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       ttf2tfm - build TeX metric files from a TrueType font


       ttf2tfm ttffile[.ttf|.ttc] [-c caps-height-factor] [-e extension-factor] [-E encoding-id]
               [-f font-index] [-l] [-L ligature-file[.sfd]] [-n] [-N] [-O] [-p inencfile[.enc]]
               [-P platform-id] [-q] [-r old-glyphname new-glyphname] [-R replacement-file[.rpl]]
               [-s slant-factor] [-t outencfile[.enc]] [-T inoutencfile[.enc]] [-u]
               [-v vplfile[.vpl]] [-V scvplfile[.vpl]] [-w] [-x] [-y vertical-shift-factor]
       ttf2tfm --version | --help


       This program extracts the metric and kerning information of a TrueType font  and  converts
       it  into  metric  files usable by TeX (quite similar to afm2tfm which is part of the dvips
       package; please consult its  info  files  for  more  details  on  the  various  parameters
       (especially encoding files).

       Since a TrueType font often contains more than 256 glyphs, some means are necessary to map
       a subset of the TrueType glyphs onto a TeX font.  To  do  this,  two  mapping  tables  are
       needed:  the  first (called `input' or `raw' encoding) maps the TrueType font to a raw TeX
       font (this mapping table is used by both ttf2tfm  and  ttf2pk),  and  the  second  (called
       `output'  or  `virtual'  encoding)  maps  the  raw TeX font to another (virtual) TeX font,
       providing all kerning and ligature information needed by TeX.

       This two stage mapping has the advantage that one raw font can be  accessed  with  various
       LaTeX  encodings (e.g. T1 and OT1) via the virtual font mechanism, and just one PK file is

       For CJKV (Chinese/Japanese/Korean/old Vietnamese) fonts, a different mechanism is provided
       (see SUBFONT DEFINITION FILES below).


       Most  of the command line switch names are the same as in afm2tfm for convenience.  One or
       more space characters between an option and its  value  is  mandatory;  options  can't  be
       concatenated.  For historical reasons, the first parameter can not be a switch but must be
       the font name.

       -c caps-height-factor
              The height of small caps made with the -V  switch.   Default  value  of  this  real
              number is 0.8 times the height of uppercase glyphs.

              Will be ignored in subfont mode.

       -e extension-factor
              The extension factor to stretch the characters horizontally.  Default value of this
              real number is 1.0; if less than 1.0, you get a condensed font.

       -E encoding-id
              The TrueType encoding ID.  Default value of this non-negative integer is 1.

              Will be ignored if -N is used.

       -f font-index
              The font index in a TrueType Collection.  Default  is  the  first  font  (index 0).
              [TrueType  collections  are  usually  found  in some CJK fonts; e.g. the first font
              index specifies glyphs and metrics for horizontal  writing,  and  the  second  font
              index  does  the  same for vertical writing.  TrueType collections usually have the
              extension `.ttc'.]

              Will be ignored for ordinary TrueType fonts.

       -l     Create ligatures in subfonts between first and second bytes  of  all  the  original
              character codes.  Example:  Character code 0xABCD maps to character position 123 in
              subfont 45.  Then a ligature in subfont 45 between position 0xAB and 0xCD  pointing
              to character 123 will be produced.  The fonts of the Korean HLaTeX package use this
              feature.  Note that this option generates correct ligatures only for TrueType fonts
              where  the input cmap is identical to the output encoding.  In case of HLaTeX, TTFs
              must have platform ID 3 and encoding ID 5.

              Will be ignored if not in subfont mode.

       -L ligature-file
              Same as -l, but character codes for ligatures are specified in ligature-file.   For
              example,  `-L KS-HLaTeX'  generates correct ligatures for the Korean HLaTeX package
              regardless of the platform and encoding ID of the used TrueType font (the file  KS-
              HLaTeX.sfd is part of the ttf2pk package).

              Ligature  files  have the same format and extension as SFD files.  This option will
              be ignored if not in subfont mode.

