Provided by: passwd_4.8.1-2ubuntu2.1_amd64 bug

名称

       passwd - 更改用户密码

大纲

       passwd [选项] [登录]

描述

       The passwd command changes passwords for user accounts. A normal user may only change the
       password for their own account, while the superuser may change the password for any
       account.  passwd also changes the account or associated password validity period.

   密码更改
       如果有旧密码,首先提示用户输入旧密码。加密这个密码然后和存储的密码进行比较。用户只有一次机
       会输入正确密码。允许超级用户略过这个步骤,以便更改忘记了的密码。

       After the password has been entered, password aging information is checked to see if the
       user is permitted to change the password at this time. If not, passwd refuses to change
       the password and exits.

       提示用户输入两次新密码。第二次和第一次进行比较,并且需要相同才能更改密码。

       然后,测试密码的负责程度。一般来讲,密码应该包含 6 到 8 位字符,从下边的一个或多个集合中选
       择:

       •   小写字母

       •   数字 0 到 9

       •   标点符号

       Care must be taken not to include the system default erase or kill characters.  passwd
       will reject any password which is not suitably complex.

   关于用户密码的提示
       The security of a password depends upon the strength of the encryption algorithm and the
       size of the key space. The legacy UNIX System encryption method is based on the NBS DES
       algorithm. More recent methods are now recommended (see ENCRYPT_METHOD). The size of the
       key space depends upon the randomness of the password which is selected.

       由于粗心地或处理选择密码,会危及密码的安全。由于这个原因,您不应该选择出现在词典中或者必须
       要写下来才能记住的密码。密码也不应该是一个名字、许可证号、生日或者街道号。所有这些可以用于
       猜测来损害系统安全。

       You can find advice on how to choose a strong password on
       http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Password_strength

选项

       The options which apply to the passwd command are:

       -a, --all
           This option can be used only with -S and causes show status for all users.

       -d, --delete
           删除用户密码(让它为空)。这是禁用一个用户密码的快速方法。它将设置给出名称的账户。

       -e, --expire
           让一个账户的密码立即过期。这可以强制一个用户下次登录时更改密码。

       -h, --help
           现实帮助信息并退出。

       -i, --inactive INACTIVE
           This option is used to disable an account after the password has been expired for a
           number of days. After a user account has had an expired password for INACTIVE days,
           the user may no longer sign on to the account.

       -k, --keep-tokens
           表示密码更改只应该因为认证口令(密码)过期更改。用户希望保持他们尚未过期的口令。

       -l, --lock
           锁定指定账户的密码。此选项通过将密码更改为一个不可能与加密值匹配的值来禁用(它在密码开
           头添加一个“!”)。

           Note that this does not disable the account. The user may still be able to login using
           another authentication token (e.g. an SSH key). To disable the account, administrators
           should use usermod --expiredate 1 (this set the account's expire date to Jan 2, 1970).

           被锁定了密码的用户不允许更改密码。

       -n, --mindays MIN_DAYS
           Set the minimum number of days between password changes to MIN_DAYS. A value of zero
           for this field indicates that the user may change their password at any time.

       -q, --quiet
           安静模式。

       -r, --repository REPOSITORY
           change password in REPOSITORY repository

       -R, --root CHROOT_DIR
           Apply changes in the CHROOT_DIR directory and use the configuration files from the
           CHROOT_DIR directory.

       -S, --status
           显示账户状态信息。状态信息包含 7 个字段。首个字段是用户的登录名,第二个字段表示用户账
           户是否已经锁定密码(L)、没有密码 (NP)或者密码可用(P),第三个字段给出最后一次更改密码的
           日期。接下来的四个字段分别是密码的最小年龄、最大年龄、警告期和禁用期。这些年龄以天为单
           位计算。

       -u, --unlock
           Unlock the password of the named account. This option re-enables a password by
           changing the password back to its previous value (to the value before using the -l
           option).

       -w, --warndays WARN_DAYS
           Set the number of days of warning before a password change is required. The WARN_DAYS
           option is the number of days prior to the password expiring that a user will be warned
           that their password is about to expire.

       -x, --maxdays MAX_DAYS
           Set the maximum number of days a password remains valid. After MAX_DAYS, the password
           is required to be changed.

           Passing the number -1 as MAX_DAYS will remove checking a password's validity.

CAVEATS

       密码复杂性检查在每台机器间不同。用户应该选择适合的尽量复杂的密码。

       在启动了 NIS 的系统上,如果没有登录 NIS 服务器,用户或许不能更改自己的密码。

       passwd uses PAM to authenticate users and to change their passwords.

文件

       /etc/passwd
           用户账户信息。

       /etc/shadow
           安全用户账户信息。

       /etc/pam.d/passwd
           PAM configuration for passwd.

退出值

       The passwd command exits with the following values:

       0
           success

       1
           permission denied

       2
           invalid combination of options

       3
           unexpected failure, nothing done

       4
           unexpected failure, passwd file missing

       5
           passwd file busy, try again

       6
           invalid argument to option

参见

       chpasswd(8), passwd(5), shadow(5), usermod(8).