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       printcap - 打印机相容性数据库




       Printcaptermcap(5) 的简单版, 用来描述 line printers. 当用到 spool 系 统时, 一定会去参
       考 printcap 这个档. 允许动态地加入及删除印表机.  在这资料  库中的每一段叙述代表一台印表机.
       This  data  base  may  not  be substituted for, as is possible for termcap, because it may
       allow accounting to be bypassed.

       预设的印表机是 lp, 虽然环境变数 PRINTER 可能优于(override)此. 每一 个用到 spool 的软体都支
       援  -p  的选项,  用以选择印表机. 如果想知道如何为一 台印表机设定资料的讨论, 请参照 4.3 BSD
       Line Printer Spooler Manual.


       根据 termcap(5) 对档案输出的描述.
            Name       Type      Description
            af         str       NULL                   name of accounting file
            br         num       none                   if lp is a tty, set the baud
                                                        rate (ioctl(2) call)
            cf         str       NULL                   cifplot data filter
            df         str       NULL                   tex data filter (DVI format)
            fc         num       0                      if lp is a tty, clear flag
                                                        bits (sgtty.h)
            ff         str       `                   string to send for a form
            fo         bool      false                  print a form feed when
                                                        device is opened
            fs         num       0                      like `fc' but set bits
            gf         str       NULL                   graph data filter (plot(3)
            hl         bool      false                  print the burst header page
            ic         bool      false                  driver supports(non standard)
                                                        ioctl to indent printout
            if         str       NULL                   name of text filter which
                                                        does accounting
            lf         str       /dev/console           error logging file name
            lo         str       lock                   name of lock file
            lp         str       /dev/lp                device name to open for
            mx         num       1000                   maximum file size (in BUFSIZ
                                                        blocks), zero = unlimited
            nd         str       NULL                   next directory for list of
                                                        queues (unimplemented)
            nf         str       NULL                   ditroff data filter (device
                                                        independent troff)
            of         str       NULL                   name of output filtering
            pc         num       200                    price per foot or page in
                                                        hundredths of cents
            pl         num       66                     page length (in lines)
            pw         num       132                    page width (in characters)
            px         num       0                      page width in pixels
            py         num       0                      page length in pixels
            rf         str       NULL                   filter for printing FORTRAN
                                                        style text files
            rg         str       NULL                   restricted group. Only
                                                     members of group allowed access
            rm         str       NULL                   machine name for remote
            rp         str       ``lp''                 remote printer name argument
            rs         bool      false                  restrict remote users to
                                                        those with local accounts
            rw         bool      false                  open the printer device for
                                                        reading and writing
            sb         bool      false                  short banner (one line only)
            sc         bool      false                  suppress multiple copies
            sd         str       /var/spool/lpd         spool directory
            sf         bool      false                  suppress form feeds
            sh         bool      false                  suppress printing of burst
                                                        page header
            st         str       status                 status file name
            tf         str       NULL                   troff data filter (cat
            tr         str       NULL                   trailer string to print when
                                                        queue empties
            vf         str       NULL                   raster image filter

       如果本地端印表机(local line printer) driver 支援 indentation 的话, daemon 将  知道如何去用


       lpd(8)  守护进程将创造出一个过滤的管线  (pipeline of filters) 来处理各个不同印 表机的档案.
       过滤器将依照旗标来选择将何者送到 lpr(1) .  管线的设定值有:
                  p            pr | if regular text + pr(1)
                  none         If         regular text
                  c            cf         cifplot
                  d            df         DVI (tex)
                  g            gf         plot(3)
                  n            nf         ditroff
                  f            rf         Fortran
                  t            tf         troff
                  v            vf         raster image

       if 过滤器的用法是:
                  if [-c] -wwidth -llength -iindent -n login -h host acct-file

       -c 这个旗标只有在 -l 旗标有列在 lpr 中时才可忽略. width 和 length 定义  了  page  的长和宽
       (from  pw  and pl respectively). -n 和 -h 可指定列印工作拥有者 的 login name 和 host name.
       Acct-file 将忽略 printcap 中的描述.

       If no if is specified, of is used instead, with the distinction that  of  is  opened  only
       once,  while  if  is  opened  for  every  individual  job.   Thus,  if is better suited to
       performing accounting.  The of is only given the width and length flags.

                  filter -xwidth -ylength -n login -h host acct-file

       如果要用 pixels 为单位来定长宽的话, 用 px 和 py 这二个变数.  所有的过滤器都经由 stdin 输入
       档案, stdout 输出到印表机, 用 stderr 或 syslog(3) 来记录(log), 而且不会忽略 SIGINT.


       Error  messages  generated  by  the  line  printer  programs  themselves (that is, the lp*
       programs) are logged by syslog(3) using the LPR facility.  Messages printed on  stderr  of
       one  of  the filters are sent to the corre- sponding lf file.  The filters may, of course,
       use syslog themselves.

       Error messages sent to the console have a carriage return and  a  line  feed  appended  to
       them, rather than just a line feed.


       termcap(5),  lpc(8),  lpd(8),  pac(8),  lpr(1),  lpq(1),  lprm(1)
       4.3 BSD Line Printer Spooler Manual.


       The printcap file format appeared in 4.2BSD..


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