             (history)         Copy   and    paste    a
       C-a }                                previous (command) line.
       C-a >              (writebuf)        Write  paste buffer to a
       C-a <              (readbuf)         Reads    the     screen-
                                            exchange  file  into the
                                            paste buffer.
       C-a =              (removebuf)       Removes the file used by
                                            C-a < and C-a >.
       C-a ,              (license)         Shows where screen comes
                                            from, where it  went  to
                                            and why you can use it.
       C-a _              (silence)         Start/stop    monitoring
                                            the current  window  for
       C-a |              (split -v)        Split the current region
                                            vertically into two  new
       C-a *              (displays)        Show  a  listing  of all
                                            currently       attached


       The  socket  directory  defaults  either  to  $HOME/.screen  or  simply to /tmp/screens or
       preferably to /run/screen chosen at compile-time. If screen is installed setuid-root, then
       the  administrator  should  compile  screen  with  an  adequate  (not  NFS mounted) socket
       directory. If screen is not running  setuid-root,  the  user  can  specify  any  mode  700
       directory in the environment variable $SCREENDIR.

       When  screen  is invoked, it executes initialization commands from the files /etc/screenrc
       and defaults that can be overridden in the following ways: for the  global  screenrc  file
       screen  searches  for  the environment variable $SYSSCREENRC (this override feature may be
       disabled at compile-time). The user specific screenrc file is searched in $SCREENRC,  then
       $HOME/.screenrc.  The command line option -c takes precedence over the above user screenrc

       Commands in these files  are  used  to  set  options,  bind  functions  to  keys,  and  to
       automatically  establish  one  or  more  windows  at the beginning of your screen session.
       Commands are listed one per line, with empty lines being ignored.  A  command's  arguments
       are  separated by tabs or spaces, and may be surrounded by single or double quotes.  A `#'
       turns the rest of the line into a comment, except in  quotes.   Unintelligible  lines  are
       warned  about  and ignored.  Commands may contain references to environment variables. The
       syntax is the shell-like "$VAR " or "${VAR}". Note that this causes  incompatibility  with
       previous  screen  versions,  as  now  the '$'-character has to be protected with '\' if no
       variable substitution shall be performed. A string in single-quotes is also protected from
       variable substitution.

       Two   configuration   files  are  shipped  as  examples  with  your  screen  distribution:
       etc/screenrc and etc/etcscreenrc. They contain a number of  useful  examples  for  various

       Customization  can  also  be  done 'on-line'. To enter the command mode type `C-a :'. Note
       that commands starting with  def  change  default  values,  while  others  change  current

       The following commands are available:

       acladd usernames [crypted-pw]

       addacl usernames

       Enable  users  to  fully  access this screen session. Usernames can be one user or a comma
       separated list of users. This command enables to attach to the screen session and performs
       the  equivalent  of `aclchg usernames +rwx "#?"'.  executed. To add a user with restricted
       access, use the `aclchg' command below.  If an optional second parameter is  supplied,  it
       should  be  a  crypted  password for the named user(s). `Addacl' is a synonym to `acladd'.
       Multi user mode only.

       aclchg usernames permbits list

       chacl usernames permbits list

       Change permissions for a comma separated list of users. Permission bits are represented as
       `r', `w' and `x'. Prefixing `+' grants the permission, `-' removes it. The third parameter
       is a comma separated list of commands  and/or  windows  (specified  either  by  number  or
       title).  The  special  list  `#'  refers to all windows, `?' to all commands. if usernames
       consists of a single `*', all known users are affected.

       A command can be executed when the user has the `x' bit for it.  The user can  type  input
       to  a  window  when  he has its `w' bit set and no other user obtains a writelock for this
       window.  Other bits are currently ignored.  To withdraw the writelock from another user in
       window  2:  `aclchg  username  -w+w 2'.  To allow read-only access to the session: `aclchg
       username -w "#"'. As soon as a user's name is known to screen he can attach to the session
       and  (per  default) has full permissions for all command and windows. Execution permission
       for the acl commands, `at' and others should also be removed or the user may  be  able  to
       regain write permission.  Rights of the special username nobody cannot be changed (see the
       su command).  `Chacl' is a synonym to `aclchg'.  Multi user mode only.

       acldel username

       Remove a user from screen's access control list. If currently  attached,  all  the  user's
       displays are detached from the session. He cannot attach again.  Multi user mode only.

       aclgrp username [groupname]

       Creates  groups  of  users  that  share common access rights. The name of the group is the
       username of the group leader. Each member of the group inherits the permissions  that  are
       granted to the group leader. That means, if a user fails an access check, another check is
       made for the group leader.  A user is removed from all groups the special  value  none  is
       used  for  groupname.   If  the  second parameter is omitted all groups the user is in are

       aclumask [[ users ] +bits | [ users ] -bits... ]

       umask [[ users ] +bits | [ users ] -bits... ]

       This specifies the access other users have to windows that will be created by  the  caller
       of  the command.  Users may be no, one or a comma separated list of known usernames. If no
       users are specified, a list of  all  currently  known  users  is  assumed.   Bits  is  any
       combination  of  access  control bits allowed defined with the aclchg command. The special
       username ? predefines the access that not yet known users will be granted  to  any  window
       initially.   The  special  username  ?? predefines the access that not yet known users are
       granted to any command.  Rights of the special username nobody cannot be changed (see  the
       su command).  `Umask' is a synonym to `aclumask'.

       activity message

       When any activity occurs in a background window that is being monitored, screen displays a
       notification in the message line.  The notification message can be re-defined by means  of
       the  activity command.  Each occurrence of `%' in message is replaced by the number of the
       window in which activity has occurred, and each occurrence of  `^G'  is  replaced  by  the
       definition for bell in your termcap (usually an audible bell).  The default message is

                       'Activity in window %n'

       Note  that  monitoring is off for all windows by default, but can be altered by use of the
       monitor command (C-a M).

       allpartial [ on | off ]

       If set to on, only the current cursor line is refreshed on window  change.   This  affects
       all  windows  and  is useful for slow terminal lines. The previous setting of full/partial
       refresh for each window is restored with allpartial off.   This  is  a  global  flag  that
       immediately  takes  effect  on  all  windows  overriding the partial settings. It does not
       change the default redraw behavior of newly created windows.

       altscreen [ on | off ]

       If set to on, "alternate screen" support is enabled in virtual  terminals,  just  like  in
       xterm.  Initial setting is `off'.

       at [identifier][#|*|%] command [args ... ]

       Execute  a  command  at  other  displays  or  windows as if it had been entered there.  At
       changes the context (the `current window' or `current display' setting) of the command. If
       the  first parameter describes a non-unique context, the command will be executed multiple
       times. If the first parameter is of the form  `identifier*'  then  identifier  is  matched
       against  user  names.   The  command  is  executed  once  for each display of the selected
       user(s). If the first parameter is of the form `identifier%' identifier is matched against
       displays.  Displays are named after the ttys they attach. The prefix `/dev/' or `/dev/tty'
       may be omitted from the identifier.  If identifier has a `#' or  nothing  appended  it  is
       matched against window numbers and titles. Omitting an identifier in front of the `#', `*'
       or `%'-character selects  all  users,  displays  or  windows  because  a  prefix-match  is
       performed.  Note  that  on  the  affected  display(s)  a  short message will describe what
       happened. Permission is checked for initiator of the at command, not for the owners of the
       affected display(s).  Note that the '#' character works as a comment introducer when it is
       preceded by whitespace. This can be escaped by prefixing a '\'.  Permission is checked for
       the initiator of the at command, not for the owners of the affected display(s).

       Caveat:  When  matching against windows, the command is executed at least once per window.
       Commands that change the internal arrangement of windows (like other) may be called again.
       In  shared  windows  the  command will be repeated for each attached display. Beware, when
       issuing toggle commands like login!  Some commands (e.g. process) require that  a  display
       is  associated  with  the  target windows.  These commands may not work correctly under at
       looping over windows.

       attrcolor attrib [attribute/color-modifier]

       This command can be used to highlight attributes by changing the color of the text. If the
       attribute  attrib is in use, the specified attribute/color modifier is also applied. If no
       modifier is given, the current one is deleted. See the  STRING  ESCAPES  chapter  for  the
       syntax  of  the  modifier.  Screen  understands  two pseudo-attributes, i stands for high-
       intensity foreground color and I for high-intensity background color.


              attrcolor b "R"

       Change the color to bright red if bold text is to be printed.

              attrcolor u "-u b"

       Use blue text instead of underline.

              attrcolor b ".I"

       Use bright colors for bold text. Most terminal emulators do this already.

              attrcolor i "+b"

       Make bright colored text also bold.

       autodetach [ on | off ]

       Sets whether screen will automatically detach upon hangup, which saves  all  your  running
       programs  until  they  are  resumed  with  a screen -r command.  When turned off, a hangup
       signal will terminate screen and all the  processes  it  contains.  Autodetach  is  on  by

       autonuke [ on | off ]

       Sets  whether a clear screen sequence should nuke all the output that has not been written
       to the terminal. See also obuflimit.

       backtick id lifespan autorefresh cmd args...

       backtick id

       Program the backtick command with the numerical id id.  The output of such  a  command  is
       used  for  substitution  of  the %` string escape. The specified lifespan is the number of
       seconds the output is considered valid. After this time, the command is  run  again  if  a
       corresponding  string  escape  is  encountered.   The  autorefresh  parameter  triggers an
       automatic refresh for caption  and  hardstatus  strings  after  the  specified  number  of
       seconds. Only the last line of output is used for substitution.

       If  both  the  lifespan  and  the autorefresh parameters are zero, the backtick program is
       expected to stay in the background and generate output once in a while.  In this case, the
       command  is  executed  right away and screen stores the last line of output. If a new line
       gets printed screen will automatically refresh the hardstatus or the captions.

       The second form of the command deletes the backtick command with the numerical id id.

       bce [ on | off ]

       Change background-color-erase setting. If bce is set to on, all characters cleared  by  an
       erase/insert/scroll/clear  operation  will  be  displayed in the current background color.
       Otherwise the default background color is used.

       bell_msg [message]

       When a bell character is sent to a background window, screen displays  a  notification  in
       the  message  line.   The  notification  message  can be re-defined by this command.  Each
       occurrence of `%' in message is replaced by the number of the window to which a  bell  has
       been  sent,  and  each  occurrence  of `^G' is replaced by the definition for bell in your
       termcap (usually an audible bell).  The default message is

                       'Bell in window %n'

       An empty message can be supplied to the bell_msg command to suppress output of  a  message
       line (bell_msg "").  Without parameter, the current message is shown.

       bind [class] key [command [args]]

       Bind a command to a key.  By default, most of the commands provided by screen are bound to
       one or more keys as indicated in the DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS section,  e.g.  the  command  to
       create  a  new window is bound to C-c and c.  The bind command can be used to redefine the
       key bindings and to define new bindings.  The key argument is either a single character, a
       two-character  sequence  of  the  form  ^x (meaning C-x), a backslash followed by an octal
       number (specifying the ASCII code of the character), or a backslash followed by  a  second
       character, such as \^ or \\.  The argument can also be quoted, if you like.  If no further
       argument is given, any previously established  binding  for  this  key  is  removed.   The
       command argument can be any command listed in this section.

       If  a  command  class  is  specified via the -c option, the key is bound for the specified
       class. Use the command command to activate a class. Command classes can be used to  create
       multiple command keys or multi-character bindings.

       Some examples:

                       bind ' ' windows
                       bind ^k
                       bind k
                       bind K kill
                       bind ^f screen telnet foobar
                       bind \033 screen -ln -t root -h 1000 9 su

       would  bind  the  space  key  to  the command that displays a list of windows (so that the
       command usually invoked by C-a C-w would also be available as C-a space). The  next  three
       lines  remove the default kill binding from C-a C-k and C-a k.  C-a K is then bound to the
       kill command. Then it binds C-f to the command create a window with a TELNET connection to
       foobar,  and  bind escape to the command that creates an non-login window with a.k.a. root
       in slot #9, with a superuser shell and a scrollback buffer of 1000 lines.

                       bind -c demo1 0 select 10
                       bind -c demo1 1 select 11
                       bind -c demo1 2 select 12
                       bindkey "^B" command -c demo1

       makes C-b 0 select window 10, C-b 1 window 11, etc.

                       bind -c demo2 0 select 10
                       bind -c demo2 1 select 11
                       bind -c demo2 2 select 12
                       bind - command -c demo2

       makes C-a - 0 select window 10, C-a - 1 window 11, etc.

       bindkey [-d] [-m] [-a] [[-k|-t] string [cmd-args]]

       This command manages screen's input translation tables. Every entry in one of  the  tables
       tells  screen  how  to react if a certain sequence of characters is encountered. There are
       three tables: one that should contain actions programmed by the user, one for the  default
       actions  used for terminal emulation and one for screen's copy mode to do cursor movement.
       See section INPUT TRANSLATION for a list of default key bindings.

       If the -d option is given, bindkey modifies the default table, -m changes  the  copy  mode
       table  and  with  neither  option  the user table is selected.  The argument string is the
       sequence of characters to which an action is bound. This can either be a fixed string or a
       termcap keyboard capability name (selectable with the -k option).

       Some keys on a VT100 terminal can send a different string if application mode is turned on
       (e.g the cursor keys).  Such keys have two entries  in  the  translation  table.  You  can
       select the application mode entry by specifying the -a option.

       The  -t  option  tells  screen  not  to do inter-character timing. One cannot turn off the
       timing if a termcap capability is used.

       Cmd can be any of screen's commands with an arbitrary number of args.  If cmd  is  omitted
       the key-binding is removed from the table.

       Here are some examples of keyboard bindings:

               bindkey -d

       Show all of the default key bindings. The application mode entries are marked with [A].

               bindkey -k k1 select 1

       Make the "F1" key switch to window one.

               bindkey -t foo stuff barfoo

       Make  "foo"  an  abbreviation  of the word "barfoo". Timeout is disabled so that users can
       type slowly.

               bindkey "\024" mapdefault

       This key-binding makes ^T an escape character for key-bindings. If you did the above stuff
       barfoo binding, you can enter the word foo by typing ^Tfoo. If you want to insert a ^T you
       have to press the key twice (i.e., escape the escape binding).

               bindkey -k F1 command

       Make the F11 (not F1!) key an alternative screen escape (besides ^A).

       break [duration]

       Send a break signal for duration*0.25 seconds to this window.  For non-Posix  systems  the
       time  interval  may  be  rounded up to full seconds.  Most useful if a character device is
       attached to the window rather than a shell process (See also chapter  WINDOW  TYPES).  The
       maximum duration of a break signal is limited to 15 seconds.


       Activate  the  screen  blanker.  First  the  screen  is  cleared. If no blanker program is
       defined, the cursor is turned off, otherwise, the program is started and  it's  output  is
       written to the screen.  The screen blanker is killed with the first keypress, the read key
       is discarded.