       -n     Use PS names (of glyphs) of the TrueType font.  Only glyphs with a valid  entry  in
              the selected cmap are used.

              Will be ignored in subfont mode.

       -N     Use  only PS names of the TrueType font.  No cmap is used, thus the switches -E and
              -P have no effect, causing a warning message.

              Will be ignored in subfont mode.

       -O     Use octal values for all character codes in the VPL file rather than names; this is
              useful for symbol or CJK fonts where character names such as `A' are meaningless.

       -p inencfile
              The input encoding file name for the TTF→raw TeX mapping.  This parameter has to be
              specified  in  a  map  file  (default:  recorded  in  ttf2pk.cfg  for
              successive ttf2pk calls.

              Will be ignored in subfont mode.

       -P platform-id
              The TrueType platform ID.  Default value of this non-negative integer is 3.

              Will be ignored if -N is used.

       -q     Make  ttf2tfm  quiet.   It  suppresses  any informational output except warning and
              error messages.  For CJK fonts, the output can get quite large if you don't specify
              this switch.

       -r old-glyphname new-glyphname
              Replaces  old-glyphname  with  new-glyphname.  This switch is useful if you want to
              give an unnamed glyph (i.e., a glyph which  can  be  represented  with  `.gXXX'  or
              `.cXXX'  only) a name or if you want to rename an already existing glyph name.  You
              can't use the `.gXXX' or `.cXXX' glyph name constructs for new-glyphname;  multiple
              occurrences of -r are possible.

              If in subfont mode or if no encoding file is specified, this switch is ignored.

       -R replacement-file
              Use  this  switch  if  you have many replacement pairs; they can be  collected in a
              file which should have `.rpl' as extension.  The syntax used  in  such  replacement
              files   is   simple:  Each  non-empty  line  must  contain  a  pair  `old-glyphname
              new-glyphname' separated by whitespace (without the quotation  marks).   A  percent
              sign  starts  a  line  comment;  you  can  continue  a line on the next line with a
              backslash as the last character.

              If in subfont mode or if no encoding file is specified, this switch is ignored.

       -s slant-factor
              The obliqueness factor to slant the font, usually much smaller than 1.  Default  of
              this  real number is 0.0; if the value is larger than zero, the characters slope to
              the right, otherwise to the left.

       -t outencfile
              The output encoding file name for the virtual font(s).  Only characters in the  raw
              TeX font are used.

              Will be ignored in subfont mode.

       -T inoutencfile
              This is equivalent to `-p inoutencfile -t inoutencfile'.

              Will be ignored in subfont mode.

       -u     Use  only  those  characters  specified  in the output encoding, and no others.  By
              default, ttf2tfm tries to include all characters in the virtual  font,  even  those
              not  present  in  the  encoding  for the virtual font (it puts them into otherwise-
              unused positions, rather arbitrarily).

              Will be ignored in subfont mode.

       -v vplfile
              Output a VPL file in addition to the TFM file.   If  no  output  encoding  file  is
              specified,  ttf2tfm uses a default font encoding (cmtt10).  Note: Be careful to use
              different names for the virtual font and the raw font!

              Will be ignored in subfont mode.

       -V scvplfile
              Same as -v, but the virtual font generated is a pseudo small caps font obtained  by
              scaling  uppercase  letters  by 0.8  (resp. the value specified with -c) to typeset
              lowercase.  This font handles accented letters and retains proper kerning.

              Will be ignored in subfont mode.

       -w     Generate PostScript encoding vectors containing glyph indices,  primarily  used  to
              embed  TrueType  fonts  in  pdfTeX.   ttf2tfm  takes the TFM names and replaces the
              suffix  with  .enc;  that  is,  for  files  foo01.tfm,  foo02.tfm, ...  it  creates
              foo01.enc, foo02.enc, ... at the same place.

              Will be ignored if not in subfont mode.

       -x     Rotate  all  glyphs  by 90 degrees counter-clockwise.  If no -y parameter is given,
              the rotated glyphs are shifted down vertically by 0.25em.

