Provided by: acct_6.6.4-4build2_amd64 bug


       sa -  summarizes accounting information


       sa     [ -a | --list-all-names ]
              [ -b | --sort-sys-user-div-calls ]
              [ -c | --percentages ] [ -d | --sort-avio ]
              [ -D | --sort-tio ] [ -f | --not-interactive ]
              [ -i | --dont-read-summary-files ]
              [ -j | --print-seconds ] [ -k | --sort-cpu-avmem ]
              [ -K | --sort-ksec ] [ -l | --separate-times ]
              [ -m | --user-summary ] [ -n | --sort-num-calls ]
              [ -p | --show-paging ] [ -P | --show-paging-avg ]
              [ -r | --reverse-sort ] [ -s | --merge ]
              [ -t | --print-ratio ] [ -u | --print-users ]
              [ -v num | --threshold num ] [ --sort-real-time ]
              [ --debug ] [ -V | --version ] [ -h | --help ]
              [ --other-usracct-file filename ] [ --ahz hz ]
              [ --other-savacct-file filename ]
              [ [ --other-acct-file ] filename ]


       sa summarizes information about previously executed commands as recorded in the acct file.
       In addition, it condenses this data into a summary file named savacct which contains the
       number of times the command was called and the system resources used.  The information can
       also be summarized on a per-user basis; sa will save this information into a file named

       If no arguments are specified, sa will print information about all of the commands in the
       acct file.

       If called with a file name as the last argument, sa will use that file instead of the
       system's default acct file.

       By default, sa will sort the output by sum of user and system time.  If command names have
       unprintable characters, or are only called once, sa will sort them into a group called
       `***other'.  If more than one sorting option is specified, the list will be sorted by the
       one specified last on the command line.

       The output fields are labeled as follows:

               sum of system and user time in cpu minutes

               "elapsed time" in minutes

               cpu-time averaged core usage, in 1k units

               average number of I/O operations per execution

               total number of I/O operations

               cpu storage integral (kilo-core seconds)

               user cpu time in cpu seconds

               system time in cpu seconds

       Note that these column titles do not appear in the first row of the table, but after each
       numeric entry (as units of measurement) in every row.  For example, you might see
       `79.29re', meaning 79.29 cpu seconds of "real time".

       An asterisk will appear after the name of commands that forked but didn't call exec.

       GNU sa takes care to implement a number of features not found in other versions.  For
       example, most versions of sa don't pay attention to flags like `--print-seconds' and
       `--sort-num-calls' when printing out commands when combined with the `--user-summary' or
       `--print-users' flags.  GNU sa pays attention to these flags if they are applicable.
       Also, MIPS' sa stores the average memory use as a short rather than a double, resulting in
       some round-off errors.  GNU sa uses double the whole way through.


       The availability of these program options depends on your operating system.  In specific,
       the members that appear in the struct acct of your system's process accounting header file
       (usually acct.h ) determine which flags will be present.  For example, if your system's
       struct acct doesn't have the `ac_mem' field, the installed version of sa will not support
       the `--sort-cpu-avmem', `--sort-ksec', `-k', or `-K' options.

       In short, all of these flags may not be available on your machine.

       -a, --list-all-names
              Force sa not to sort those command names with unprintable characters and those used
              only once into the ***other group.
       -b, --sort-sys-user-div-calls
              Sort the output by the sum of user and system time divided by the number of calls.
       -c, --percentages
              Print percentages of total time for the command's user, system, and real time
       -d, --sort-avio
              Sort the output by the average number of disk I/O operations.
       -D, --sort-tio
              Print and sort the output by the total number of disk I/O operations.
       -f, --not-interactive
              When using the `--threshold' option, assume that all answers to interactive queries
              will be affirmative.
       -i, --dont-read-summary-files
              Don't read the information in the system's default savacct file.
       -j, --print-seconds
              Instead of printing total minutes for each category, print seconds per call.
       -k, --sort-cpu-avmem
              Sort the output by cpu time average memory usage.
       -K, --sort-ksec
              Print and sort the output by the cpu-storage integral.
       -l, --separate-times
              Print separate columns for system and user time; usually the two are added together
              and listed as `cpu'.
       -m, --user-summary
              Print the number of processes and number of CPU minutes on a per-user basis.
       -n, --sort-num-calls
              Sort the output by the number of calls.  This is the default sorting method.
       -p, --show-paging
              Print the number of minor and major pagefaults and swaps.
       -P, --show-paging-avg
              Print the number of minor and major pagefaults and swaps divided by the number of
       -r, --reverse-sort
              Sort output items in reverse order.
       -s, --merge
              Merge the summarized accounting data into the summary files savacct and usracct.
       -t, --print-ratio
              For each entry, print the ratio of real time to the sum of system and user times.
              If the sum of system and user times is too small to report--the sum is
              zero--`*ignore*' will appear in this field.
       -u, --print-users
              For each command in the accounting file, print the userid and command name.  After
              printing all entries, quit.  *Note*: this flag supersedes all others.
       -v num --threshold num
              Print commands which were executed num times or fewer and await a reply from the
              terminal.  If the response begins with `y', add the command to the `**junk**'
              It really doesn't make any sense to me that the stock version of sa separates
              statistics for a particular executable depending on whether or not that command
              forked.  Therefore, GNU sa lumps this information together unless this option is
       --ahz hz
              Use this flag to tell the program what AHZ should be (in hertz).  This option is
              useful if you are trying to view an acct file created on another machine which has
              the same byte order and file format as your current machine, but has a different
              value for AHZ.
              Print verbose internal information.
       -V, --version
              Print the version number of sa.
       -h, --help
              Prints the usage string and default locations of system files to standard output
              and exits.
              Sort the output by the "real time" field.
       --other-usracct-file filename
              Write summaries by user ID to filename rather than the system's default usracct
       --other-savacct-file filename
              Write summaries by command name to filename rather than the system's default
              SAVACCT file.
       --other-acct-file filename
              Read from the file filename instead of the system's default ACCT file.


       acct   The raw system wide process accounting file. See acct(5) for further details.
              A summary of system process accounting sorted by command.
              A summary of system process accounting sorted by user ID.


       There is not yet a wide experience base for comparing the output of GNU sa with versions
       of sa in many other systems.  The problem is that the data files grow big in a short time
       and therefore require a lot of disk space.


       The GNU accounting utilities were written by Noel Cragg <>. The man
       page was adapted from the accounting texinfo page by Susan Kleinmann <>.


       acct(5), ac(1)

                                          1997 August 19                                    SA(8)