       This command is normally used together with the idle command.

       blankerprg [program-args]

       Defines a blanker program. Disables the blanker program if an  empty  argument  is  given.
       Shows the currently set blanker program if no arguments are given.

       breaktype [tcsendbreak|TIOCSBRK|TCSBRK]

       Choose  one  of  the  available methods of generating a break signal for terminal devices.
       This command should affect the current window only.  But it  still  behaves  identical  to
       defbreaktype.  This  will  be  changed in the future.  Calling breaktype with no parameter
       displays the break method for the current window.

       bufferfile [exchange-file]

       Change the filename used for reading and writing with the paste buffer.  If  the  optional
       argument  to the bufferfile command is omitted, the default setting (/tmp/screen-exchange)
       is reactivated.  The following example will paste the  system's  password  file  into  the
       screen window (using the paste buffer, where a copy remains):

                       C-a : bufferfile /etc/passwd
                       C-a < C-a ]
                       C-a : bufferfile


       Swaps window with previous one on window list.


       Swaps window with next one on window list.

       c1 [ on | off ]

       Change  c1  code  processing. C1 on tells screen to treat the input characters between 128
       and 159 as control functions.  Such an 8-bit code is normally the same as ESC followed  by
       the  corresponding  7-bit  code.  The  default  setting  is to process c1 codes and can be
       changed with the defc1 command.  Users with fonts that have usable characters  in  the  c1
       positions may want to turn this off.

       caption [ top | bottom ] always|splitonly[string]

       caption string [string]

       This  command controls the display of the window captions. Normally a caption is only used
       if more than one window is shown on the display (split screen mode). But if  the  type  is
       set  to always screen shows a caption even if only one window is displayed. The default is

       The second form changes the text used for the caption. You can use all  escapes  from  the
       STRING ESCAPES chapter. Screen uses a default of `%3n %t'.

       You can mix both forms by providing a string as an additional argument.

       You can have the caption displayed either at the top or bottom of the window.  The default
       is bottom.

       charset set

       Change the current character set slot designation and charset  mapping.   The  first  four
       character  of  set  are treated as charset designators while the fifth and sixth character
       must be in range '0' to '3' and set the GL/GR charset mapping. On every position a '.' may
       be  used  to indicate that the corresponding charset/mapping should not be changed (set is
       padded to six characters internally by appending '.'  chars). New windows have "BBBB02" as
       default charset, unless a encoding command is active.
       The current setting can be viewed with the info command.

       chdir [directory]

       Change the current directory of screen to the specified directory or, if called without an
       argument, to your home directory (the value  of  the  environment  variable  $HOME).   All
       windows  that are created by means of the screen command from within .screenrc or by means
       of C-a : screen ...  or C-a c use this  as  their  default  directory.   Without  a  chdir
       command, this would be the directory from which screen was invoked.

       Hardcopy  and  log  files  are  always  written to the window's default directory, not the
       current directory of the process running in the window.  You can use this command multiple
       times in your .screenrc to start various windows in different default directories, but the
       last chdir value will affect all the windows you create interactively.

       cjkwidth [ on | off ]

       Treat ambiguous width characters as full/half width.


       Clears the current window and saves its image to the scrollback buffer.


       Reorders window on window list, removing number gaps between them.

       colon [prefix]

       Allows you to enter .screenrc command lines. Useful for  on-the-fly  modification  of  key
       bindings,  specific  window  creation  and changing settings. Note that the set keyword no
       longer exists! Usually commands affect the current window rather than default settings for
       future windows. Change defaults with commands starting with 'def...'.

       If  you  consider  this  as  the `Ex command mode' of screen, you may regard C-a esc (copy
       mode) as its `Vi command mode'.

       command [ -c class"]"

       This command has the same effect as  typing  the  screen  escape  character  (^A).  It  is
       probably  only  useful  for key bindings.  If the -c option is given, select the specified
       command class.  See also bind and bindkey.

       compacthist [ on | off ]

       This tells screen whether to suppress trailing blank lines when scrolling up text into the
       history buffer.

       console [ on | off ]

       Grabs  or  un-grabs  the  machines  console  output  to a window.  Note: Only the owner of
       /dev/console can grab the console output.  This command is only available if  the  machine
       supports the ioctl TIOCCONS.


       Enter  copy/scrollback  mode. This allows you to copy text from the current window and its
       history into the paste buffer. In this mode a vi-like `full screen editor' is active:
       The editor's movement keys are:

       h, C-h,        move the cursor left.
       left arrow
       j, C-n,        move the cursor down.
       down arrow
       k, C-p,        move the cursor up.
       up arrow
       l ('el'),      move the cursor right.
       right arrow
       0 (zero) C-a   move to the leftmost column.
       + and -        positions one line up and down.
       H, M and L     move the cursor to the leftmost  column  of  the
                      top, center or bottom line of the window.
       |              moves to the specified absolute column.
       g or home      moves to the beginning of the buffer.
       G or end       moves  to  the specified absolute line (default:
                      end of buffer).
       %              jumps to the specified percentage of the buffer.
       ^ or $         move to the leftmost column,  to  the  first  or
                      last non-whitespace character on the line.
       w, b, and e    move the cursor word by word.
       B, E           move the cursor WORD by WORD (as in vi).
       f/F, t/T       move  the  cursor  forward/backward  to the next
                      occurrence of the target. (eg, '3fy'  will  move
                      the cursor to the 3rd 'y' to the right.)
       ; and ,        Repeat   the   last   f/F/t/T   command  in  the
                      same/opposite direction.
       C-e and C-y    scroll the display up/down  by  one  line  while
                      preserving the cursor position.

       C-u and C-d    scroll  the  display  up/down  by  the specified
                      amount of  lines  while  preserving  the  cursor
                      position. (Default: half screen-full).
       C-b and C-f    scroll the display up/down a full screen.

       Note:  Emacs style movement keys can be customized by a .screenrc command.  (E.g. markkeys
       "h=^B:l=^F:$=^E") There is no simple  method  for  a  full  emacs-style  keymap,  as  this
       involves multi-character codes.

       Some keys are defined to do mark and replace operations.

       The  copy  range  is  specified by setting two marks. The text between these marks will be
       highlighted. Press:

              space or enter to set the first or second mark respectively. If mousetrack  is  set
              to `on', marks can also be set using left mouse click.

              Y and y used to mark one whole line or to mark from start of line.

              W marks exactly one word.

       Any of these commands can be prefixed with a repeat count number by pressing digits

              0..9 which is taken as a repeat count.

       Example: C-a C-[ H 10 j 5 Y will copy lines 11 to 15 into the paste buffer.

       The following search keys are defined:

              / Vi-like search forward.

              ? Vi-like search backward.

              C-a s Emacs style incremental search forward.

              C-r Emacs style reverse i-search.

              n Find next search pattern.

              N Find previous search pattern.

       There  are  however  some  keys that act differently than in vi.  Vi does not allow one to
       yank rectangular blocks of text, but screen does. Press: c or C to set the left  or  right
       margin  respectively.  If  no  repeat  count  is given, both default to the current cursor

       Example: Try this on a rather full text screen:

              C-a [ M 20 l SPACE c 10 l 5 j C SPACE.

       This moves one to the middle line of the screen, moves  in  20  columns  left,  marks  the
       beginning  of the paste buffer, sets the left column, moves 5 columns down, sets the right
       column, and then marks the end of the paste buffer. Now try:

              C-a [ M 20 l SPACE 10 l 5 j SPACE

       and notice the difference in the amount of text copied.

       J joins lines. It toggles between 4 modes: lines separated by a newline  character  (012),
       lines  glued  seamless,  lines separated by a single whitespace and comma separated lines.
       Note that you can prepend the newline character  with  a  carriage  return  character,  by
       issuing a crlf on.

       v  or  V  is  for  all the vi users with :set numbers - it toggles the left margin between
       column 9 and 1. Press

       a before the final space key to toggle in append mode. Thus  the  contents  of  the  paste
       buffer will not be overwritten, but is appended to.

       A toggles in append mode and sets a (second) mark.

       >  sets  the  (second)  mark  and  writes  the contents of the paste buffer to the screen-
       exchange file (/tmp/screen-exchange per default) once copy-mode is finished.

       This example demonstrates how to dump the whole scrollback buffer to that file:  C-A  [  g
       SPACE G $ >.

       C-g gives information about the current line and column.

       x  or  o  exchanges  the  first  mark and the current cursor position. You can use this to
       adjust an already placed mark.

       C-l ('el') will redraw the screen.

       @ does nothing. Does not even exit copy mode.

       All keys not described here exit copy mode.

       copy_reg [key]

       No longer exists, use readreg instead.

       crlf [ on | off ]

       This affects the copying of text regions with the `C-a [' command. If it is set  to  `on',
       lines  will  be  separated by the two character sequence `CR' - `LF'.  Otherwise (default)
       only `LF' is used.  When no parameter is given, the state is toggled.

       debug [ on | off ]

       Turns runtime debugging on or off.  If  screen  has  been  compiled  with  option  -DDEBUG
       debugging  available  and  is  turned  on per default. Note that this command only affects
       debugging output from the main  SCREEN  process  correctly.  Debug  output  from  attacher
       processes can only be turned off once and forever.

       defc1 [ on | off ]

       Same as the c1 command except that the default setting for new windows is changed. Initial
       setting is `on'.

       defautonuke [ on | off ]

       Same as the autonuke command except that the default setting for new displays is  changed.
       Initial  setting  is `off'.  Note that you can use the special `AN' terminal capability if
       you want to have a dependency on the terminal type.

       defbce [ on | off ]

       Same as the bce command except that the  default  setting  for  new  windows  is  changed.
       Initial setting is `off'.

       defbreaktype [tcsendbreak|TIOCSBRK|TCSBRK]

       Choose one of the available methods of generating a break signal for terminal devices. The
       preferred methods are tcsendbreak and TIOCSBRK.  The third, TCSBRK,  blocks  the  complete
       screen  session for the duration of the break, but it may be the only way to generate long
       breaks.  Tcsendbreak and TIOCSBRK may or may not produce long breaks with spikes  (e.g.  4
       per  second).  This  is  not only system-dependent, this also differs between serial board
       drivers.  Calling defbreaktype with no parameter displays the current setting.

       defcharset [set]

       Like the charset command except that the default setting for new windows is changed. Shows
       current default if called without argument.

       defdynamictitle [ on | off ]

       Set  default behaviour for new windows regarding if screen should change window title when
       seeing proper escape sequence. See also "TITLES (naming windows)" section.

       defescape xy

       Set the default command characters. This is equivalent to the escape  except  that  it  is
       useful  multiuser  sessions  only.  In  a  multiuser  session  escape  changes the command
       character of the calling user, where defescape changes the default command characters  for
       users that will be added later.

       defflow [ on | off | auto [ interrupt ]]

       Same  as  the  flow  command  except  that the default setting for new windows is changed.
       Initial setting is `auto'.  Specifying defflow auto interrupt is the same as the  command-
       line options -fa and -i.

       defgr [ on | off ]

       Same as the gr command except that the default setting for new windows is changed. Initial
       setting is `off'.

       defhstatus [status]

       The hardstatus line that all new windows will get is  set  to  status.   This  command  is
       useful  to  make  the hardstatus of every window display the window number or title or the
       like.  Status may contain the same directives as in the window messages, but the directive
       escape  character  is  '^E'  (octal  005)  instead  of  '%'.   This  was  done  to  make a
       misinterpretation of program generated hardstatus  lines  impossible.   If  the  parameter
       status  is  omitted,  the current default string is displayed.  Per default the hardstatus
       line of new windows is empty.

       defencoding enc

       Same as the encoding command except that the default setting for new windows  is  changed.
       Initial setting is the encoding taken from the terminal.

       deflog [ on | off ]

       Same  as  the  log  command  except  that  the default setting for new windows is changed.
       Initial setting is `off'.

       deflogin [ on | off ]

       Same as the login command except that the default setting for new windows is changed. This
       is initialized with `on' as distributed (see

       defmode mode

       The  mode  of  each  newly  allocated pseudo-tty is set to mode.  Mode is an octal number.
       When no defmode command is given, mode 0622 is used.

       defmonitor [ on | off]

       Same as the monitor command except that the default setting for new  windows  is  changed.
       Initial setting is `off'.

       defmousetrack [ on | off ]

       Same as the mousetrack command except that the default setting for new windows is changed.
       Initial setting is `off'.

       defnonblock [ on | off | numsecs]

       Same as the nonblock command except that the default  setting  for  displays  is  changed.
       Initial setting is `off'.

       defobuflimit limit

       Same as the obuflimit command except that the default setting for new displays is changed.
       Initial setting is 256 bytes.  Note that you can use the special 'OL' terminal  capability
       if you want to have a dependency on the terminal type.

       defscrollback num

       Same as the scrollback command except that the default setting for new windows is changed.
       Initial setting is 100.

       defshell command

       Synonym to the shell .screenrc command. See there.

       defsilence [ on | off ]

       Same as the silence command except that the default setting for new  windows  is  changed.
       Initial setting is `off'.

       defslowpaste msec

       Same  as the slowpaste command except that the default setting for new windows is changed.
       Initial setting is 0 milliseconds, meaning `off'.

       defutf8 [ on | off ]

       Same as the utf8 command except that the default  setting  for  new  windows  is  changed.
       Initial setting is `on' if screen was started with -U, otherwise `off'.

       defwrap [ on | off ]

       Same  as  the  wrap  command  except  that the default setting for new windows is changed.
       Initially line-wrap is on and can be toggled with the wrap command (C-a r) or by means  of
       "C-a : wrap on|off".

       defwritelock [ on | off | auto ]

       Same  as the writelock command except that the default setting for new windows is changed.
       Initially writelocks will off.

       detach [-h]

       Detach the  screen  session  (disconnect  it  from  the  terminal  and  put  it  into  the
       background).   This  returns you to the shell where you invoked screen.  A detached screen
       can be resumed by invoking screen with  the  -r  option  (see  also  section  COMMAND-LINE
       OPTIONS).  The  -h option tells screen to immediately close the connection to the terminal


       Show what screen thinks about your terminal. Useful if you want to know why features  like
       color or the alternate charset don't work.


       Shows  a  tabular  listing of all currently connected user front-ends (displays).  This is
       most useful for multiuser sessions.  The following keys can be used in displays list:

       k, C-p, or up           Move up one line.
       j, C-n, or down         Move down one line.
       C-a or home             Move to the first line.
       C-e or end              Move to the last line.

       C-u or C-d              Move one half page up or down.
       C-b or C-f              Move one full page up or down.
       mouseclick              Move  to  the   selected   line.
                               Available when mousetrack is set
                               to on.
       space                   Refresh the list
       d                       Detach that display
       D                       Power detach that display
       C-g, enter, or escape   Exit the list

       The following is an example of what displays could look like:
              xterm 80x42 jnweiger@/dev/ttyp4     0(m11)   &rWx
              facit 80x24 mlschroe@/dev/ttyhf nb 11(tcsh)   rwx
              xterm 80x42 jnhollma@/dev/ttyp5     0(m11)   &R.x
               (A)   (B)     (C)     (D)     (E) (F)(G)   (H)(I)

       The legend is as follows:

              (A) The terminal type known by screen for this display.

              (B) Displays geometry as width x height.

              (C) Username who is logged in at the display.

              (D) Device name of the display or the attached device

              (E) Display is in blocking or nonblocking mode.   The  available  modes  are  "nb",
              "NB", "Z<", "Z>", and "BL".

              (F) Number of the window

              (G) Name/title of window

              (H) Whether the window is shared

              (I) Window permissions. Made up of three characters.