              Will be ignored if not in subfont mode.

       -y vertical-shift-factor
              Shift down rotated glyphs by the given amount (the unit is em).

              Ignored if not in subfont mode or glyphs are not rotated.

              Shows the current version of  ttf2tfm  and  the  used  file  search  library  (e.g.

       --help Shows usage information.

       If  no  TFM  file name is given, the name of the TTF file is used, including the full path
       and replacing the extension with `.tfm'.


       Contrary to Type 1 PostScript fonts (but similar to the new CID PostScript  font  format),
       most  TrueType  fonts  have  more than one native mapping table, also called `cmap', which
       maps the (internal) TTF glyph indices to  the  (external)  TTF  character  codes.   Common
       examples  are  a  mapping  table  to Unicode encoded character positions, and the standard
       Macintosh mapping.

       To specify a TrueType mapping table, use the options -P and -E.  With -P you  specify  the
       platform ID; defined values are:

       platform        platform ID (pid)
       Apple Unicode   0
       Macintosh       1
       ISO             2
       Microsoft       3

       The  encoding  ID depends on the platform.  For pid=0, we ignore the -E parameter (setting
       it to zero) since the mapping  table  is  always  Unicode  version 2.0.   For  pid=1,  the
       following table lists the defined values:

              platform ID = 1

       script          encoding ID (eid)
       Roman           0
       Japanese        1
       Chinese         2
       Korean          3
       Arabic          4
       Hebrew          5
       Greek           6
       Russian         7
       Roman Symbol    8
       Devanagari      9
       Gurmukhi        10
       Gujarati        11
       Oriya           12
       Bengali         13
       Tamil           14
       Telugu          15
       Kannada         16
       Malayalam       17
       Sinhalese       18
       Burmese         19
       Khmer           20
       Thai            21
       Laotian         22
       Georgian        23
       Armenian        24
       Maldivian       25
       Tibetan         26
       Mongolian       27
       Geez            28
       Slavic          29
       Vietnamese      30
       Sindhi          31
       Uninterpreted   32

       Here are the ISO encoding IDs:

              platform ID = 2

       encoding     encoding ID (eid)
       ASCII        0
       ISO 10646    1
       ISO 8859-1   2

       And finally, the Microsoft encoding IDs:

              platform ID = 3

       encoding              encoding ID (eid)
       Symbol                0
       Unicode 2.0           1
       Shift JIS             2
       GB 2312 (1980)        3
       Big 5                 4
       KS X 1001 (Wansung)   5
       KS X 1001 (Johab)     6
       UCS-4                 10

       The  program will abort if you specify an invalid platform/encoding ID pair.  It will then
       show the possible pid/eid pairs.  Please note that most fonts have at most  two  or  three
       cmaps,  usually corresponding to the pid/eid pairs (1,0), (3,0), or (3,1) in case of Latin
       based fonts.  Valid Microsoft fonts should have a (3,1)  mapping  table,  but  some  fonts
       exist (mostly Asian fonts) which have a (3,1) cmap not encoded in Unicode.  The reason for
       this strange behavior is the fact that some old  MS Windows  versions  will  reject  fonts
       having  a  non-(3,1)  cmap  (since  all  non-Unicode  Microsoft encoding IDs are for Asian
       MS Windows versions).

       The -P and -E options of ttf2tfm must be equally specified for ttf2pk;  the  corresponding
       parameters in a map file are `Pid' and `Eid', respectively.

       The default pid/eid pair is (3,1).

       Similarly, an -f option must be specified as `Fontindex' parameter in a map file.

       If  you  use  the -N switch, all cmaps are ignored, using only the PostScript names in the
       TrueType font.  The corresponding option in a map file is `PS=Only'.  If you  use  the  -n
       switch,  the  default  glyph names built into ttf2tfm are replaced with the PS glyph names
       found in the font.  In many cases this is not what you want because the glyph names in the
       font  are  often  incorrect  or  non-standard.   The corresponding option in a map file is

       Single replacement glyph names specified with -r must be given directly as  `old-glyphname
       new-glyphname' in a map file; -R is equivalent to the `Replacement' option.


