Provided by: atlc_4.6.1-5_amd64 bug


       atlc - an Arbitrary Transmission Line Calculator


       atlc   [-C] [-s] [-S] [-v] [-c cutoff] [-d rrggbb=Er] [-i factor] [-i prefix] [-t threads]
       [-r rate_multiplier] bitmapfile


       This man page is not a complete set of documentation - the complexity of the atlc  project
       makes  man  pages not an ideal way to document it, although out of completeness, man pages
       are produced.  The best documentation that  was  current  at  the  time  the  version  was
       produced may be found in
       Sometimes,    errors    are    corrected    in    the    documentation   and   placed   at before a new release of atlc is  released.   Please,  if  you
       notice  a  problem  with the documentation - even spelling errors and typos, please let me


       atlc is a finite difference program that is used to calculate the  properties  of  a  two-
       conductor  electrical  transmission  line  of arbitrary cross section. It is used whenever
       there are no analytical formula known, yet you still require an answer. It can calculate:
          The impedance Zo  (in Ohms)
          The capacitance per unit length (pF/m)
          The inductance per unit length (nF/m)
          The velocity of propagation v (m/s)
          The velocity factor, v/c, which is dimensionless.

       A bitmap file (usually with the extension .bmp or .BMP) is drawn  in  a  graphics  package
       such as Gimp available from The bitmap file must be saved as a 24-bit
       (16,777,216 colour) uncompqessed file. The colours used in the bitmap indicate whether the
       region is a conductor (pure red, pure green or pure blue) or a dielectric (anything else).
       Pure white is assumed to  be  a  vacuum  dielectric,  but  other  colours  have  different
       meanings.  See COLOURS below for precise definitions of the colours.


       print copyright, licensing and copying information.
       Skip writing the Ex, Ey, E, V, U and Er bitmap (.bmp) files -S
       Skip writing the Ex, Ey, E, V, U and Er binary (.bin) files
       makes the output more verbose/talkative.
       -c cutoff
       Sets  the  convergence  criteria  of the finite difference program. The default is 0.0001,
       meaning two separate iterations must be within 01% for  the  program  to  stop  iterating.
       Setting to a smaller positive number gives more accuracy, but takes longer.

       -d rrggbb=Er
       is used to indicate the colour 0xrrggbb in the bitmap is used to represent a material with
       permittivity Er. See also COLOURS below

       -i factor
       is used to lighten or darken the .bmp electric field profile images produced by atlc.  Set
       factor > 2 to lighten or between 1 and 2 to darken.

       -r ratemultiplier
       Sets  the  parameter  'r'  used internally when computing the voltage at a point w,h.  The
       default, which is (as of version 3.0.0) 1.95, results in what is believed  to  be  optimal
       results.  Setting  to  1.0  will  avoid  the  use of the fast convergence method, which is
       generally not a good idea.

       -p prefix
       Adds 'prefix', which is usually a directory name, in front of the output files.


       The 24-bitmaps that atlc uses have 8 bits assigned to represent the amount of red,  8  for
       blue and 8 for green. Hence there are 256 levels of red, green and blue, making a total of
       256*256*256=16777216 colours.  Every one of the possible 16777216 colours can  be  defined
       precisely by the stating the exact amount of red, green and blue, as in:

       red         = 255,000,000 or 0xff0000
       green       = 000,255,000 or 0x00ff00
       blue        = 000,000,255 or 0x0000ff
       black       = 000,000,000 or 0x000000
       white       = 255,255,255 or 0xffffff
       Brown       = 255,000,255 or 0xff00ff
       gray        = 142,142,142 or 0x8e8e8e

       Some  colours, such as pink, turquiose, sandy, brown, gray etc may mean slightly different
       things to different people. This is not so with atlc, as the program expects  the  colours
       below to be exactly defined as given. Whether you feel the colour is sandy or yellow is up
       to you, but if you use it in your bitmap, then it either needs to be a colour reconised by
       atlc, or you must define it with a command line option (see OPTIONS).
       red    = 255,000,000 or 0xFF0000 is the live conductor.
       green  = 000,255,000 or 0x00FF00 is the grounded conductor.
       blue   = 000,000,255 or 0x0000FF is the negative conductor

       All bitmaps must have the live (red) and grounded (green) conductor. The blue conductor is
       used to indicate a negative conductor, is needed when  the  program  is  used  to  analyse
       directional couplers.