              │             Window permissions indicators              │
              │ 1st character   │  2nd character   │   3rd character   │
              │-   │no read     │ -   │no write    │ -   │no execute   │
              │r   │read        │ w   │write       │ x   │execute      │
              │    │            │ W   │own wlock   │     │             │
              │Indicators of permissions suppressed by a foreign wlock │
              │R   │read only   │ .   │no write    │     │             │
              displays  needs  a region size of at least 10 characters wide and 5 characters high
              in order to display.

       digraph [preset[unicode-value]]

       This command prompts the user for a digraph sequence. The next two  characters  typed  are
       looked  up in a builtin table and the resulting character is inserted in the input stream.
       For example, if the user enters 'a"', an a-umlaut will be inserted. If the first character
       entered  is  a  0  (zero),  screen will treat the following characters (up to three) as an
       octal number instead.  The optional argument preset is treated as user input, thus one can
       create  an  umlaut key.  For example the command "bindkey ^K digraph '"'" enables the user
       to generate an a-umlaut by typing CTRL-K a.  When a non-zero unicode-value is specified, a
       new  digraph is created with the specified preset. The digraph is unset if a zero value is
       provided for the unicode-value.


       Write the termcap entry for the virtual terminal optimized for the currently active window
       to  the file .termcap in the user's $HOME/.screen directory (or wherever screen stores its
       sockets. See the FILES section below).  This termcap entry is identical to  the  value  of
       the  environment  variable $TERMCAP that is set up by screen for each window. For terminfo
       based systems you will need to run a converter like captoinfo and then compile  the  entry
       with tic.

       dynamictitle [ on | off ]

       Change  behaviour  for  windows regarding if screen should change window title when seeing
       proper escape sequence. See also "TITLES (naming windows)" section.

       echo [-n] message

       The echo command may be used to annoy screen users with a 'message of the day'.  Typically
       installed in a global /etc/screenrc.  The option -n may be used to suppress the line feed.
       See also sleep.  Echo is also useful for online checking of environment variables.

       encoding enc [enc]

       Tell screen how to interpret the input/output. The first argument sets the encoding of the
       current  window.  Each  window  can  emulate  a  different  encoding.  The optional second
       parameter overwrites the encoding of the connected terminal. It should never be needed  as
       screen  uses  the  locale setting to detect the encoding.  There is also a way to select a
       terminal encoding depending on the terminal type by using the KJ termcap entry.

       Supported encodings are eucJP, SJIS, eucKR, eucCN,  Big5,  GBK,  KOI8-R,  KOI8-U,  CP1251,
       UTF-8,  ISO8859-2,  ISO8859-3,  ISO8859-4,  ISO8859-5,  ISO8859-6,  ISO8859-7,  ISO8859-8,
       ISO8859-9, ISO8859-10, ISO8859-15, jis.

       See also defencoding, which changes the default setting of a new window.

       escape xy

       Set the command character to x and the character generating a  literal  command  character
       (by triggering the meta command) to y (similar to the -e option).  Each argument is either
       a single character, a two-character sequence of the form ^x  (meaning  C-x),  a  backslash
       followed  by  an octal number (specifying the ASCII code of the character), or a backslash
       followed by a second character, such as \^ or \\.  The default is ^Aa.

       eval command1[command2 ...]

       Parses and executes each argument as separate command.

       exec [[fdpat]newcommand [args ...]]

       Run a unix subprocess (specified  by  an  executable  path  newcommand  and  its  optional
       arguments)   in   the   current   window.   The   flow   of   data   between   newcommands
       stdin/stdout/stderr, the process  originally  started  in  the  window  (let  us  call  it
       "application-process")  and  screen  itself  (window) is controlled by the file descriptor
       pattern fdpat.  This pattern is basically a three character sequence  representing  stdin,
       stdout  and  stderr  of  newcommand. A dot (.) connects the file descriptor to screen.  An
       exclamation mark (!) causes the file  descriptor  to  be  connected  to  the  application-
       process.  A  colon  (:) combines both.  User input will go to newcommand unless newcommand
       receives the application-process' output (fdpats first character is `!' or `:') or a  pipe
       symbol (|) is added (as a fourth character) to the end of fdpat.

       Invoking  `exec'  without  arguments  shows  name  and  arguments of the currently running
       subprocess in this window. Only one subprocess a time can be running in each window.

       When a subprocess is running the `kill' command will affect  it  instead  of  the  windows

       Refer  to  the  postscript  file  `doc/'  for  a  confusing illustration of all 21
       possible combinations. Each drawing shows the digits 2,1,0  representing  the  three  file
       descriptors  of  newcommand. The box marked `W' is the usual pty that has the application-
       process on its slave side.  The box marked `P' is the secondary pty that now has screen at
       its master side.

       Abbreviations:  Whitespace  between  the  word  `exec'  and  fdpat  and the command can be
       omitted. Trailing dots and a fdpat consisting only of dots can be omitted. A simple `|' is
       synonymous  for  the  pattern  `!..|'; the word exec can be omitted here and can always be
       replaced by `!'.


              exec ... /bin/sh

              exec /bin/sh


                     Creates another shell in the same window, while the original shell is  still
                     running.  Output  of  both shells is displayed and user input is sent to the
                     new /bin/sh.

              exec !.. stty 19200

              exec ! stty 19200

              !!stty 19200

                     Set the speed of the window's tty. If your stty command operates on  stdout,
                     then add another `!'.

              exec !..| less


                     This  adds a pager to the window output. The special character `|' is needed
                     to give the user control over the pager although it gets its input from  the
                     window's  process.  This  works,  because less listens on stderr (a behavior
                     that screen would not expect without the `|') when its stdin is not  a  tty.
                     Less versions newer than 177 fail miserably here; good old pg still works.

              !:sed -n s/.*Error.*/\007/p

                     Sends  window  output to both, the user and the sed command. The sed inserts
                     an additional bell character (oct. 007) to the window output seen by screen.
                     This  will  cause  "Bell  in window x" messages, whenever the string "Error"
                     appears in the window.


       Change the window size to the size of the current region. This command is  needed  because
       screen  doesn't  adapt  the window size automatically if the window is displayed more than

       flow [ on | off | auto]

       Sets the flow-control mode for this window.  Without  parameters  it  cycles  the  current
       window's  flow-control  setting  from "automatic" to "on" to "off".  See the discussion on
       FLOW-CONTROL later on in this document for full details and note, that this is subject  to
       change in future releases.  Default is set by `defflow'.

       focus [ next | prev | up | down | left | right | top | bottom ]

       Move the input focus to the next region. This is done in a cyclic way so that the top left
       region is selected after the bottom right one. If  no  option  is  given  it  defaults  to
       `next'.  The  next  region  to  be  selected is determined by how the regions are layered.
       Normally, the next region in the same layer would be  selected.   However,  if  that  next
       region  contains  one  or  more  layers, the first region in the highest layer is selected
       first. If you are at the last region of the current layer, `next' will move the  focus  to
       the  next  region  in  the  lower layer (if there is a lower layer).  `Prev' cycles in the
       opposite order. See split for more information about layers.

       The rest of the options (`up', `down', `left', `right',  `top',  and  `bottom')  are  more
       indifferent  to  layers.  The option `up' will move the focus upward to the region that is
       touching the upper left corner of the current region.  `Down' will move  downward  to  the
       region  that  is  touching  the lower left corner of the current region. The option `left'
       will move the focus leftward to the region that is touching the upper left corner  of  the
       current region, while `right' will move rightward to the region that is touching the upper
       right corner of the current region. Moving left from a left most region  or  moving  right
       from a right most region will result in no action.

       The  option `top' will move the focus to the very first region in the upper list corner of
       the screen, and `bottom' will move to the region in the bottom right corner of the screen.
       Moving  up  from a top most region or moving down from a bottom most region will result in
       no action.

       Useful bindings are (h, j, k, and l as in vi)
           bind h focus left
           bind j focus down
           bind k focus up
           bind l focus right
           bind t focus top
           bind b focus bottom
       Note that k is traditionally bound to the kill command.

       focusminsize [ ( width|max|_ ) ( height|max|_ ) ]

       This forces any currently selected region to be automatically resized at least  a  certain
       width  and  height. All other surrounding regions will be resized in order to accommodate.
       This constraint follows every time the focus command is used. The resize  command  can  be
       used  to  increase  either  dimension  of  a  region,  but  never  below  what is set with
       focusminsize. The underscore `_' is a synonym for max. Setting a width and height of `0 0'
       (zero  zero)  will  undo  any  constraints  and  allow  for  manual resizing.  Without any
       parameters, the minimum width and height is shown.

       gr [ on | off ]

       Turn GR charset switching on/off. Whenever screen sees an input character with the 8th bit
       set,  it  will  use the charset stored in the GR slot and print the character with the 8th
       bit stripped. The default (see  also  defgr)  is  not  to  process  GR  switching  because
       otherwise the ISO88591 charset would not work.

       group [grouptitle]

       Change  or  show  the  group  the  current  window belongs to. Windows can be moved around
       between different groups  by  specifying  the  name  of  the  destination  group.  Without
       specifying a group, the title of the current group is displayed.

       hardcopy [-h] [file]

       Writes  out  the  currently  displayed  image  to  the  file  file,  or, if no filename is
       specified, to hardcopy.n in the default directory, where n is the number  of  the  current
       window.   This  either  appends  or  overwrites  the file if it exists. See below.  If the
       option -h is specified, dump also the contents of the scrollback buffer.

       hardcopy_append [ on | off ]

       If set to "on", screen will append to the "hardcopy.n" files created by the command C-a h,
       otherwise these files are overwritten each time.  Default is `off'.

       hardcopydir directory

       Defines a directory where hardcopy files will be placed. If unset, hardcopys are dumped in
       screen's current working directory.

       hardstatus [ on | off ]

       hardstatus [ always ] firstline | lastline | message | ignore [ string ]

       hardstatus string [ string ]

       This command configures the use and emulation of the terminal's hardstatus line. The first
       form  toggles whether screen will use the hardware status line to display messages. If the
       flag is set to `off', these messages are overlaid in reverse video  mode  at  the  display
       line. The default setting is `on'.

       The  second  form  tells  screen what to do if the terminal doesn't have a hardstatus line
       (i.e. the termcap/terminfo capabilities "hs", "ts", "fs" and  "ds"  are  not  set).   When
       firstline/lastline is used, screen will reserve the first/last line of the display for the
       hardstatus. message uses screen's message mechanism  and  ignore  tells  screen  never  to
       display   the   hardstatus.    If   you  prepend  the  word  always  to  the  type  (e.g.,
       alwayslastline), screen will use the type even if the terminal supports a hardstatus.

       The third form specifies the contents of the hardstatus line.  '%h'  is  used  as  default
       string,  i.e.,  the stored hardstatus of the current window (settable via ESC]0;<string>^G
       or ESC_<string>ESC\) is displayed.   You  can  customize  this  to  any  string  you  like
       including  the  escapes  from  the  STRING  ESCAPES chapter. If you leave out the argument
       string, the current string is displayed.

       You can mix the second and third form by providing the string as additional argument.

       height [-w|-d] [lines [cols]]

       Set the display height to a specified number of  lines.  When  no  argument  is  given  it
       toggles  between  24  and  42  lines  display. You can also specify a width if you want to
       change both values.  The -w option tells screen to leave the display  size  unchanged  and
       just set the window size, -d vice versa.


       Not  really  a  online  help, but displays a help screen showing you all the key bindings.
       The first pages list all  the  internal  commands  followed  by  their  current  bindings.
       Subsequent  pages will display the custom commands, one command per key.  Press space when
       you're done reading each page, or return to exit early.  All other characters are ignored.
       If  the  -c  option  is given, display all bound commands for the specified command class.
       See also DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS section.


       Usually users work with a shell that allows easy access to previous commands.  For example
       csh  has  the command !! to repeat the last command executed.  Screen allows you to have a
       primitive way of re-calling the command that started ...: You just type the  first  letter
       of  that  command,  then hit `C-a {' and screen tries to find a previous line that matches
       with the `prompt character' to the left of the cursor.  This  line  is  pasted  into  this
       window's  input  queue.   Thus  you  have  a crude command history (made up by the visible
       window and its scrollback buffer).

       hstatus status

       Change the window's hardstatus line to the string status.

       idle [timeout[cmd-args]]

       Sets a command that is run after the specified number of seconds  inactivity  is  reached.
       This  command  will normally be the blanker command to create a screen blanker, but it can
       be any screen command.  If no command is specified, only the timeout is set. A timeout  of
       zero  (or  the  special  timeout  off) disables the timer.  If no arguments are given, the
       current settings are displayed.

       ignorecase [ on | off ]

       Tell screen to ignore the case of characters in searches. Default is  `off'.  Without  any
       options, the state of ignorecase is toggled.


       Uses  the  message  line  to display some information about the current window: the cursor
       position in the form (column,row) starting with (1,1), the terminal width and height  plus
       the  size  of  the  scrollback  buffer  in lines, like in (80,24)+50, the current state of
       window XON/XOFF flow control is shown like this (See also section FLOW CONTROL):

       │+flow    │ automatic flow control, currently on.                    │
       │-flow    │ automatic flow control, currently off.                   │
       │+(+)flow │ flow control enabled. Agrees with automatic control.     │
       │-(+)flow │ flow control disabled. Disagrees with automatic control. │
       │+(-)flow │ flow control enabled. Disagrees with automatic control.  │
       │-(-)flow │ flow control disabled. Agrees with automatic control.    │
       The current line wrap setting (`+wrap' indicates enabled, `-wrap' not) is also shown.  The
       flags  `ins',  `org',  `app',  `log', `mon' or `nored' are displayed when the window is in
       insert mode, origin mode, application-keypad mode, has output logging, activity monitoring
       or partial redraw enabled.

       The currently active character set (G0, G1, G2, or G3) and in square brackets the terminal
       character sets that are currently designated as G0 through G3 is shown. If the  window  is
       in UTF-8 mode, the string UTF-8 is shown instead.

       Additional  modes  depending  on  the  type  of the window are displayed at the end of the
       status line (See also chapter WINDOW TYPES).

       If the state machine of the terminal emulator is in a non-default state, the info line  is
       started with a string identifying the current state.

       For system information use the time command.

       ins_reg [key]

       No longer exists, use paste instead.


       Kill current window.

       If  there  is  an  `exec' command running then it is killed. Otherwise the process (shell)
       running in the window receives a HANGUP condition, the window  structure  is  removed  and
       screen  (your  display)  switches  to  another window.  When the last window is destroyed,
       screen exits.  After a kill screen switches to the previously displayed window.

       Note: Emacs users should  keep  this  command  in  mind,  when  killing  a  line.   It  is
       recommended not to use C-a as the screen escape key or to rebind kill to C-a K.


       Redisplay  the  last  contents of the message/status line.  Useful if you're typing when a
       message appears, because  the message goes away when you press a key (unless your terminal
       has  a  hardware  status  line).   Refer  to  the commands msgwait and msgminwait for fine

       layout new [title]

       Create a new layout. The screen will change to one whole region and  be  switched  to  the
       blank  window.  From  here, you build the regions and the windows they show as you desire.
       The new layout will be numbered with the smallest available integer, starting  with  zero.
       You  can  optionally  give  a title to your new layout.  Otherwise, it will have a default
       title of layout. You can always change the title later by using the command layout title.

       layout remove [n|title]

       Remove, or in other words, delete the specified layout. Either the number or the title can
       be specified. Without either specification, screen will remove the current layout.