       You  must specify the encoding vectors from the TrueType font to the raw TeX font and from
       the raw TeX font to the virtual TeX font exactly  as  with  afm2tfm,  but  you  have  more
       possibilities  to  address  the  character codes.  [With `encoding vector' a mapping table
       with 256 entries in form of a PostScript vector is meant; see the file T1-WGL4.enc of this
       package  for  an  example.]  With afm2tfm, you must access each glyph with its Adobe glyph
       name, e.g. `/quotedsingle' or `/Acircumflex'.  This has been extended  with  ttf2tfm;  now
       you  can  (and  sometimes  must)  access the code points and/or glyphs directly, using the
       following syntax for specifying the character position in decimal, octal,  or  hexadecimal
       notation:  `/.c<decimal-number>',  `/.c0<octal-number>',  or  `/.c0x<hexadecimal-number>'.
       Examples: `/.c72', `/.c0646', `/.c0x48'.  To  access  a  glyph  index  directly,  use  the
       character `g' instead of `c' in the just introduced notation.  Example: `/.g0x32'.  [Note:
       The `.cXXX' notation makes no sense if -N is used.]

       For pid/eid pairs (1,0) and (3,1), both ttf2tfm  and  ttf2pk  recognize  built-in  default
       Adobe  glyph  names;  the former follows the names given in Appendix E of the book `Inside
       Macintosh', volume 6, the latter uses the names given in the TrueType Specification (WGL4,
       a  Unicode  subset).   Note that Adobe names for a given glyph are often not unique and do
       sometimes differ, e.g., many PS fonts have the glyph `mu', whereas this  glyph  is  called
       `mu1'  in the WGL4 character set to distinguish it from the real Greek letter mu.  Be also
       aware that OpenType (i.e. TrueType 2.0) fonts use an updated WGL4 table; we use  the  data
       from  the  latest  published  TrueType  specification  (1.66).  You can find those mapping
       tables in the source code file ttfenc.c.

       On the other hand, the switches -n and -N makes ttf2tfm read in  and  use  the  PostScript
       names  in  the  TrueType  font  itself (stored in the `post' table) instead of the default
       Adobe glyph names.

       Use the -r switch to remap single  glyph  names  and  -R  to  specify  a  file  containing
       replacement glyph name pairs.

       If  you  don't  select an input encoding, the first 256 glyphs of the TrueType font with a
       valid entry in the selected cmap will be mapped to  the  TeX  raw  font  (without  the  -q
       option,  ttf2tfm prints this mapping table to standard output), followed by all glyphs not
       yet addressed in the selected cmap.  However, some code points for the (1,0) pid/eid  pair
       are  omitted  since  they  do  not  represent  glyphs  useful  for  TeX: 0x00 (null), 0x08
       (backspace), 0x09  (horizontal  tabulation),  0x0d  (carriage  return),  and  0x1d  (group
       separator).  The `invalid character' with glyph index 0 will be omitted too.

       If  you  select  the  -N  switch,  the  first 256 glyphs of the TrueType font with a valid
       PostScript name will be used in case no input encoding is specified.  Again,  some  glyphs
       are omitted:  `.notdef', `.null', and `nonmarkingreturn'.

       If  you  don't  select an  output encoding, ttf2tfm uses the same mapping table as afm2tfm
       would use (you can find it in the source  code  file  texenc.c);  it  corresponds  to  TeX
       typewriter  text.   Unused  positions  (either  caused by empty code points in the mapping
       table or missing glyphs in the TrueType font) will be  filled  (rather  arbitrarily)  with
       characters present in the input encoding but not specified in the output encoding (without
       the -q option ttf2tfm prints the final output encoding to standard output).   Use  the  -u
       option  if  you  want  only  glyphs  in  the  virtual font which are defined in the output
       encoding file, and nothing more.

