Provided by: groff_1.22.4-8build1_amd64 bug


       groff_filenames - filename extensions for roff and groff


       Since  the  evolution  of roff in the 1970s, a whole bunch of filename extensions for roff
       files were used.

       The roff extensions refer to preprocessors or macro packages.  These extensions are  fixed
       in all Unix-like operating systems.

       Later  on,  groff  added  some  more  extensions.   This  man page is about these filename


       Each roff file can be optionally compressed.  That means that the total filename ends with
       a     compressor     name.      So     the    whole    filename    has    the    structure

       Best-known are the compressor extensions .Z, .gz, and .bzip2.  Relatively new is .xz.

       From  now  on,  we  will  ignore  the  compressions  and  only   comment   the   structure


       The  Unix  manual pages are widely called man pages.  The man page style is the best known
       part of the roff language.

       The extensions for man should be better documented.  So this is documented here.

       Files written in the man language use the following extension: *.<section>[<group>].

   Man page Sections
       The traditional man page <section> is a digit from 1 to 8.

              Classic man page sections.

       In older commercial Unix systems, the 3 characters l, n, and o were also used  as  section
       names.  This is today deprecated, but there are still documents in this format.

              Deprecated   man  page  sections,  which  stood  for  “local”,  “new”,  and  “old”,

   Man page Group Extensions
       The <group> extension in .<section>[<group>] is optional, but it can be any string of word
       characters.   Usually  programmers  use  a  group  name that is already used, e.g. x for X
       Window System documents or tcl to refer to the Tcl programming language.


              is the man page for groff in section 1 without a group

              is the man page for the program xargs in section 1 and group posix; moreover it  is
              compressed with gz (gzip).

              OpenSSL CONF library configuration files from section 5 with group ssl.

              man page for the program dpkg-reconfigure in section 8 and group cdebconf.

   Source of man pages
       There are 2 roff languages for writing man pages: man and mdoc.

       The names of these 2 styles are taken as extensions for the source code files of man pages
       in the groff package.

              traditional Unix-like man page format within groff source files.

              A temporary man page file produced from a man page by a run of make within
              the groff source package.

              Man page format in BSD.

              Man page format in heirloom roff .

              Files  using  this  extension  recognize  both  man page formats in groff and other


   Files Using Macro Packages
       The classical roff languages were interpreted by the traditional troff and nroff programs.

       There were several roff languages, each represented by a  macro-package.   Each  of  these
       provided a suitable file name extension:

              roff file using the me macro package.

              roff file using the mm macro package

              roff file using the ms macro package

       All of these classical roff languages and their extensions are still very active in groff.

   Source Code for Macro Packages (TMAC Files)
       In  traditional  roff  the  source  code  for the macro packages was stored in TMAC files.
       Their file names have the form:

              <package> is the name of the macro package without the leading m  character,  which
              is reintegrated by the option -m.

       For example, is the source for the man macro package.

       In the groff source, more suitable file names were integrated, see later on.

       Moreover, the following preprocessors were used as filename extension:

              for the integration of chemical formulas

              for the mathematical use of equations

              graphical tool

              for tables with tbl

              for files using the prefer preprocessor

   Classical Roff Files
              for files using the roff language of any kind


       GNU  roff  groff  is the actual roff standard, both for classical roff and new extensions.
       So even the used new extensions in the source code should be regarded as actual  standard.
       The following extensions are used instead of classical .t or .tr:

              general ending for files using the groff language

   Source Code for Macro Packages (TMAC Files)
       As  the  classical form tmac.<package_without_m>, of the TMAC file names is quite strange,
       groff added the following structures:


   Files Using new Macro Packages
       Groff uses the following new macro packages:

              file with swedish mm macros for groff

              files written in the groff macro package mom

              files written in HTML-like groff macros.

   Preprocessors and Postprocessors
              Heidelberger tables, an alternative to the preprocessor tbl.  See groff_hdtbl(7).

              files written for the graphical grap processor.

              for including gremlin(1), pictures, see grn(1).

              transform this file with pdfroff of the groff system


       This document was written by Bernd Warken ⟨⟩.


       History and future
              roff(7), man-pages(7), groff_diff(7), groff(7)

              uncompress(1posix), gzip2(1), bzip2(1), xz(1)

       A man page of the naming form name(n) can be read in text mode by
              man n name
       or in graphical mode (PDF) by
              groffer n name

       Gunnar Ritter's  Heirloom  roff  project  ⟨⟩.
       You can get this package with the shell command:
              $ git clone