       Removing a layout does not affect your set windows or regions.

       layout next

       Switch to the next layout available

       layout prev

       Switch to the previous layout available

       layout select [n|title]

       Select the desired layout. Either the number or the title can be specified. Without either
       specification, screen will prompt and ask which screen is desired. To  see  which  layouts
       are available, use the layout show command.

       layout show

       List  on  the  message  line  the  number(s)  and title(s) of the available layout(s). The
       current layout is flagged.

       layout title [title]

       Change or display the title of the current layout. A string given will be used to name the
       layout.  Without  any  options,  the  current title and number is displayed on the message

       layout number [n]

       Change or display the number of the current layout. An  integer  given  will  be  used  to
       number  the  layout. Without any options, the current number and title is displayed on the
       message line.

       layout attach [title|:last]

       Change or display which layout to reattach back to. The  default  is  :last,  which  tells
       screen  to  reattach  back  to the last used layout just before detachment. By supplying a
       title, You can instruct screen to reattach to a particular layout regardless which one was
       used  at  the  time  of detachment. Without any options, the layout to reattach to will be
       shown in the message line.

       layout save [n|title]

       Remember the  current  arrangement  of  regions.  When  used,  screen  will  remember  the
       arrangement  of  vertically  and  horizontally split regions. This arrangement is restored
       when a screen session is reattached or switched back  from  a  different  layout.  If  the
       session ends or the screen process dies, the layout arrangements are lost. The layout dump
       command should help in this siutation. If a number  or  title  is  supplied,  screen  will
       remember  the  arrangement  of  that  particular  layout. Without any options, screen will
       remember the current layout.

       Saving your regions can be done automatically by using the layout autosave command.

       layout autosave [ on | off]

       Change or display the status of automatcally saving layouts. The default  is  on,  meaning
       when  screen  is detached or changed to a different layout, the arrangement of regions and
       windows will be remembered at the time of change and restored upon return.  If autosave is
       set  to  off,  that  arrangement  will only be restored to either to the last manual save,
       using layout save, or to when the layout was first created, to  a  single  region  with  a
       single window. Without either an on or off, the current status is displayed on the message

       layout dump [filename]

       Write to a file the order of splits made in the current layout. This is useful to recreate
       the  order  of  your  regions  used  in  your  current  layout. Only the current layout is
       recorded. While the order of the regions are recorded, the  sizes  of  those  regions  and
       which  windows  correspond  to  which  regions  are  not. If no filename is specified, the
       default is layout-dump, saved in the directory that the screen process was started in.  If
       the file already exists, layout dump will append to that file. As an example:

                C-a : layout dump /home/user/.screenrc

       will save or append the layout to the user's .screenrc file.


       Display  the  disclaimer  page.  This  is done whenever screen is started without options,
       which should be often enough. See also the startup_message command.


       Lock this display.  Call a  screenlock  program  (/local/bin/lck  or  /usr/bin/lock  or  a
       builtin  if  no  other  is  available). Screen does not accept any command keys until this
       program terminates. Meanwhile processes in the windows may continue, as the windows are in
       the  `detached'  state.  The  screenlock  program  may  be changed through the environment
       variable $LOCKPRG (which must be set in the shell from which screen  is  started)  and  is
       executed with the user's uid and gid.

       Warning:  When you leave other shells unlocked and you have no password set on screen, the
       lock is void: One could easily re-attach from  an  unlocked  shell.  This  feature  should
       rather be called `lockterminal'.

       log [ on | off ]

       Start/stop  writing  output  of  the  current window to a file screenlog.n in the window's
       default directory, where n is the number of the  current  window.  This  filename  can  be
       changed  with  the  `logfile'  command.  If no parameter is given, the state of logging is
       toggled. The session log is appended to the previous contents of the file  if  it  already
       exists.  The  current contents and the contents of the scrollback history are not included
       in the session log.  Default is `off'.

       logfile filename

       logfile flush secs

       Defines the name the log files will get. The default  is  screenlog.%n.  The  second  form
       changes  the  number of seconds screen will wait before flushing the logfile buffer to the
       file-system. The default value is 10 seconds.

       login [ on | off ]

       Adds or removes the entry in the utmp database file for the current window.  This controls
       if  the  window is `logged in'.  When no parameter is given, the login state of the window
       is toggled.  Additionally to that toggle, it is convenient having a `log in'  and  a  `log
       out'  key.  E.g.  `bind I login on' and `bind O login off' will map these keys to be C-a I
       and C-a O.  The default setting (in should be on for a screen that runs under
       suid-root.   Use  the  deflogin command to change the default login state for new windows.
       Both commands are only present when screen has been compiled with utmp support.

       logtstamp [on|off]

       logtstamp after [secs]

       logtstamp string

       This command controls logfile time-stamp mechanism of screen.  If time-stamps  are  turned
       on,  screen  adds a string containing the current time to the logfile after two minutes of
       inactivity.  When output continues and more than another two minutes have passed, a second
       time-stamp  is  added  to  document the restart of the output. You can change this timeout
       with the second form of the command. The third form is used for customizing the time-stamp
       string (`-- %n:%t -- time-stamp -- %M/%d/%y %c:%s --\n' by default).


       Tell  screen that the next input character should only be looked up in the default bindkey
       table. See also bindkey.


       Like mapdefault, but don't even look in the default bindkey table.

       maptimeout [timeout]

       Set the inter-character timer for input sequence detection to a timeout of timeout ms. The
       default  timeout  is  300ms.  Maptimeout with no arguments shows the current setting.  See
       also bindkey.

       markkeys string

       This is a method of changing the keymap used for copy/history mode.  The string is made up
       of  oldchar=newchar  pairs  which are separated by `:'. Example: The string B=^B:F=^F will
       change the keys `C-b' and `C-f' to the vi style binding (scroll up/down fill page).   This
       happens  to  be  the default binding for `B' and `F'.  The command markkeys h=^B:l=^F:$=^E
       would set the mode for an emacs-style binding.  If your terminal  sends  characters,  that
       cause you to abort copy mode, then this command may help by binding these characters to do
       nothing.  The no-op character is `@' and is used like this: markkeys @=L=H if you  do  not
       want  to  use the `H' or `L' commands any longer.  As shown in this example, multiple keys
       can be assigned to one function in a single statement.

       maxwin num

       Set the maximum window number screen will create. Doesn't affect already existing windows.
       The number can be increased only when there are no existing windows.


       Insert the command character (C-a) in the current window's input stream.

       monitor [ on | off ]

       Toggles  activity  monitoring  of  windows.   When monitoring is turned on and an affected
       window is switched into the background, you will receive the activity notification message
       in  the status line at the first sign of output and the window will also be marked with an
       `@' in the window-status display.  Monitoring is initially off for all windows.

       mousetrack [ on | off ]

       This command determines whether screen will watch for mouse clicks. When this  command  is
       enabled,  regions that have been split in various ways can be selected by pointing to them
       with a mouse and left-clicking them. Without specifying on or off, the  current  state  is
       displayed. The default state is determined by the defmousetrack command.

       msgminwait sec

       Defines the time screen delays a new message when one message is currently displayed.  The
       default is 1 second.

       msgwait sec

       Defines the time a message is displayed if screen is not disturbed by other activity.  The
       default is 5 seconds.

       multiuser [ on | off ]

       Switch  between singleuser and multiuser mode. Standard screen operation is singleuser. In
       multiuser mode the commands `acladd', `aclchg', `aclgrp'  and  `acldel'  can  be  used  to
       enable (and disable) other users accessing this screen session.

       nethack [ on | off ]

       Changes  the  kind  of error messages used by screen.  When you are familiar with the game
       nethack, you may enjoy the nethack-style messages  which  will  often  blur  the  facts  a
       little,  but  are much funnier to read. Anyway, standard messages often tend to be unclear
       as well.
       This option is only available if screen was compiled with the NETHACK  flag  defined.  The
       default   setting  is  then  determined  by  the  presence  of  the  environment  variable
       $NETHACKOPTIONS and the file ~/.nethackrc - if either one is present, the default is on.


       Switch to the next window.  This command can be used repeatedly to cycle through the  list
       of windows.

       nonblock [ on | off | numsecs ]

       Tell  screen how to deal with user interfaces (displays) that cease to accept output. This
       can happen if a user presses ^S or a TCP/modem  connection  gets  cut  but  no  hangup  is
       received. If nonblock is off (this is the default) screen waits until the display restarts
       to accept the output. If nonblock is on, screen waits until the timeout is reached (on  is
       treated  as  1s). If the display still doesn't receive characters, screen will consider it
       blocked and stop sending characters  to  it.  If  at  some  time  it  restarts  to  accept
       characters, screen will unblock the display and redisplay the updated window contents.

       number [[+|-]n]

       Change  the  current  window's  number.  If  the given number n is already used by another
       window, both windows exchange their numbers. If no  argument  is  specified,  the  current
       window  number  (and  title) is shown. Using `+' or `-' will change the window's number by
       the relative amount specified.

       obuflimit [limit]

       If the output buffer contains more bytes than the specified limit, no more  data  will  be
       read  from the windows. The default value is 256. If you have a fast display (like xterm),
       you can set it to some higher value. If no argument is specified, the current  setting  is


       Kill all regions but the current one.


       Switch  to the window displayed previously. If this window does no longer exist, other has
       the same effect as next.

       partial [ on | off ]

       Defines whether the display should be refreshed (as with redisplay) after switching to the
       current  window.  This command only affects the current window.  To immediately affect all
       windows use the allpartial command.  Default is `off', of course.  This default is  fixed,
       as there is currently no defpartial command.

       password [crypted_pw]

       Present  a  crypted  password  in your .screenrc file and screen will ask for it, whenever
       someone attempts to resume a detached.  This is useful if  you  have  privileged  programs
       running  under  screen  and  you  want  to  protect your session from reattach attempts by
       another user masquerading as your uid (i.e. any superuser.)  If  no  crypted  password  is
       specified,  screen  prompts  twice  for typing a password and places its encryption in the
       paste buffer.  Default is `none', this disables password checking.

       paste [registers [dest_reg]]

       Write the (concatenated) contents of the specified registers to the  stdin  queue  of  the
       current  window. The register '.' is treated as the paste buffer. If no parameter is given
       the user is prompted for a single register to paste.  The paste buffer can be filled  with
       the  copy, history and readbuf commands.  Other registers can be filled with the register,
       readreg and paste commands.  If paste is called with a second argument,  the  contents  of
       the  specified  registers  is  pasted  into the named destination register rather than the
       window. If '.' is  used  as  the  second  argument,  the  displays  paste  buffer  is  the
       destination.   Note,  that  paste  uses  a  wide  variety  of resources: Whenever a second
       argument is specified no current window is needed.  When  the  source  specification  only
       contains  registers  (not  the  paste  buffer)  then  there  need not be a current display
       (terminal attached), as the registers are a global resource. The paste buffer exists  once
       for every user.

       pastefont [ on | off ]

       Tell  screen to include font information in the paste buffer. The default is not to do so.
       This command is especially useful for multi character fonts like kanji.


       Reopen the window's terminal line and send a break condition. See `break'.


       Power detach.  Mainly the same as detach, but also sends a HANGUP  signal  to  the  parent
       process  of  screen.   CAUTION: This will result in a logout, when screen was started from
       your login-shell.

       pow_detach_msg [message]

       The message specified here is output whenever a `Power detach' was performed.  It  may  be
       used as a replacement for a logout message or to reset baud rate, etc.  Without parameter,
       the current message is shown.


       Switch to the window with the next lower number.  This command can be used  repeatedly  to
       cycle through the list of windows.

       printcmd [cmd]

       If  cmd  is not an empty string, screen will not use the terminal capabilities po/pf if it
       detects an ansi print sequence ESC [ 5 i, but pipe  the  output  into  cmd.   This  should
       normally be a command like lpr or printcmd without a command displays the current setting.
       The ansi sequence ESC \ ends printing and closes the pipe.

       Warning: Be careful with this command! If other user have write access to  your  terminal,
       they will be able to fire off print commands.

       process [key]

       Stuff  the contents of the specified register into screen's input queue. If no argument is
       given you are prompted for a register name. The text is parsed as if it had been typed  in
       from  the  user's  keyboard. This command can be used to bind multiple actions to a single


       Kill all windows and terminate screen.  Note that on VT100-style terminals  the  keys  C-4
       and  C-\ are identical.  This makes the default bindings dangerous: Be careful not to type
       C-a C-4 when selecting window no. 4.  Use the empty bind command  (as  in  bind  '^\')  to
       remove a key binding.

       readbuf [encoding] [filename]

       Reads  the  contents of the specified file into the paste buffer.  You can tell screen the
       encoding of the file via the -e option.  If no  file  is  specified,  the  screen-exchange
       filename is used.  See also bufferfile command.

       readreg [encoding] [register [filename]]

       Does  one  of  two things, dependent on number of arguments: with zero or one arguments it
       duplicates the paste buffer contents into the register specified or entered at the prompt.
       With  two  arguments  it  reads  the contents of the named file into the register, just as
       readbuf reads the screen-exchange file into the paste buffer.  You  can  tell  screen  the
       encoding  of  the  file  via the -e option.  The following example will paste the system's
       password file into the screen window (using register p, where a copy remains):

                C-a : readreg p /etc/passwd
                C-a : paste p


       Redisplay the current window. Needed to get a full redisplay when in partial redraw mode.

       register [-eencoding]key-string

       Save the specified string to the  register  key.   The  encoding  of  the  string  can  be
       specified via the -e option.  See also the paste command.


       Kill the current region. This is a no-op if there is only one region.


       Unlinks the screen-exchange file used by the commands writebuf and readbuf.

       rendition [ bell | monitor | silence | so ] attr [ color ]

       Change the way screen renders the titles of windows that have monitor or bell flags set in
       caption or hardstatus or windowlist. See the STRING ESCAPES chapter for the syntax of  the
       modifiers.   The  default for monitor is currently =b  (bold, active colors), for bell =ub
       (underline, bold and active colors), and =u for silence.


       Reset the virtual terminal to its power-on values.  Useful  when  strange  settings  (like
       scroll regions or graphics character set) are left over from an application.

       resize [-h|-v|-b|-l|-p] [[+|-] n[%] |=|max|min|_|0]

       Resize  the  current  region.  The  space will be removed from or added to the surrounding
       regions depending on the order of the splits.  The  available  options  for  resizing  are
       `-h'(horizontal),     `-v'(vertical),    `-b'(both),    `-l'(local    to    layer),    and
       `-p'(perpendicular). Horizontal resizes will add or remove width  to  a  region,  vertical
       will  add  or  remove height, and both will add or remove size from both dimensions. Local
       and perpendicular are similar to horizontal and vertical, but they take in account of  how
       a  region  was  split.   If a region's last split was horizontal, a local resize will work
       like a vertical resize. If a region's last split was vertical, a local  resize  will  work
       like  a  horizontal resize. Perpendicular resizes work in opposite of local resizes. If no
       option is specified, local is the default.