       One feature missing in afm2tfm has been added which is  needed  by  LaTeX's  T1  encoding:
       ttf2tfm  will  construct  the  glyph `Germandbls' (by simply concatenating two `S' glyphs)
       even for normal fonts if possible.  It appears in the glyph list as the last item,  marked
       with  an asterisk.  Since this isn't a real glyph it will be available only in the virtual

       For both input and output encoding, an empty code position is  represented  by  the  glyph
       name `/.notdef'.

       In  encoding  files, you can use `\' as the final character of a line to indicate that the
       input is continued on the next line.  The backslash and the  following  newline  character
       will be removed.


       CJKV  (Chinese/Japanese/Korean/old  Vietnamese)  fonts  usually  contain  several thousand
       glyphs; to use them with TeX it is necessary to split  such  large  fonts  into  subfonts.
       Subfont  definition  files  (usually having the extension `.sfd') are a simple means to do
       this smoothly.

       A subfont file name usually consists of a prefix, a subfont infix, and a postfix (which is
       empty in most cases), e.g.

         ntukai23 → prefix: ntukai, infix: 23, postfix: (empty)

       Here the syntax of a line in an SFD file, describing one subfont:

       <whitespace> <infix> <whitespace> <ranges> <whitespace>

       <infix> :=
              anything except whitespace.  It is best to use only alphanumerical characters.

       <whitespace> :=
              space,  formfeed,  carriage  return,  horizontal  and  vertical  tabs -- no newline

       <ranges> :=
              <ranges> <whitespace> <codepoint> |
              <ranges> <whitespace> <range> |
              <ranges> <whitespace> <offset> <whitespace> <range>

       <codepoint> :=

       <range> :=
              <number> `_' <number>

       <offset> :=
              <number> `:'

       <number> :=
              hexadecimal (prefix `0x'), decimal, or octal (prefix `0')

       A line can be continued on the next line with a backslash ending  the  line.   The  ranges
       must not overlap; offsets have to be in the range 0-255.


         The line

           03   10: 0x2349 0x2345_0x2347

         assigns  to  the  code positions 10, 11, 12, and 13 of the subfont having the infix `03'
         the character codes 0x2349, 0x2345, 0x2346, and 0x2347 respectively.

       The SFD files in the distribution are customized for the CJK package for LaTeX.

       You have to embed the SFD file name into the TFM font name (at the place where  the  infix
       will  appear)  surrounded  by  two  `@'  signs, on the command line resp. a map file; both
       ttf2tfm and ttf2pk switch then to subfont mode.

       It is possible to use more than a single SFD file by separating them with commata  and  no
       whitespace;  for  a  given  subfont, the first file is scanned for an entry, then the next
       file, and so on.  Later entries override entries found earlier (possibly only  partially).
       For example, the first SFD file sets up range 0x10-0xA0, and the next one modifies entries
       0x12 and 0x25.  As can be easily seen, this algorithm allows for adding and replacing, but
       not for removing entries.

       Subfont  mode  disables  the  options  -n,  -N,  -p, -r, -R, -t, -T, -u, -v, -V and -w for
       ttf2tfm; similarly, no `Encoding' or `Replacement' parameter is allowed  in  a  map  file.
       Single replacement glyph names are ignored too.

       ttf2tfm will create all subfont TFM files specified in the SFD files (provided the subfont
       contains glyphs) in one run.


         The call

           ttf2tfm ntukai.ttf ntukai@Big5,Big5-supp@

         will  use  Big5.sfd  and  Big5-supp.sfd,  producing  all  subfont  files   ntukai01.tfm,
         ntukai02.tfm, etc.


       ttf2tfm  returns  0  on  success and 1 on error; warning and error messages are written to
       standard error.


       Both ttf2pk and ttf2tfm use either the kpathsea, emtexdir, or MiKTeX library for searching
       files  (emtexdir  will  work only on operating systems which have an MS-DOSish background,
       i.e.  MS-DOS, OS/2, Windows; MikTeX is specific to MS Windows).