       The following dielectrics are reconised by atlc:

       white     255,255,255 or 0xFFFFFF as Er=1.0    (vacuum)
       pink      255,202,202 or 0xFFCACA as Er=1.0006 (air)
       L. blue   130,052,255 or 0x8235EF as Er=2.1    (PTFE)
       Mid gray  142,242,142 or 0x8E8E8E as Er=2.2    (duroid 5880)
       mauve     255.000,255 or 0xFF00FF as Er=2.33  (polyethylene)
       yellow    255,255,000 or 0xFFFF00 as Er=2.5    (polystyrene)
       sandy     239,203,027 or 0xEFCC1A as Er=3.3    (PVC)
       brown     188,127,096 or 0xBC7F60 as Er=3.335  (epoxy resin)
       L. yellow 223,247,136 or 0xDFF788 as Er=3.7    (FR4 PCB)
       Turquoise 026,239,179 or 0x1AEFB3 as Er=4.8    (glass PCB)
       Dark gray 142,142,142 or 0x696969 as Er=6.15   (duroid 6006)
       L. gray   240,240,240 or 0xDCDCDC as Er=10.2  (duroid 6010)
       D. orange 213,160,067 or 0xD5A04D as Er=100.0 (mainly for test purposes)


       Here  are  a  few  examples of the use of atlc. Again, see the html documentation in atlc-
       X.Y.Zocsl-docs,     the     documentation     on     your     system     (normally      at
       /usr/local/share/atlc/docs/html-docs/index.html ) or online at
       for examples.

       ex_1 % atlc coax2.bmp
       This is a simple example (ex_1), in which the geometry of a transmission line  is  defined
       in coax2.bmp. In this example, only the predefined dielectrics (Er =1.0, 1.0006, 2.1, 2.2,
       2.33, 2.5, 3.3, 3.335, 3.7, 4.8, 6.15 or 10.2) could have been used in the  bitmap,  which
       would  have  been done with one of 13 different colours. white (0xFFFFFF) for Er=1.0, pink
       (0xFFCACA) for 1.0006 etc.  No other colour (dielectric) could have been  used,  since  it
       was not specified with the -d option.

       ex_2 % atlc -d f9e77d=2.43 somefile.bmp
       In  ex_2,  a  dielectric with Er=2.43 was wanted. A colour with the RGB values of 0xF9E7&d
       was used. The -d option tells atlc what Er this colour refers to.

       ex_3 % atlc -v coax2.bmp
       In ex_3, atlc has been instructed to print the results  of  intermediate  calculations  to
       stdout.   Normally,  only the final result is printed. Using -vv even more information may
       be produced, but this is really of only use to the developer of the project.


          Original bitmap file. Must be 24-bit colour uncompressed.
          X-component of E-field as a bitmap. Red=+dV/dx, blue =-dV/dx
          y-component of E-field as a bitmap. Red=+y, blue =-y
          E-field, as E=sqrt(Ex^2+Ey^2).
          Voltage as a bitmap, red= positive, blue =negative.
          Bitmap showing the permittivity as a grayscale. Lighter is a higher

       In addition to the bitmaps, the data is also saved in binary files.

       All the saved binary files (.bin's) are saved as a double precision number for each of the
       pixels. The first double is the top left, the last the bottom right. If the original image
       has width W and height H, the saved binary files will be W-1 by H-1.

       All the saved bitmap files are 24-bit uncompressed, just like the input files.


       atlc(1)           create_bmp_for_circ_in_circ(1)            create_bmp_for_circ_in_rect(1)
       create_bmp_for_microstrip_coupler(1)                    create_bmp_for_rect_cen_in_rect(1)
       create_bmp_for_rect_cen_in_rect_coupler(1)                  create_bmp_for_rect_in_circ(1)
       create_bmp_for_rect_in_rect(1)                         create_bmp_for_stripline_coupler(1)
       create_bmp_for_symmetrical_stripline(1)                                  design_coupler(1)
       find_optimal_dimensions_for_microstrip_coupler(1) readbin(1)                - Home page       - Download area
       atlc-X.Y.Z/docs/html-docs/index.html       - HTML docs
       atlc-X.Y.Z/docs/qex-december-1996/atlc.pdf - theory paper
       atlc-X.Y.Z/examples                        - examples