Provided by: cscope_15.9-1_amd64 bug


       cscope - interactively examine a C program


       cscope    [-bCcdehkLlqRTUuVvX]    [-Fsymfile]    [-freffile]    [-Iincdir]    [-inamefile]
       [-0123456789pattern] [-pn] [-sdir] [files]


       cscope is an interactive, screen-oriented tool that allows the user to  browse  through  C
       source files for specified elements of code.

       By default, cscope examines the C (.c and .h), lex (.l), and yacc (.y) source files in the
       current directory.  cscope may also be invoked for source files named on the command line.
       In  either  case, cscope searches the standard directories for #include files that it does
       not find  in  the  current  directory.   cscope  uses  a  symbol  cross-reference,  called
       cscope.out  by  default,  to  locate  functions,  function  calls,  macros, variables, and
       preprocessor symbols in the files.

       cscope builds the symbol cross-reference the first time it is used on the source files for
       the program being browsed. On a subsequent invocation, cscope rebuilds the cross-reference
       only if a source file has changed or the list of  source  files  is  different.  When  the
       cross-reference  is  rebuilt,  the  data  for  the unchanged files are copied from the old
       cross-reference, which makes rebuilding faster than the initial build.


       Some command line arguments can only occur as  the  only  argument  in  the  execution  of
       cscope.  They cause the program to just print out some output and exit immediately:

       -h     View the long usage help display.

       -V     Print on the first line of screen the version number of cscope.

       --help Same as -h

              Same as -V

       The following options can appear in any combination:

       -b     Build the cross-reference only.

       -C     Ignore letter case when searching.

       -c     Use only ASCII characters in the cross-reference file, that is, do not compress the

       -d     Do not update the cross-reference.

       -e     Suppress the <Ctrl>-e command prompt between files.

              Read symbol reference lines from symfile.  (A symbol reference file is created by >
              and  >>,  and  can  also  be  read  using  the < command, described under ``Issuing
              Subsequent Requests'', below.)

              Use reffile as the cross-reference file name instead of the default "cscope.out".

              Look in incdir (before looking in $INCDIR, the standard  place  for  header  files,
              normally  /usr/include)  for any #include files whose names do not begin with ``/''
              and that are not specified on the command line or in namefile below. (The  #include
              files  may  be  specified with either double quotes or angle brackets.)  The incdir
              directory is searched in addition to  the  current  directory  (which  is  searched
              first)  and the standard list (which is searched last). If more than one occurrence
              of -I appears, the directories are searched in the order they appear on the command

              Browse  through  all  source  files  whose names are listed in namefile (file names
              separated by spaces, tabs, or new-lines) instead of the  default  name  list  file,
              which  is called cscope.files. If this option is specified, cscope ignores any file
              names appearing on the command line. The argument namefile can be set to  ``-''  to
              accept  a  list  of  files from the standard input.  Filenames in the namefile that
              contain whitespace have to be enclosed in  "double  quotes".   Inside  such  quoted
              filenames,  any  double-quote  and  backslash  characters  have  to  be  escaped by

       -k     ``Kernel  Mode'',  turns  off  the  use  of  the  default  include   dir   (usually
              /usr/include)  when  building  the database, since kernel source trees generally do
              not use it.

       -L     Do a single search with line-oriented  output  when  used  with  the  -num  pattern

       -l     Line-oriented interface (see ``Line-Oriented Interface'' below).

              Go to input field num (counting from 0) and find pattern.

       -Ppath Prepend  path  to relative file names in a pre-built cross-reference file so you do
              not have to change to the directory where the cross-reference file was built.  This
              option is only valid with the -d option.

       -pn    Display  the  last  n file path components instead of the default (1). Use 0 not to
              display the file name at all.

       -q     Enable fast symbol lookup via an inverted  index.  This  option  causes  cscope  to
              create  2  more  files  (default  names ``'' and ``cscope.po.out'') in
              addition to the normal database. This allows a faster symbol search algorithm  that
              provides noticeably faster lookup performance for large projects.

       -R     Recurse subdirectories during search for source files.

       -sdir  Look in dir for additional source files. This option is ignored if source files are
              given on the command line.

       -T     Use only the first  eight  characters  to  match  against  C  symbols.   A  regular
              expression containing special characters other than a period (.) will not match any
              symbol if its minimum length is greater than eight characters.