       The amount of lines to add or remove can be expressed  a  couple  of  different  ways.  By
       specifying  a  number  n by itself will resize the region by that absolute amount. You can
       specify a relative amount by prefixing a plus `+' or minus `-'  to  the  amount,  such  as
       adding  +n  lines  or  removing -n lines. Resizing can also be expressed as an absolute or
       relative percentage by postfixing a percent sign `%'. Using zero  `0'  is  a  synonym  for
       `min' and using an underscore `_' is a synonym for `max'.

       Some examples are:

       resize +N
              increase current region by N

       resize -N
              decrease current region by N

       resize  N
              set current region to N

       resize 20%
              set current region to 20% of original size

       resize +20%
              increase current region by 20%

       resize -b =
              make all windows equally

       resize  max
              maximize current region

       resize  min
              minimize current region

       Without  any  arguments,  screen  will prompt for how you would like to resize the current

       See focusminsize if you want to restrict the minimum size a region can have.

       screen [-opts] [n] [cmd [args]|//group]

       Establish a new window.  The flow-control options (-f, -fn and -fa), title (a.k.a.) option
       (-t),  login  options (-l and -ln) , terminal type option (-T <term>), the all-capability-
       flag (-a) and scrollback option (-h <num>) may be specified with each command.  The option
       (-M)  turns  monitoring  on  for this window.  The option (-L) turns output logging on for
       this window.  If an optional number n in the range 0..MAXWIN-1 is given, the window number
       n  is assigned to the newly created window (or, if this number is already in-use, the next
       available number).  If a command is specified after screen, this command (with  the  given
       arguments)  is  started  in  the  window;  otherwise,  a  shell is created.  If //group is
       supplied, a container-type window is created in which other windows may be created  inside

       Thus, if your .screenrc contains the lines

                # example for .screenrc:
                screen 1
                screen -fn -t foobar -L 2 telnet foobar

       screen  creates a shell window (in window #1) and a window with a TELNET connection to the
       machine foobar (with no flow-control using the title foobar in window #2) and will write a
       logfile  (screenlog.2)  of  the  telnet  session.   Note, that unlike previous versions of
       screen no additional default window is created when screen commands are included  in  your
       .screenrc  file.  When the initialization is completed, screen switches to the last window
       specified in your .screenrc file or, if none, opens a default window #0.

       Screen has built in some functionality of cu and telnet.  See also chapter WINDOW TYPES.

       scrollback num

       Set the size of the scrollback buffer for the current windows to num  lines.  The  default
       scrollback  is  100  lines.   See  also the defscrollback command and use info to view the
       current setting. To access and use the contents in the scrollback  buffer,  use  the  copy

       select [WindowID]

       Switch  to  the  window  identified  by  WindowID.  This can be a prefix of a window title
       (alphanumeric window name) or a window number.  The parameter is optional and if  omitted,
       you get prompted for an identifier.  When a new window is established, the first available
       number is assigned to this window.  Thus, the first window can be activated by  select  0.
       The  number  of  windows  is limited at compile-time by the MAXWIN configuration parameter
       (which defaults to 40).  There are two special WindowIDs, -  selects  the  internal  blank
       window  and  .  selects  the current window. The latter is useful if used with screen's -X

       sessionname [name]

       Rename the current session. Note, that for  screen  -list  the  name  shows  up  with  the
       process-id  prepended.  If  the  argument  name  is  omitted,  the name of this session is
       displayed. Caution: The $STY environment variables will still reflect the old name in pre-
       existing  shells.  This  may  result  in  confusion.  Use  of  this  command  is generally
       discouraged. Use the -S command-line option if you  want  to  name  a  new  session.   The
       default is constructed from the tty and host names.

       setenv [var [string]]

       Set the environment variable var to value string.  If only var is specified, the user will
       be prompted to enter a value.  If no parameters are specified, the user will  be  prompted
       for  both  variable  and  value.  The  environment is inherited by all subsequently forked

       setsid [ on | off ]

       Normally screen uses different sessions and process groups for the windows. If  setsid  is
       turned  off, this is not done anymore and all windows will be in the same process group as
       the screen backend process. This also breaks job-control, so be careful.  The  default  is
       on, of course. This command is probably useful only in rare circumstances.

       shell command

       Set  the  command  to  be  used  to  create  a new shell.  This overrides the value of the
       environment variable $SHELL.  This is useful if you'd like to run a tty-enhancer which  is
       expecting  to  execute  the program specified in $SHELL.  If the command begins with a '-'
       character, the shell will be started as a login-shell.  Typical  shells  do  only  minimal
       initialization  when not started as a login-shell.  E.g. Bash will not read your ~/.bashrc
       unless it is a login-shell.

       shelltitle title

       Set the title for all shells created during startup  or  by  the  C-A  C-c  command.   For
       details about what a title is, see the discussion entitled TITLES (naming windows).

       silence [ on | off | sec ]

       Toggles  silence  monitoring of windows.  When silence is turned on and an affected window
       is switched into the background, you will receive the silence notification message in  the
       status  line  after a specified period of inactivity (silence). The default timeout can be
       changed with the `silencewait' command or by specifying a number  of  seconds  instead  of
       `on' or `off'.  Silence is initially off for all windows.

       silencewait sec

       Define  the  time  that  all windows monitored for silence should wait before displaying a
       message. Default 30 seconds.

       sleep num

       This command will pause the execution of a  .screenrc  file  for  num  seconds.   Keyboard
       activity  will  end the sleep.  It may be used to give users a chance to read the messages
       output by echo.

       slowpaste msec

       Define the speed at which text is inserted into the current window by the paste ("C-a  ]")
       command.   If  the  slowpaste  value  is  nonzero  text is written character by character.
       screen will make a pause of msec milliseconds after each single character write  to  allow
       the application to process its input. Only use slowpaste if your underlying system exposes
       flow control problems while pasting large amounts of text.


       Sort the windows in alphabetical order of the window tiles.

       source file

       Read and execute commands from file file. Source commands  may  be  nested  to  a  maximum
       recursion level of ten. If file is not an absolute path and screen is already processing a
       source command, the parent directory of the running source command file is used to  search
       for the new command file before screen's current directory.

       Note that termcap/terminfo/termcapinfo commands only work at startup and reattach time, so
       they must be reached via the default screenrc files to have an effect.

       sorendition [attr[color]]

       This command is deprecated. See "rendition so" instead.


       Split the current region into two new ones. All regions on the display are resized to make
       room  for  the new region. The blank window is displayed in the new region. The default is
       to create a horizontal split, putting the new regions on the top and bottom of each other.
       Using `-v' will create a vertical split, causing the new regions to appear side by side of
       each other.  Use the remove or the only command to delete regions.  Use  focus  to  toggle
       between regions.

       When  a  region  is  split opposite of how it was previously split (that is, vertical then
       horizontal or horizontal then vertical), a new layer is created.  The  layer  is  used  to
       group  together  the  regions that are split the same. Normally, as a user, you should not
       see nor have to worry about layers, but they will affect  how  some  commands  (focus  and
       resize) behave.

       With  this  current  implementation of screen, scrolling data will appear much slower in a
       vertically split region than one that is not. This should be taken into  consideration  if
       you need to use system commands such as cat or tail -f.

       startup_message [ on | off ]

       Select  whether  you want to see the copyright notice during startup.  Default is `on', as
       you probably noticed.

       status [ top | up | down | bottom ] [ left | right ]

       The status window by default is in  bottom-left  corner.  This  command  can  move  status
       messages to any corner of the screen. top is the same as up, down is the same as bottom.

       stuff [string]

       Stuff the string string in the input buffer of the current window.  This is like the paste
       command but with much less overhead.  Without a parameter, screen will prompt for a string
       to  stuff.   You  cannot paste large buffers with the stuff command. It is most useful for
       key bindings. See also bindkey.

       su [username [password [password2]]]

       Substitute the user of a display. The command prompts for all parameters that are omitted.
       If  passwords are specified as parameters, they have to be specified un-crypted. The first
       password is matched against the systems passwd database, the second  password  is  matched
       against the screen password as set with the commands acladd or password.  Su may be useful
       for the screen administrator to test multiuser setups.  When the identification fails, the
       user  has  access  to  the commands available for user nobody.  These are detach, license,
       version, help and displays.


       Suspend screen.  The windows are in the `detached' state, while screen is suspended.  This
       feature relies on the shell being able to do job control.

       term term

       In each window's environment screen opens, the $TERM variable is set to screen by default.
       But when no description for screen is installed in the  local  termcap  or  terminfo  data
       base,  you  set  $TERM  to - say - vt100. This won't do much harm, as screen is VT100/ANSI
       compatible.  The use of the term command is discouraged for non-default purpose.  That is,
       one  may  want  to  specify special $TERM settings (e.g. vt100) for the next screen rlogin
       othermachine command. Use the command screen -T  vt100  rlogin  othermachine  rather  than
       setting and resetting the default.

       termcap term terminal-tweaks[window-tweaks]

       terminfo term terminal-tweaks[window-tweaks]

       termcapinfo term terminal-tweaks[window-tweaks]

       Use  this  command  to  modify your terminal's termcap entry without going through all the
       hassles involved in creating a custom termcap entry.  Plus, you can  optionally  customize
       the  termcap  generated  for  the windows.  You have to place these commands in one of the
       screenrc startup files, as they are meaningless once the terminal emulator is booted.

       If your system uses the terminfo database rather than termcap, screen will understand  the
       `terminfo'  command,  which  has  the same effects as the `termcap' command.  Two separate
       commands are provided, as there are subtle  syntactic  differences,  e.g.  when  parameter
       interpolation (using `%') is required. Note that termcap names of the capabilities have to
       be used with the `terminfo' command.

       In many cases, where the arguments are valid in both terminfo and termcap syntax, you  can
       use  the  command  `termcapinfo',  which  is  just a shorthand for a pair of `termcap' and
       `terminfo' commands with identical arguments.

       The first argument specifies which terminal(s) should be affected by this definition.  You
       can  specify  multiple  terminal names by separating them with `|'s.  Use `*' to match all
       terminals and `vt*' to match all terminals that begin with vt.

       Each tweak argument contains one or  more  termcap  defines  (separated  by  `:'s)  to  be
       inserted  at  the  start  of  the  appropriate  termcap  entry, enhancing it or overriding
       existing  values.   The  first  tweak  modifies  your  terminal's  termcap,  and  contains
       definitions  that  your terminal uses to perform certain functions.  Specify a null string
       to leave this unchanged (e.g. '').  The second (optional) tweak modifies  all  the  window
       termcaps, and should contain definitions that screen understands (see the VIRTUAL TERMINAL

       Some examples:

              termcap xterm*  LP:hs@

       Informs screen that all terminals that begin with  `xterm'  have  firm  auto-margins  that
       allow  the  last  position  on the screen to be updated (LP), but they don't really have a
       status line (no 'hs' - append `@' to turn entries off).  Note that we assume `LP' for  all
       terminal  names  that  start  with vt, but only if you don't specify a termcap command for
       that terminal.
              termcap vt*  LP

       termcap vt102|vt220  Z0=\E[?3h:Z1=\E[?3l

       Specifies the firm-margined `LP' capability for all terminals that begin  with  `vt',  and
       the  second  line  will  also add the escape-sequences to switch into (Z0) and back out of
       (Z1) 132-character-per-line mode if this is a VT102 or VT220.  (You must specify Z0 and Z1
       in your termcap to use the width-changing commands.)

              termcap vt100  ""  l0=PF1:l1=PF2:l2=PF3:l3=PF4

       This  leaves  your  vt100  termcap alone and adds the function key labels to each window's
       termcap entry.

              termcap h19|z19  am@:im=\E@:ei=\EO  dc=\E[P

       Takes a h19 or z19 termcap and turns off auto-margins (am@) and enables  the  insert  mode
       (im)  and end-insert (ei) capabilities (the `@' in the `im' string is after the `=', so it
       is part of the string).  Having the `im' and `ei' definitions  put  into  your  terminal's
       termcap  will  cause  screen to automatically advertise the character-insert capability in
       each window's termcap.  Each window will also get  the  delete-character  capability  (dc)
       added  to  its  termcap,  which  screen will translate into a line-update for the terminal
       (we're pretending it doesn't support character deletion).

       If you would like to fully specify each window's termcap entry, you should instead set the
       $SCREENCAP  variable  prior to running screen.  See the discussion on the VIRTUAL TERMINAL
       in this manual, and the termcap(5) man page for more information on termcap definitions.

       time   [string]

       Uses the message line to display the time of day, the host name,  and  the  load  averages
       over  1,  5,  and  15  minutes (if this is available on your system).  For window specific
       information, use info.

       If a string is specified, it changes the format of the time report like it is described in
       the STRING ESCAPES chapter. Screen uses a default of "%c:%s %M %d %H%? %l%?".

       title [windowtitle]

       Set the name of the current window to windowtitle. If no name is specified, screen prompts
       for one. This command was known as `aka' in previous releases.


       Unbind all the bindings. This can be useful when screen is used solely for  its  detaching
       abilities,  such  as  when  letting  a  console  application run as a daemon. If, for some
       reason, it is necessary to bind commands after this, use 'screen -X'.

       unsetenv var

       Unset an environment variable.

       utf8 [ on | off [ on | off ]]

       Change the encoding used in the current window. If utf8 is enabled, the  strings  sent  to
       the  window  will  be  UTF-8  encoded  and  vice versa. Omitting the parameter toggles the
       setting. If a second parameter is given, the display's  encoding  is  also  changed  (this
       should  rather  be  done  with  screen's  -U option).  See also defutf8, which changes the
       default setting of a new window.

       vbell [ on | off ]

       Sets the visual bell setting for this window. Omitting the parameter toggles the  setting.
       If  vbell  is  switched  on,  but  your terminal does not support a visual bell, a `vbell-
       message' is displayed in the status line when the bell character (^G) is received.  Visual
       bell support of a terminal is defined by the termcap variable `vb' (terminfo: 'flash').

       Per default, vbell is off, thus the audible bell is used.  See also `bell_msg'.

       vbell_msg [message]

       Sets the visual bell message. message is printed to the status line if the window receives
       a bell character (^G), vbell is set to on, but the terminal  does  not  support  a  visual
       bell.   The  default message is Wuff, Wuff!!.  Without a parameter, the current message is

       vbellwait sec

       Define a delay in seconds after each display of screen's visual bell message. The  default
       is 1 second.

       verbose [ on | off ]

       If  verbose  is  switched on, the command name is echoed, whenever a window is created (or
       resurrected from zombie state). Default is off.  Without a parameter, the current  setting
       is shown.


       Print the current version and the compile date in the status line.

       wall message

       Write a message to all displays. The message will appear in the terminal's status line.

       width [-w|-d] [cols [lines]]

       Toggle  the  window  width  between  80  and  132  columns or set it to cols columns if an
       argument is specified.  This requires a capable terminal and the termcap  entries  Z0  and
       Z1.   See  the  termcap command for more information. You can also specify a new height if
       you want to change both values.  The -w option tells screen  to  leave  the  display  size
       unchanged and just set the window size, -d vice versa.

       windowlist [ -b ] [ -m ] [ -g ]

       windowlist string [string]

       windowlist title [title]

       Display  all  windows  in  a table for visual window selection.  If screen was in a window
       group, screen will back out of the group and then display the windows in that  group.   If
       the -b option is given, screen will switch to the blank window before presenting the list,
       so that the current window is also selectable.  The -m option changes  the  order  of  the
       windows,  instead of sorting by window numbers screen uses its internal most-recently-used
       list.  The -g option will show the windows inside any groups in that level and downwards.