       As a last resort, both programs can be compiled without a  search  library;  the  searched
       files  must be then in the current directory or specified with a path.  Default extensions
       will be appended also (with the exception that only `.ttf' is appended and not `.ttc').

       The actual version of kpathsea is displayed on screen if you call either ttf2pk or ttf2tfm
       with the --version command line switch.

       Here  is  a table of the file type and the corresponding kpathsea variables.  TTF2PKINPUTS
       and TTF2TFMINPUTS are  program  specific  environment  variables  introduced  in  kpathsea
       version 3.2:

              .ttf and .ttc   TTFONTS
              ttf2pk.cfg      TTF2PKINPUTS
              .map            TTF2PKINPUTS
              .enc            TTF2PKINPUTS, TTF2TFMINPUTS
              .rpl            TTF2PKINPUTS, TTF2TFMINPUTS
              .tfm            TFMFONTS
              .sfd            TTF2PKINPUTS, TTF2TFMINPUTS

       Please consult the info files of kpathsea for details on these variables.

       You  should  set the TEXMFCNF variable to the directory where your texmf.cnf configuration
       file resides.

       Here is the proper command to find out to which value a kpathsea variable is set  (we  use
       TTFONTS as an example).  This is especially useful if a variable isn't set in texmf.cnf or
       in the environment, thus pointing to the  default  value  which  is  hard-coded  into  the
       kpathsea library.

              kpsewhich -progname=ttf2tfm -expand-var='$TTFONTS'

       We  select  the  program  name  also  since  it is possible to specify variables which are
       searched only for a certain program -- in our example it would be TTFONTS.ttf2tfm.

       A similar but not identical method is to say

         kpsewhich -progname=ttf2tfm -show-path='truetype fonts'

       [A full list of format types can be obtained by saying `kpsewhich --help' on  the  command
       line  prompt.]   This  is  exactly  how  ttf2tfm  (and  ttf2pk)  searches  for  files; the
       disadvantage is that all variables are expanded which can cause very long strings.

       Here the  list  of  suffixes  and  their  related  environment  variables  to  be  set  in
       autoexec.bat (resp. in config.sys for OS/2):

              .ttf and .ttc   TTFONTS
              ttf2pk.cfg      TTFCFG
              .map            TTFCFG
              .enc            TTFCFG
              .rpl            TTFCFG
              .tfm            TEXTFM
              .sfd            TTFCFG

       If  one  of  the variables isn't set, a warning message is emitted.  The current directory
       will always  be searched.  As usual, one exclamation mark appended  to  a  directory  path
       causes  subdirectories  one  level  deep  to  be searched, two exclamation marks cause all
       subdirectories to be searched.  Example:


       Constructions like `c:\fonts!!\truetype' aren't possible.

       Both ttf2tfm and ttf2pk have been fully integrated  into  MiKTeX.   Please  refer  to  the
       documentation of MiKTeX for more details on file searching.


       Many  vptovf implementations allow only 100 bytes for the TFM header (the limit is 1024 in
       the TFM file format itself): 8 bytes for checksum and design size, 40 bytes for the family
       name,  20 bytes for the encoding, and 4 bytes for a face byte.  There remain only 28 bytes
       for some additional information which is used by  ttf2tfm  for  an  identification  string
       (which is essentially a copy of the command line), and this limit is always exceeded.

       The  optimal  solution is to increase the value of max_header_bytes in the file vptovf.web
       (and probably pltotf.web too) to, say, 400 and recompile vptovf (and  pltotf).   Otherwise
       you'll get some (harmless) error messages like

         This HEADER index is too big for my present table size

       which can be safely ignored.


       ttf2pk(1), afm2tfm(1), vptovf(1),
       the info pages for dvips and kpathsea


       ttf2tfm is part of the FreeType 1 package, a high quality TrueType rendering library.


       Werner LEMBERG <>
       Frédéric LOYER <>