       -U     Check file time stamps. This option will update the time stamp on the database even
              if no files have changed.

       -u     Unconditionally  build  the  cross-reference  file  (assume  that  all  files  have

       -v     Be more verbose in line-oriented mode.  Output  progress  updates  during  database
              building and searches.

       -X     Remove the cscope reference file and inverted indexes when exiting

       files  A list of file names to operate on.

       The -I, -c, -k, -p, -q, and -T options can also be in the cscope.files file.

   Requesting the initial search
       After the cross-reference is ready, cscope will display this menu:

       Find this C symbol:
       Find this function definition:
       Find functions called by this function:
       Find functions calling this function:
       Find this text string:
       Change this text string:
       Find this egrep pattern:
       Find this file:
       Find files #including this file:
       Find assignments to this symbol:

       Press the <Up> or <Down> keys repeatedly to move to the desired input field, type the text
       to search for, and then press the <Return> key.

   Issuing subsequent requests
       If the search is successful, any of these single-character commands can be used:

              Edit the file referenced by the given line number.

              Display next set of matching lines.

       <Tab>  Alternate between the menu and the list of matching lines

       <Up>   Move to the previous menu item (if the cursor is  in  the  menu)  or  move  to  the
              previous matching line (if the cursor is in the matching line list.)

       <Down> Move  to  the  next  menu  item  (if the cursor is in the menu) or move to the next
              matching line (if the cursor is in the matching line list.)

       +      Display next set of matching lines.

       -      Display previous set of matching lines.

       ^e     Edit displayed files in order.

       >      Write the displayed list of lines to a file.

       >>     Append the displayed list of lines to a file.

       <      Read lines from a file that is in symbol reference format (created  by  >  or  >>),
              just like the -F option.

       ^      Filter all lines through a shell command and display the resulting lines, replacing
              the lines that were already there.

       |      Pipe all lines to a shell command and display them without changing them.

       At any time these single-character commands can also be used:

              Move to next input field.

       ^n     Move to next input field.

       ^p     Move to previous input field.

       ^y     Search with the last text typed.

       ^b     Move to previous input field and search pattern.

       ^f     Move to next input field and search pattern.

       ^c     Toggle ignore/use letter case when searching. (When ignoring  letter  case,  search
              for ``FILE'' will match ``File'' and ``file''.)

       ^r     Rebuild the cross-reference.

       !      Start an interactive shell (type ^d to return to cscope).

       ^l     Redraw the screen.

       ?      Give help information about cscope commands.

       ^d     Exit cscope.

       NOTE:  If  the  first  character  of  the text to be searched for matches one of the above
       commands, escape it by typing a (backslash) first.

       Substituting new text for old text

       After the text to be changed has been typed, cscope will prompt for the new text, and then
       it  will  display  the  lines containing the old text. Select the lines to be changed with
       these single-character commands:

              Mark or unmark the line to be changed.

       *      Mark or unmark all displayed lines to be changed.

              Display next set of lines.

       +      Display next set of lines.

       -      Display previous set of lines.

       a      Mark or unmark all lines to be changed.

       ^d     Change the marked lines and exit.

       <Esc>  Exit without changing the marked lines.

       !      Start an interactive shell (type ^d to return to cscope).

       ^l     Redraw the screen.

       ?      Give help information about cscope commands.

       Special keys
              If your terminal has arrow keys that work in vi, you can use them  to  move  around
              the  input  fields.  The up-arrow key is useful to move to the previous input field
              instead of using the <Tab> key repeatedly. If you have <CLEAR>, <NEXT>,  or  <PREV>
              keys they will act as the ^l, +, and - commands, respectively.

   Line-Oriented interface
       The  -l  option lets you use cscope where a screen-oriented interface would not be useful,
       for example, from another screen-oriented program.

       cscope will prompt with >> when it is ready for an input  line  starting  with  the  field
       number  (counting  from  0)  immediately  followed  by  the  search  pattern, for example,
       ``lmain'' finds the definition of the main function.

       If you just want a single search, instead of the -l option use the  -L  and  -num  pattern
       options, and you won't get the >> prompt.

       For -l, cscope outputs the number of reference lines cscope: 2 lines

       For  each  reference  found,  cscope  outputs a line consisting of the file name, function
       name, line number, and line text, separated  by  spaces,  for  example,  main.c  main  161
       main(argc, argv)

       Note  that  the  editor  is  not  called to display a single reference, unlike the screen-
       oriented interface.