       The following keys are used to navigate in windowlist:

       k, C-p, or up      Move up one line.
       j, C-n, or down    Move down one line.
       C-g or escape      Exit windowlist.
       C-a or home        Move to the first line.
       C-e or end         Move to the last line.
       C-u or C-d         Move one half page up or down.
       C-b or C-f         Move one full page up or down.
       0..9               Using the number keys, move to the selected line.

       mouseclick         Move  to  the  selected  line.   Available   when
                          mousetrack is set to on
       /                  Search.
       n                  Repeat search in the forward direction.
       N                  Repeat search in the backward direction.
       m                  Toggle MRU.
       g                  Toggle group nesting.
       a                  All window view.
       C-h or backspace   Back out the group.
       ,                  Switch numbers with the previous window.
       .                  Switch numbers with the next window.
       K                  Kill that window.
       space or enter     Select that window.

       The  table  format can be changed with the string and title option, the title is displayed
       as table heading, while the lines are made  by  using  the  string  setting.  The  default
       setting  is  Num  Name%=Flags  for the title and %3n %t%=%f for the lines.  See the STRING
       ESCAPES chapter for more codes (e.g. color settings).

       Windowlist needs a region size of at least 10 characters wide and  6  characters  high  in
       order to display.

       windows [ string ]

       Uses  the  message  line  to  display a list of all the windows.  Each window is listed by
       number with the name of process that has been started in the window (or  its  title);  the
       current  window  is  marked  with a `*'; the previous window is marked with a `-'; all the
       windows that are logged in are marked with a `$'; a background window that has received  a
       bell  is  marked  with  a  `!';  a  background  window that is being monitored and has had
       activity occur is marked with an `@'; a window which  has  output  logging  turned  on  is
       marked  with  `(L)';  windows  occupied by other users are marked with `&'; windows in the
       zombie state are marked with `Z'.  If this list is too  long  to  fit  on  the  terminal's
       status  line only the portion around the current window is displayed.  The optional string
       parameter follows the STRING ESCAPES format.  If string parameter is  passed,  the  output
       size is unlimited.  The default command without any parameter is limited to a size of 1024

       wrap [ on | off ]

       Sets the line-wrap setting for the current window.   When  line-wrap  is  on,  the  second
       consecutive printable character output at the last column of a line will wrap to the start
       of the following line.  As an added feature, backspace (^H) will  also  wrap  through  the
       left margin to the previous line.  Default is `on'. Without any options, the state of wrap
       is toggled.

       writebuf [-e encoding] [filename]

       Writes the contents of the paste buffer to the specified file, or  the  public  accessible
       screen-exchange  file  if no filename is given. This is thought of as a primitive means of
       communication between screen users on the same host. If an encoding is specified the paste
       buffer  is  recoded  on  the  fly to match the encoding.  The filename can be set with the
       bufferfile command and defaults to /tmp/screen-exchange.

       writelock [ on | off | auto]

       In addition to access control lists, not all users may be able to write to the same window
       at once. Per default, writelock is in `auto' mode and grants exclusive input permission to
       the user who is the first to switch to the particular window. When he leaves  the  window,
       other  users may obtain the writelock (automatically). The writelock of the current window
       is disabled by the command writelock off. If the user issues the command writelock  on  he
       keeps the exclusive write permission while switching to other windows.



       Insert a CTRL-s / CTRL-q character to the stdin queue of the current window.

       zmodem [ off | auto | catch | pass ]

       zmodem sendcmd [string]

       zmodem recvcmd [string]

       Define zmodem support for screen. Screen understands two different modes when it detects a
       zmodem request: pass and catch.  If the mode is set to pass, screen will relay all data to
       the attacher until the end of the transmission is reached.  In catch mode screen acts as a
       zmodem endpoint and starts the corresponding rz/sz commands. If the mode is set  to  auto,
       screen  will  use catch if the window is a tty (e.g. a serial line), otherwise it will use

       You can define the templates screen uses in catch mode via the second and the third form.

       Note also that this is an experimental feature.

       zombie [keys[onerror]]

       Per default screen windows are removed from the window list as soon as the windows process
       (e.g.  shell)  exits. When a string of two keys is specified to the zombie command, `dead'
       windows will remain in the list.  The kill command may be used to remove  such  a  window.
       Pressing  the  first  key in the dead window has the same effect. When pressing the second
       key, screen will attempt to resurrect the window. The process that was  initially  running
       in  the  window  will  be launched again. Calling zombie without parameters will clear the
       zombie setting, thus making windows disappear when their process exits.

       As the zombie-setting is  manipulated  globally  for  all  windows,  this  command  should
       probably be called defzombie, but it isn't.

       Optionally  you can put the word onerror after the keys. This will cause screen to monitor
       exit status of the process running in the window. If it exits normally ('0'),  the  window
       disappears. Any other exit value causes the window to become a zombie.


       Per default screen windows are removed from the window list as soon as the windows process
       (e.g. shell) exits. If zombie keys are defined (compare with above zombie command), it  is
       possible  to also set a timeout when screen tries to automatically reconnect a dead screen


       Screen displays informational messages and other diagnostics in  a  message  line.   While
       this  line  is  distributed  to  appear  at the bottom of the screen, it can be defined to
       appear at the top of the screen during compilation.  If your terminal has  a  status  line
       defined in its termcap, screen will use this for displaying its messages, otherwise a line
       of the current screen will be temporarily  overwritten  and  output  will  be  momentarily
       interrupted.  The  message line is automatically removed after a few seconds delay, but it
       can also be removed early (on terminals without a status line) by beginning to type.

       The message line facility can be used by an application running in the current  window  by
       means  of the ANSI Privacy message control sequence.  For instance, from within the shell,
       try something like:

              echo '<esc>^Hello world from window '$WINDOW'<esc>\\'

       where '<esc>' is an escape, '^' is a literal  up-arrow,  and  '\\'  turns  into  a  single


       Screen provides three different window types. New windows are created with screen's screen
       command (see also the entry in chapter CUSTOMIZATION). The first parameter to  the  screen
       command  defines  which  type  of  window  is  created. The different window types are all
       special cases of the normal type. They have been added in order to allow screen to be used
       efficiently as a console multiplexer with 100 or more windows.

       •  The  normal  window  contains  a shell (default, if no parameter is given) or any other
          system command that could be executed from a shell (e.g.  slogin, etc...)

       •  If a tty (character special device) name (e.g. /dev/ttya) is  specified  as  the  first
          parameter,  then  the window is directly connected to this device.  This window type is
          similar to screen cu -l /dev/ttya.  Read and write access is  required  on  the  device
          node,  an  exclusive open is attempted on the node to mark the connection line as busy.
          An optional parameter is allowed consisting of a comma separated list of flags  in  the
          notation used by stty(1):

                 Usually  300,  1200, 9600 or 19200. This affects transmission as well as receive

          cs8 or cs7
                 Specify the transmission of eight (or seven) bits per byte.

          ixon or -ixon
                 Enables (or disables) software flow-control (CTRL-S/CTRL-Q) for sending data.

          ixoff or -ixoff
                 Enables (or disables) software flow-control for receiving data.

          istrip or -istrip
                 Clear (or keep) the eight bit in each received byte.

          You may want to specify as many of these options  as  applicable.  Unspecified  options
          cause  the  terminal  driver  to make up the parameter values of the connection.  These
          values are system dependent and may be in defaults or  values  saved  from  a  previous

          For  tty  windows, the info command shows some of the modem control lines in the status
          line. These may include `RTS', `CTS', 'DTR', `DSR', `CD' and more.  This depends on the
          available ioctl()'s and system header files as well as the on the physical capabilities
          of the serial board.  Signals that are logical low (inactive) have their name  preceded
          by an exclamation mark (!), otherwise the signal is logical high (active).  Signals not
          supported by the hardware but available to the ioctl() interface are usually shown low.

          When the CLOCAL status bit is true, the whole set of modem  signals  is  placed  inside
          curly  braces ({ and }).  When the CRTSCTS or TIOCSOFTCAR bit is set, the signals `CTS'
          or `CD' are shown in parenthesis, respectively.

          For tty windows, the command break causes the Data transmission line (TxD)  to  go  low
          for  a  specified period of time. This is expected to be interpreted as break signal on
          the other side.  No data is sent and no modem control line is changed when a  break  is

       •  If the first parameter is //telnet, the second parameter is expected to be a host name,
          and an optional third parameter may specify a TCP port  number  (default  decimal  23).
          Screen  will  connect  to  a  server  listening  on  the remote host and use the telnet
          protocol to communicate with that server.

       For telnet windows, the command info shows details about the connection in square brackets
       ([ and ]) at the end of the status line.

              b      BINARY. The connection is in binary mode.

              e      ECHO. Local echo is disabled.

              c      SGA. The connection is in `character mode' (default: `line mode').

              t      TTYPE.  The  terminal  type  has  been requested by the remote host.  Screen
                     sends the name screen unless instructed  otherwise  (see  also  the  command

              w      NAWS. The remote site is notified about window size changes.

              f      LFLOW.  The remote host will send flow control information.  (Ignored at the

              Additional flags for debugging are x, t and n (XDISPLOC, TSPEED and NEWENV).

              For telnet windows, the command break sends the telnet code IAC BREAK (decimal 243)
              to the remote host.

              This  window  type  is only available if screen was compiled with the ENABLE_TELNET
              option defined.


       Screen provides an escape mechanism to insert  information  like  the  current  time  into
       messages  or  file  names.  The  escape  character  is '%' with one exception: inside of a
       window's hardstatus '^%' ('^E') is used instead.

       Here is the full list of supported escapes:

       %      the escape character itself

       E      sets %? to true if the escape character has been pressed.

       e      encoding

       f      flags of the window, see windows for meanings of the various flags

       F      sets %? to true if the window has the focus

       h      hardstatus of the window

       H      hostname of the system

       n      window number

       P      sets %? to true if the current region is in copy/paste mode

       S      session name

       s      window size

       t      window title

       u      all other users on this window

       w      all window numbers and names. With '-' qualifier: up to the  current  window;  with
              '+' qualifier: starting with the window after the current one.

       W      all window numbers and names except the current one

       x      the executed command including arguments running in this windows

       X      the executed command without arguments running in this windows

       ?      the part to the next '%?' is displayed only if a '%' escape inside the part expands
              to a non-empty string

       :      else part of '%?'

       =      pad the string to the display's width (like TeX's hfill). If a number is specified,
              pad to the percentage of the window's width.  A '0' qualifier tells screen to treat
              the number as absolute position.  You can specify  to  pad  relative  to  the  last
              absolute  pad  position  by  adding a '+' qualifier or to pad relative to the right
              margin by using '-'. The padding truncates the string  if  the  specified  position
              lies before the current position. Add the 'L' qualifier to change this.

       <      same as '%=' but just do truncation, do not fill with spaces

       >      mark  the  current  text  position for the next truncation. When screen needs to do
              truncation, it tries to do it in a way that the marked position gets moved  to  the
              specified  percentage  of  the output area. (The area starts from the last absolute
              pad position and ends with the position specified by the truncation operator.)  The
              'L' qualifier tells screen to mark the truncated parts with '...'.

       {      attribute/color modifier string terminated by the next }

       `      Substitute with the output of a 'backtick' command. The length qualifier is misused
              to identify one of the commands.

       The 'c' and 'C' escape may be qualified with a '0' to make  screen  use  zero  instead  of
       space  as  fill  character.  The  '0'  qualifier  also  makes  the '=' escape use absolute
       positions. The 'n' and '=' escapes understand a length qualifier (e.g. '%3n'), 'D' and 'M'
       can be prefixed with 'L' to generate long names, 'w' and 'W' also show the window flags if
       'L' is given.

       An attribute/color modifier is used to change the attributes or the  color  settings.  Its
       format  is  [attribute  modifier]  [color  description].  The  attribute  modifier must be
       prefixed by a change type indicator if it can be confused with a  color  description.  The
       following change types are known:

       +      add the specified set to the current attributes

       -      remove the set from the current attributes

       !      invert the set in the current attributes

       =      change the current attributes to the specified set

       The  attribute set can either be specified as a hexadecimal number or a combination of the
       following letters:

       d      dim
       u      underline
       b      bold
       r      reverse
       s      /standout
       B      blinking

       Colors are coded either as a hexadecimal number or  two  letters  specifying  the  desired
       background and foreground color (in that order). The following colors are known:

       k      black
       r      red
       g      green
       y      yellow
       b      blue
       m      magenta
       c      cyan
       w      white
       d      default color
       .      leave color unchanged

       The capitalized versions of the letter specify bright colors. You can also use the pseudo-
       color 'i' to set just the brightness and leave the color unchanged.
       A one digit/letter  color  description  is  treated  as  foreground  or  background  color
       dependent  on  the  current  attributes:  if  reverse mode is set, the background color is
       changed instead of the foreground color.  If you don't like this, prefix the color with  a
       ..  If you want the same behavior for two-letter color descriptions, also prefix them with
       a ..
       As a special case, %{-} restores the attributes and colors that were set before  the  last
       change was made (i.e., pops one level of the color-change stack).


       G      set color to bright green

       +b r   use bold red

       = yd   clear all attributes, write in default color on yellow background.

       %-Lw%{= BW}%50>%n%f* %t%{-}%+Lw%<
              The available windows centered at the current window and truncated to the available
              width. The current window is displayed white  on  blue.   This  can  be  used  with
              hardstatus alwayslastline.

       %?%F%{.R.}%?%3n %t%? [%h]%?
              The window number and title and the window's hardstatus, if one is set.  Also use a
              red background if this is the active focus. Useful for caption string.


       Each window has a flow-control setting that determines how screen deals with the  XON  and
       XOFF  characters  (and perhaps the interrupt character).  When flow-control is turned off,
       screen ignores the XON and XOFF characters, which allows the user  to  send  them  to  the
       current  program  by  simply typing them (useful for the emacs editor, for instance).  The
       trade-off is that it will take longer for  output  from  a  normal  program  to  pause  in
       response  to  an  XOFF.   With flow-control turned on, XON and XOFF characters are used to
       immediately pause the output of the current window.  You can still send  these  characters
       to  the  current  program,  but you must use the appropriate two-character screen commands
       (typically C-a q (xon) and C-a s (xoff)).  The  xon/xoff  commands  are  also  useful  for
       typing C-s and C-q past a terminal that intercepts these characters.

       Each window has an initial flow-control value set with either the -f option or the defflow
       .screenrc command. Per default the windows are set to automatic  flow-switching.   It  can
       then  be  toggled  between  the  three  states  'fixed  on',  'fixed  off' and 'automatic'
       interactively with the flow command bound to "C-a f".

       The automatic flow-switching mode deals with flow control using  the  TIOCPKT  mode  (like
       rlogin  does).  If  the  tty driver does not support TIOCPKT, screen tries to find out the
       right mode based on the current setting of the application keypad - when  it  is  enabled,
       flow-control  is  turned  off  and  visa versa.  Of course, you can still manipulate flow-
       control manually when needed.

       If you're running with flow-control enabled and  find  that  pressing  the  interrupt  key
       (usually C-c) does not interrupt the display until another 6-8 lines have scrolled by, try
       running screen with the interrupt option (add the interrupt flag to the  flow  command  in
       your  .screenrc,  or  use the -i command-line option).  This causes the output that screen
       has accumulated from the interrupted program to be flushed.  One disadvantage is that  the
       virtual  terminal's  memory  contains the non-flushed version of the output, which in rare
       cases can cause minor inaccuracies in the output.  For example, if you switch screens  and
       return,  or update the screen with C-a l you would see the version of the output you would
       have gotten without interrupt being on.  Also, you might need to turn off flow-control (or
       use  auto-flow  mode to turn it off automatically) when running a program that expects you
       to type the interrupt character as input, as it is possible to interrupt the output of the
       virtual terminal to your physical terminal when flow-control is enabled.  If this happens,
       a simple refresh of the screen with C-a l will restore it.  Give each mode a try, and  use
       whichever mode you find more comfortable.

TITLES (naming windows)

       You  can  customize  each  window's  name  in  the window display (viewed with the windows
       command (C-a w)) by setting it  with  one  of  the  title  commands.   Normally  the  name
       displayed is the actual command name of the program created in the window.  However, it is
       sometimes useful to distinguish various programs of the same name or to  change  the  name
       on-the-fly to reflect the current state of the window.

       The  default  name  for  all  shell  windows can be set with the shelltitle command in the
       .screenrc file, while all other windows are created with a screen  command  and  thus  can
       have  their name set with the -t option.  Interactively, there is the title-string escape-
       sequence (<esc>kname<esc>\) and the title command (C-a A).  The former can be output  from
       an  application  to  control the window's name under software control, and the latter will
       prompt for a name when typed.  You can also bind pre-defined names to keys with the  title
       command  to  set  things quickly without prompting. Changing title by this escape sequence
       can be controlled by defdynamictitle and dynamictitle commands.

       Finally, screen has a shell-specific heuristic that is enabled  by  setting  the  window's
       name to search|name and arranging to have a null title escape-sequence output as a part of
       your prompt.  The search portion specifies an end-of-prompt search string, while the  name
       portion specifies the default shell name for the window.  If the name ends in a `:' screen
       will add what it believes to be the current command running in the window to  the  end  of
       the  window's  shell  name (e.g. name:cmd).  Otherwise the current command name supersedes
       the shell name while it is running.

       Here's how it works:  you must modify your shell prompt to  output  a  null  title-escape-
       sequence  (<esc>k<esc>\)  as  a part of your prompt.  The last part of your prompt must be
       the same as the string you specified for the search portion of the title.   Once  this  is
       set  up,  screen will use the title-escape-sequence to clear the previous command name and
       get ready for the next command.  Then, when a newline is received from the shell, a search
       is  made  for  the  end  of  the  prompt.  If found, it will grab the first word after the
       matched string and use it as the command name.  If the command  name  begins  with  either
       '!',  '%',  or  '^'  screen  will  use  the first word on the following line (if found) in
       preference to the just-found name.  This helps csh users get  better  command  names  when
       using job control or history recall commands.

       Here's some .screenrc examples:

                       screen -t top 2 nice top

       Adding  this  line  to  your  .screenrc would start a nice-d version of the top command in
       window 2 named top rather than nice.

                       shelltitle '> |csh'
                       screen 1

       These commands would start a shell with the given shelltitle.  The title specified  is  an
       auto-title  that  would expect the prompt and the typed command to look something like the

                       /usr/joe/src/dir> trn

       (it looks after the '> ' for the command name).  The window status would show the name trn
       while the command was running, and revert to csh upon completion.

                       bind R screen -t '% |root:' su

       Having  this command in your .screenrc would bind the key sequence C-a R to the su command
       and give it an auto-title name of root:.  For this auto-title to work,  the  screen  could
       look something like this:

                       % !em
                       emacs file.c

       Here  the  user  typed  the csh history command !em which ran the previously entered emacs
       command.  The window status would show root:emacs during the execution of the command, and
       revert to simply root: at its completion.

                       bind o title
                       bind E title ""
                       bind u title (unknown)

       The  first binding doesn't have any arguments, so it would prompt you for a title when you
       type C-a o.  The second binding would clear an auto-title's current setting (C-a E).   The
       third binding would set the current window's title to (unknown) (C-a u).

       One  thing to keep in mind when adding a null title-escape-sequence to your prompt is that
       some shells (like the csh) count all the non-control characters as part  of  the  prompt's
       length.   If these invisible characters aren't a multiple of 8 then backspacing over a tab
       will result in an incorrect display.  One way to get around this is to use a  prompt  like

                       set prompt='^[[0000m^[k^[\% '

       The  escape-sequence <esc>[0000m not only normalizes the character attributes, but all the
       zeros round the length of the invisible characters up to 8.  Bash users will probably want
       to echo the escape sequence in the PROMPT_COMMAND:

                       PROMPT_COMMAND='printf "\033k\033\134"'

       (I used \134 to output a `\' because of a bug in bash v1.04).


       Each  window  in  a  screen  session  emulates a VT100 terminal, with some extra functions
       added. The VT100 emulator is hard-coded, no other terminal types can be emulated.
       Usually screen tries to emulate as much of the VT100/ANSI standard  as  possible.  But  if
       your  terminal  lacks  certain  capabilities,  the emulation may not be complete. In these
       cases screen has to tell the applications that some of the features are missing.  This  is
       no  problem  on  machines  using  termcap, because screen can use the $TERMCAP variable to
       customize the standard screen termcap.

       But if you do a rlogin on another machine or your  machine  supports  only  terminfo  this
       method  fails. Because of this, screen offers a way to deal with these cases.  Here is how
       it works:

       When screen tries to figure out a terminal name for itself, it first looks  for  an  entry
       named  screen.<term>,  where  <term>  is  the contents of your $TERM variable.  If no such
       entry exists, screen tries screen (or screen-w if  the  terminal  is  wide  (132  cols  or
       more)).  If even this entry cannot be found, vt100 is used as a substitute.

       The  idea  is that if you have a terminal which doesn't support an important feature (e.g.
       delete char or clear to EOS) you can build a new termcap/terminfo entry for screen  (named
       screen.<dumbterm>)  in which this capability has been disabled. If this entry is installed
       on your machines you are able to do a rlogin and still keep the  correct  termcap/terminfo
       entry.   The  terminal  name is put in the $TERM variable of all new windows.  Screen also
       sets the $TERMCAP variable reflecting the capabilities of the virtual  terminal  emulated.
       Notice that, however, on machines using the terminfo database this variable has no effect.
       Furthermore, the variable $WINDOW is set to the window number of each window.

       The actual  set  of  capabilities  supported  by  the  virtual  terminal  depends  on  the
       capabilities  supported by the physical terminal.  If, for instance, the physical terminal
       does not support underscore mode, screen does not put the `us' and `ue' capabilities  into
       the  window's  $TERMCAP  variable, accordingly.  However, a minimum number of capabilities
       must be supported by a terminal in order to run screen; namely  scrolling,  clear  screen,
       and direct cursor addressing (in addition, screen does not run on hardcopy terminals or on
       terminals that over-strike).

       Also, you can customize the $TERMCAP value used by screen by using the  termcap  .screenrc
       command,  or  by  defining  the  variable $SCREENCAP prior to startup.  When the latter is
       defined, its value will be copied verbatim into each window's $TERMCAP variable.  This can
       either  be  the  full terminal definition, or a filename where the terminal screen (and/or
       screen-w) is defined.

       Note that screen honors the terminfo .screenrc command if the  system  uses  the  terminfo
       database rather than termcap.

       When the boolean `G0' capability is present in the termcap entry for the terminal on which
       screen has been called, the terminal emulation of screen supports multiple character sets.
       This  allows an application to make use of, for instance, the VT100 graphics character set
       or national character sets.  The following control functions from ISO 2022 are  supported:
       lock shift G0 (SI), lock shift G1 (SO), lock shift G2, lock shift G3, single shift G2, and
       single shift G3.  When a virtual terminal is created or reset, the ASCII character set  is
       designated  as  G0  through G3.  When the `G0' capability is present, screen evaluates the
       capabilities `S0', `E0', and `C0' if present. `S0' is the sequence the  terminal  uses  to
       enable  and  start  the  graphics character set rather than SI.  `E0' is the corresponding
       replacement for SO. `C0' gives a character by character translation string  that  is  used
       during semi-graphics mode. This string is built like the `acsc' terminfo capability.

       When  the  `po'  and  `pf'  capabilities  are  present  in  the  terminal's termcap entry,
       applications running in a screen window can  send  output  to  the  printer  port  of  the
       terminal.   This  allows  a  user to have an application in one window sending output to a
       printer connected to the terminal, while all other windows are still active  (the  printer
       port  is enabled and disabled again for each chunk of output).  As a side-effect, programs
       running in different windows can send output to the printer simultaneously.  Data sent  to
       the  printer  is  not  displayed in the window.  The info command displays a line starting
       `PRIN' while the printer is active.

       Screen maintains a hardstatus line for every  window.  If  a  window  gets  selected,  the
       display's hardstatus will be updated to match the window's hardstatus line. If the display
       has no hardstatus the line will be displayed as a standard screen message.  The hardstatus
       line  can be changed with the ANSI Application Program Command (APC): ESC_<string>ESC\. As
       a convenience for xterm users the sequence ESC]0..2;<string>^G is also accepted.

       Some capabilities are only put into the $TERMCAP variable of the virtual terminal if  they
       can be efficiently implemented by the physical terminal.  For instance, `dl' (delete line)
       is only put into the $TERMCAP variable if the terminal supports either delete line  itself
       or scrolling regions. Note that this may provoke confusion, when the session is reattached
       on a different terminal, as the value of $TERMCAP cannot be modified by parent processes.

       The "alternate screen" capability is not enabled by default.  Set the altscreen  .screenrc
       command to enable it.

       The  following  is a list of control sequences recognized by screen.  (V) and (A) indicate
       VT100-specific and ANSI- or ISO-specific functions, respectively.

       ESC E                      Next Line

       ESC D                      Index

       ESC M                      Reverse Index

       ESC H                      Horizontal Tab Set

       ESC Z                      Send VT100 Identification String

       ESC 7                 (V)  Save Cursor and Attributes

       ESC 8                 (V)  Restore Cursor and Attributes

       ESC [s                (A)  Save Cursor and Attributes

       ESC [u                (A)  Restore Cursor and Attributes

       ESC c                      Reset to Initial State

       ESC g                      Visual Bell

       ESC Pn p                   Cursor Visibility (97801)

                                  Pn = 6                     Invisible

                                  Pn = 7                     Visible

       ESC =                 (V)  Application Keypad Mode

       ESC >                 (V)  Numeric Keypad Mode

       ESC # 8               (V)  Fill Screen with E's

       ESC \                 (A)  String Terminator

       ESC ^                 (A)  Privacy Message String (Message Line)

       ESC !                      Global Message String (Message Line)

       ESC k                      A.k.a. Definition String

       ESC P                 (A)  Device Control String.  Outputs a string directly to  the  host
                                  terminal without interpretation.

       ESC _                 (A)  Application Program Command (Hardstatus)

       ESC ] 0 ; string ^G   (A)  Operating System Command (Hardstatus, xterm title hack)

       ESC ] 83 ; cmd ^G     (A)  Execute  screen  command. This only works if multi-user support
                                  is compiled into screen. The pseudo-user :window:  is  used  to
                                  check  the  access control list. Use addacl :window: -rwx #? to
                                  create a  user  with  no  rights  and  allow  only  the  needed

       Control-N             (A)  Lock Shift G1 (SO)

       Control-O             (A)  Lock Shift G0 (SI)

       ESC n                 (A)  Lock Shift G2

       ESC o                 (A)  Lock Shift G3

       ESC N                 (A)  Single Shift G2

       ESC O                 (A)  Single Shift G3

       ESC ( Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G0

       ESC ) Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G1

       ESC * Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G2

       ESC + Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G3

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn H            Direct Cursor Addressing

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn f            same as above

       ESC [ Pn J                 Erase in Display

                                  Pn = None or 0             From Cursor to End of Screen

                                  Pn = 1                     From Beginning of Screen to Cursor

                                  Pn = 2                     Entire Screen

       ESC [ Pn K                 Erase in Line

                                  Pn = None or 0             From Cursor to End of Line

                                  Pn = 1                     From Beginning of Line to Cursor

                                  Pn = 2                     Entire Line

       ESC [ Pn X                 Erase character

       ESC [ Pn A                 Cursor Up

       ESC [ Pn B                 Cursor Down

       ESC [ Pn C                 Cursor Right

       ESC [ Pn D                 Cursor Left

       ESC [ Pn E                 Cursor next line

       ESC [ Pn F                 Cursor previous line

       ESC [ Pn G                 Cursor horizontal position

       ESC [ Pn `                 same as above

       ESC [ Pn d                 Cursor vertical position

       ESC [ Ps ;...; Ps m        Select Graphic Rendition

                                  Ps = None or 0             Default Rendition

                                  Ps = 1                     Bold

                                  Ps = 2                (A)  Faint

                                  Ps = 3                (A)  Standout Mode (ANSI: Italicized)

                                  Ps = 4                     Underlined

                                  Ps = 5                     Blinking

                                  Ps = 7                     Negative Image

                                  Ps = 22               (A)  Normal Intensity

                                  Ps = 23               (A)  Standout  Mode off (ANSI: Italicized

                                  Ps = 24               (A)  Not Underlined

                                  Ps = 25               (A)  Not Blinking

                                  Ps = 27               (A)  Positive Image

                                  Ps = 30               (A)  Foreground Black

                                  Ps = 31               (A)  Foreground Red

                                  Ps = 32               (A)  Foreground Green

                                  Ps = 33               (A)  Foreground Yellow

                                  Ps = 34               (A)  Foreground Blue

                                  Ps = 35               (A)  Foreground Magenta

                                  Ps = 36               (A)  Foreground Cyan

                                  Ps = 37               (A)  Foreground White

                                  Ps = 39               (A)  Foreground Default

                                  Ps = 40               (A)  Background Black

                                  Ps = ...

                                  Ps = 49               (A)  Background Default

       ESC [ Pn g                 Tab Clear

                                  Pn = None or 0             Clear Tab at Current Position

                                  Pn = 3                     Clear All Tabs

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn r       (V)  Set Scrolling Region

       ESC [ Pn I            (A)  Horizontal Tab

       ESC [ Pn Z            (A)  Backward Tab

       ESC [ Pn L            (A)  Insert Line

       ESC [ Pn M            (A)  Delete Line

       ESC [ Pn @            (A)  Insert Character

       ESC [ Pn P            (A)  Delete Character

       ESC [ Pn S                 Scroll Scrolling Region Up

       ESC [ Pn T                 Scroll Scrolling Region Down

       ESC [ Pn ^                 same as above

       ESC [ Ps ;...; Ps h        Set Mode

       ESC [ Ps ;...; Ps l        Reset Mode

                                  Ps = 4                (A)  Insert Mode

                                  Ps = 20               (A)  Automatic Linefeed Mode

                                  Ps = 34                    Normal Cursor Visibility

                                  Ps = ?1               (V)  Application Cursor Keys

                                  Ps = ?3               (V)  Change Terminal Width to 132 columns

                                  Ps = ?5               (V)  Reverse Video

                                  Ps = ?6               (V)  Origin Mode

                                  Ps = ?7               (V)  Wrap Mode

                                  Ps = ?9                    X10 mouse tracking

                                  Ps = ?25              (V)  Visible Cursor

                                  Ps = ?47                   Alternate Screen (old xterm code)

                                  Ps = ?1000            (V)  VT200 mouse tracking

                                  Ps = ?1047                 Alternate Screen (new xterm code)

                                  Ps = ?1049                 Alternate Screen (new xterm code)

       ESC [ 5 i             (A)  Start relay to printer (ANSI Media Copy)

       ESC [ 4 i             (A)  Stop relay to printer (ANSI Media Copy)

       ESC [ 8 ; Ph ; Pw t        Resize the window to  `Ph'  lines  and  `Pw'  columns  (SunView

       ESC [ c                    Send VT100 Identification String

       ESC [ x                    Send Terminal Parameter Report

       ESC [ > c                  Send VT220 Secondary Device Attributes String

       ESC [ 6 n                  Send Cursor Position Report


       In  order  to do a full VT100 emulation screen has to detect that a sequence of characters
       in the input stream was generated by a keypress on the  user's  keyboard  and  insert  the
       VT100  style  escape  sequence.  Screen has a very flexible way of doing this by making it
       possible to map arbitrary commands on arbitrary  sequences  of  characters.  For  standard
       VT100  emulation the command will always insert a string in the input buffer of the window
       (see also command stuff in the command table).   Because  the  sequences  generated  by  a
       keypress  can  change  after  a reattach from a different terminal type, it is possible to
       bind commands to the termcap name of the keys.  Screen will  insert  the  correct  binding
       after  each  reattach.  See  the  bindkey  command  for  further details on the syntax and

       Here is the table of the default key bindings. The fourth is what command is  executed  if
       the keyboard is switched into application mode.

       │Key name        │ Termcap name │ Command  │ App mode │
       │Cursor up       │ ku           │ \033[A   │ \033OA   │
       │Cursor down     │ kd           │ \033[B   │ \033OB   │
       │Cursor right    │ kr           │ \033[C   │ \033OC   │
       │Cursor left     │ kl           │ \033[D   │ \033OD   │
       │Function key 0  │ k0           │ \033[10~ │          │
       │Function key 1  │ k1           │ \033OP   │          │
       │Function key 2  │ k2           │ \033OQ   │          │
       │Function key 3  │ k3           │ \033OR   │          │
       │Function key 4  │ k4           │ \033OS   │          │
       │Function key 5  │ k5           │ \033[15~ │          │
       │Function key 6  │ k6           │ \033[17~ │          │
       │Function key 7  │ k7           │ \033[18~ │          │
       │Function key 8  │ k8           │ \033[19~ │          │
       │Function key 9  │ k9           │ \033[20~ │          │
       │Function key 10 │ k;           │ \033[21~ │          │
       │Function key 11 │ F1           │ \033[23~ │          │
       │Function key 12 │ F2           │ \033[24~ │          │
       │Home            │ kh           │ \033[1~  │          │
       │End             │ kH           │ \033[4~  │          │
       │Insert          │ kI           │ \033[2~  │          │
       │Delete          │ kD           │ \033[3~  │          │
       │Page up         │ kP           │ \033[5~  │          │
       │Page down       │ kN           │ \033[6~  │          │
       │Keypad 0        │ f0           │ 0        │ \033Op   │
       │Keypad 1        │ f1           │ 1        │ \033Oq   │
       │Keypad 2        │ f2           │ 2        │ \033Or   │
       │Keypad 3        │ f3           │ 3        │ \033Os   │
       │Keypad 4        │ f4           │ 4        │ \033Ot   │
       │Keypad 5        │ f5           │ 5        │ \033Ou   │
       │Keypad 6        │ f6           │ 6        │ \033Ov   │
       │Keypad 7        │ f7           │ 7        │ \033Ow   │
       │Keypad 8        │ f8           │ 8        │ \033Ox   │
       │Keypad 9        │ f9           │ 9        │ \033Oy   │
       │Keypad +        │ f+           │ +        │ \033Ok   │
       │Keypad -        │ f-           │ -        │ \033Om   │
       │Keypad *        │ f*           │ *        │ \033Oj   │
       │Keypad /        │ f/           │ /        │ \033Oo   │
       │Keypad =        │ fq           │ =        │ \033OX   │
       │Keypad .        │ f.           │ .        │ \033On   │
       │Keypad ,        │ f,           │ ,        │ \033Ol   │
       │Keypad enter    │ fe           │ \015     │ \033OM   │


       The  following table describes all terminal capabilities that are recognized by screen and
       are not in the termcap(5) manual.  You  can  place  these  capabilities  in  your  termcap
       entries  (in  `/etc/termcap')  or  use  them  with  the commands `termcap', `terminfo' and
       `termcapinfo' in your screenrc files. It is often not possible to place these capabilities
       in the terminfo database.

       LP   (bool)  Terminal has VT100 style margins (`magic margins'). Note that this capability
                    is obsolete because screen uses the standard 'xn' instead.

       Z0   (str)   Change width to 132 columns.

       Z1   (str)   Change width to 80 columns.

       WS   (str)   Resize  display.  This  capability  has  the  desired  width  and  height  as
                    arguments. SunView(tm) example: '\E[8;%d;%dt'.

       NF   (bool)  Terminal doesn't need flow control. Send ^S and ^Q direct to the application.
                    Same as 'flow off'. The opposite of this capability is 'nx'.

       G0   (bool)  Terminal can deal with ISO 2022 font selection sequences.

       S0   (str)   Switch charset 'G0' to the specified charset. Default is '\E(%.'.

       E0   (str)   Switch charset 'G0' back to standard charset. Default is '\E(B'.

       C0   (str)   Use the string as a conversion table for font '0'. See  the  'ac'  capability
                    for more details.

       CS   (str)   Switch cursor-keys to application mode.

       CE   (str)   Switch cursor-keys back to normal mode.

       AN   (bool)  Turn on autonuke. See the 'autonuke' command for more details.

       OL   (num)   Set the output buffer limit. See the 'obuflimit' command for more details.

       KJ   (str)   Set  the  encoding  of  the  terminal.  See  the 'encoding' command for valid

       AF   (str)   Change character foreground color in an ANSI  conform  way.  This  capability
                    will almost always be set to '\E[3%dm' ('\E[3%p1%dm' on terminfo machines).

       AB   (str)   Same as 'AF', but change background color.

       AX   (bool)  Does understand ANSI set default fg/bg color (\E[39m / \E[49m).

       XC   (str)   Describe  a  translation  of  characters  to strings depending on the current
                    font. More details follow in the next section.

       XT   (bool)  Terminal understands special xterm sequences (OSC, mouse tracking).

       C8   (bool)  Terminal needs bold to display high-intensity colors (e.g. Eterm).

       TF   (bool)  Add missing capabilities to the termcap/info entry. (Set by default).


       Screen has a powerful mechanism to translate characters to arbitrary strings depending  on
       the  current  font  and terminal type.  Use this feature if you want to work with a common
       standard character set (say ISO8851-latin1)  even  on  terminals  that  scatter  the  more
       unusual characters over several national language font pages.

           <charset-mapping> := <designator><template>{,<mapping>}
           <mapping> := <char-to-be-mapped><template-arg>

       The things in braces may be repeated any number of times.

       A  <charset-mapping>  tells screen how to map characters in font <designator> ('B': Ascii,
       'A': UK, 'K': German, etc.)  to strings. Every <mapping> describes to what string a single
       character  will be translated. A template mechanism is used, as most of the time the codes
       have a lot in common (for example strings to switch to and  from  another  charset).  Each
       occurrence  of  '%'  in  <template>  gets  substituted  with  the <template-arg> specified
       together with the character. If your strings are not similar at all, then  use  '%'  as  a
       template  and  place  the  full string in <template-arg>. A quoting mechanism was added to
       make it possible to use a real '%'. The '\' character quotes the special  characters  '\',
       '%', and ','.

       Here is an example:

           termcap hp700 'XC=B\E(K%\E(B,\304[,\326\\\\,\334]'

       This tells screen how to translate ISOlatin1 (charset 'B') upper case umlaut characters on
       a hp700 terminal that has a German charset. '\304' gets translated to '\E(K[\E(B'  and  so
       on.   Note  that  this  line gets parsed *three* times before the internal lookup table is
       built, therefore a lot of quoting is needed to create a single '\'.

       Another extension was added to allow more emulation: If a mapping translates the  unquoted
       '%'  char,  it  will be sent to the terminal whenever screen switches to the corresponding
       <designator>. In this special case the template is assumed to  be  just  '%'  because  the
       charset switch sequence and the character mappings normally haven't much in common.

       This example shows one use of the extension:

           termcap xterm 'XC=K%,%\E(B,[\304,\\\\\326,]\334'

       Here, a part of the German ('K') charset is emulated on an xterm.  If screen has to change
       to the 'K' charset, '\E(B' will be sent to the terminal, i.e. the ASCII  charset  is  used
       instead.  The  template is just '%', so the mapping is straightforward: '[' to '\304', '\'
       to '\326', and ']' to '\334'.


       COLUMNS        Number of columns on the terminal (overrides termcap entry).
       HOME           Directory in which to look for .screenrc.
       LINES          Number of lines on the terminal (overrides termcap entry).
       LOCKPRG        Screen lock program.
       NETHACKOPTIONS Turns on nethack option.
       PATH           Used for locating programs to run.
       SCREENCAP      For customizing a terminal's TERMCAP value.
       SCREENDIR      Alternate socket directory.
       SCREENRC       Alternate user screenrc file.
       SHELL          Default shell program for opening  windows  (default  /bin/sh).   See  also
                      shell .screenrc command.
       STY            Alternate socket name.
       SYSSCREENRC    Alternate system screenrc file.
       TERM           Terminal name.
       TERMCAP        Terminal description.
       WINDOW         Window number of a window (at creation time).


       .../screen-4.?.??/etc/etcscreenrc Examples  in the screen distribution package for private
                                         and global initialization files.
       /etc/screenrc                     screen initialization commands
       $HOME/.screenrc                   Read in after /etc/screenrc
       /run/screen/S-<login>             Socket directories (default)
       /usr/tmp/screens/S-<login>        Alternate socket directories.
       <socket directory>/.termcap       Written by the "termcap" output function
       /usr/tmp/screens/screen-exchange  or
       /tmp/screen-exchange              screen `interprocess communication buffer'
       hardcopy.[0-9]                    Screen images created by the hardcopy function
       screenlog.[0-9]                   Output log files created by the log function
       /usr/lib/terminfo/?/*             or
       /etc/termcap                      Terminal capability databases
       /run/utmp                         Login records
       $LOCKPRG                          Program that locks a terminal.


       Originally created by Oliver Laumann. For a long time maintained and developed by  Juergen
       Weigert,  Michael Schroeder, Micah Cowan and Sadrul Habib Chowdhury. Since 2015 maintained
       and  developed   by   Amadeusz   Slawinski   <>   and   Alexander   Naumov


       Copyright (c) 2018-2022
            Alexander Naumov <>
            Amadeusz Slawinski <>
       Copyright (c) 2015-2017
            Juergen Weigert <>
            Alexander Naumov <>
            Amadeusz Slawinski <>
       Copyright (c) 2010-2015
            Juergen Weigert <>
            Sadrul Habib Chowdhury <>
       Copyright (c) 2008, 2009
            Juergen Weigert <>
            Michael Schroeder <>
            Micah Cowan <>
            Sadrul Habib Chowdhury <>
       Copyright (C) 1993-2003
            Juergen Weigert <>
            Michael Schroeder <>
       Copyright (C) 1987 Oliver Laumann

       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of
       the GNU General Public License as  published  by  the  Free  Software  Foundation;  either
       version 3, or (at your option) any later version.
       This  program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY;
       without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR  PURPOSE.
       See the GNU General Public License for more details.
       You  should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program
       (see the file COPYING); if not, write to the Free Software  Foundation,  Inc.,  59  Temple
       Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307, USA


       Maarten ter Huurne <>,
       Jussi Kukkonen <>,
       Eric S. Raymond <>,
       Thomas Renninger <>,
       Axel Beckert <>,
       Ken Beal <>,
       Rudolf Koenig <>,
       Toerless Eckert <>,
       Wayne Davison <>,
       Patrick Wolfe <, kailand!pat>,
       Bart Schaefer <>,
       Nathan Glasser <>,
       Larry W. Virden <>,
       Howard Chu <>,
       Tim MacKenzie <>,
       Markku Jarvinen <mta@{cc,cs,ee}>,
       Marc Boucher <marc@CAM.ORG>,
       Doug Siebert <>,
       Ken Stillson <>,
       Ian Frechett <frechett@spot.Colorado.EDU>,
       Brian Koehmstedt <>,
       Don Smith <>,
       Frank van der Linden <>,
       Martin Schweikert <>,
       David Vrona <>,
       E. Tye McQueen <>,
       Matthew Green <>,
       Christopher Williams <>,
       Matt Mosley <>,
       Gregory Neil Shapiro <gshapiro@wpi.WPI.EDU>,
       Johannes Zellner <>,
       Pablo Averbuj <>.


       The   latest   official   release   of   screen   available   via   anonymous   ftp   from or any other GNU distribution site. The home  page  of  screen  is       and       the       git       repo      is  If you want to help, send a note to screen-


       •  `dm'  (delete  mode)  and  `xs'  are  not handled correctly (they are ignored). `xn' is
          treated as a magic-margin indicator.

       •  Screen has no clue about double-high or double-wide characters.  But this is  the  only
          area where vttest is allowed to fail.

       •  It is not possible to change the environment variable $TERMCAP when reattaching under a
          different terminal type.

       •  The support of terminfo based systems is very limited.  Adding  extra  capabilities  to
          $TERMCAP may not have any effects.

       •  Screen does not make use of hardware tabs.

       •  Screen must be installed as set-uid with owner root on most systems in order to be able
          to correctly change the owner  of  the  tty  device  file  for  each  window.   Special
          permission may also be required to write the file /run/utmp.

       •  Entries  in  /run/utmp  are  not removed when screen is killed with SIGKILL.  This will
          cause some programs (like "w" or "rwho") to advertise that a  user  is  logged  on  who
          really isn't.

       •  Screen may give a strange warning when your tty has no utmp entry.

       •  When  the  modem line was hung up, screen may not automatically detach (or quit) unless
          the device driver is configured to send a HANGUP signal.  To detach  a  screen  session
          use the -D or -d command line option.

       •  If a password is set, the command line options -d and -D still detach a session without

       •  Both breaktype and defbreaktype change the break generating method used by all terminal
          devices.  The  first  should  change a window specific setting, where the latter should
          change only the default for new windows.

       •  When attaching to a multiuser session, the user's .screenrc file is not  sourced.  Each
          user's  personal  settings  have  to  be  included in the .screenrc file from which the
          session is booted, or have to be changed manually.

       •  A weird imagination is most useful to gain full advantage of all the features.

       Send  bug-reports,  fixes,  enhancements,  t-shirts,  money,  beer  &  pizza  to   screen-


       termcap(5), utmp(5), vi(1), captoinfo(1), tic(1), tty(4), pty(7)