       You can use the c command to toggle ignore/use letter case when searching. (When  ignoring
       letter case, search for ``FILE'' will match ``File'' and ``file''.)

       You can use the r command to rebuild the database.

       cscope will quit when it detects end-of-file, or when the first character of an input line
       is ``^d'' or ``q''.


              Overrides the EDITOR and VIEWER variables. Use this if you wish to use a  different
              editor with cscope than that specified by your EDITOR/VIEWER variables.

              Format  of  the  line  number flag for your editor. By default, cscope invokes your
              editor via the equivalent of ``editor +N file'', where ``N''  is  the  line  number
              that  the  editor should jump to. This format is used by both emacs and vi. If your
              editor needs something different, specify it in this variable,  with  ``%s''  as  a
              placeholder  for  the  line  number.   Ex:  if  your  editor needs to be invoked as
              ``editor -#103 file'' to go to line 103, set this variable to ``-#%s''.

              Set this variable to ``yes'' if your editor needs  to  be  invoked  with  the  line
              number  option  after  the  filename  to  be  edited.  To continue the example from
              CSCOPE_LINEFLAG, above: if your editor needs to see ``editor file  -#number'',  set
              this  environment  variable. Users of most standard editors (vi, emacs) do not need
              to set this variable.

       EDITOR Preferred editor, which defaults to vi.

       HOME   Home directory, which is automatically set at login.

              Colon-separated list of directories to search for #include files.

       SHELL  Preferred shell, which defaults to sh.

              Colon-separated list of directories to search for additional source files.

       TERM   Terminal type, which must be a screen terminal.

              Terminal information directory full path name. If  your  terminal  is  not  in  the
              standard  terminfo  directory,  see  curses  and  terminfo for how to make your own
              terminal description.

       TMPDIR Temporary file directory, which defaults to /var/tmp.

       VIEWER Preferred file display program (such as less), which overrides EDITOR (see above).

       VPATH  A colon-separated list of  directories,  each  of  which  has  the  same  directory
              structure  below  it.  If  VPATH  is  set,  cscope searches for source files in the
              directories specified; if it is not  set,  cscope  searches  only  in  the  current


              Default  files  containing  -I, -p, -q, and -T options and the list of source files
              (overridden by the -i option).

              Symbol cross-reference file (overridden by the -f option), which is put in the home
              directory if it cannot be created in the current directory.
              Default  files  containing  the  inverted index used for quick symbol searching (-q
              option). If you use the -f option to rename the cross-reference file (so  it's  not
              cscope.out), the names for these inverted index files will be created by adding
               .in  and .po to the name you supply with -f. For example, if you indicated -f xyz,
              then these files would be named and xyz.po.

       INCDIR Standard directory for #include files (usually /usr/include).


       cscope recognizes function definitions of the form:
       fname blank ( args ) white arg_decs white {

       where: fname is the function name

       blank  is zero or more spaces, tabs, vtabs, form feeds or carriage returns, not  including

       args   is any string that does not contain a ``"'' or a newline

       white  is zero or more spaces, tabs, vtabs, form feeds, carriage returns or newlines

              are  zero  or  more  argument declarations (arg_decs may include comments and white

       It is not necessary for a function declaration to start at the beginning of  a  line.  The
       return  type  may  precede the function name; cscope will still recognize the declaration.
       Function definitions that deviate from this form will not be recognized by cscope.

       The ``Function'' column of the search output for the menu option Find functions called  by
       this  function:  input field will only display the first function called in the line, that
       is, for this function

                return (f() + g());

       the display would be

          Functions called by this function: e
          File Function Line
          a.c f 3 return(f() + g());

       Occasionally, a function definition or call may not be recognized because of braces inside
       #if  statements.  Similarly,  the  use  of  a  variable may be incorrectly recognized as a

       A typedef name preceding a preprocessor statement will  be  incorrectly  recognized  as  a
       global definition, for example,

        LDFILE  *
        #if AR16WR

       Preprocessor  statements  can  also  prevent  the  recognition of a global definition, for

        char flag
        #ifdef ALLOCATE_STORAGE
             = -1

       A function declaration inside a function is incorrectly recognized as a function call, for

                void g();

       is incorrectly recognized as a call to g.

       cscope recognizes C++ classes by looking for the class keyword, but doesn't recognize that
       a struct is also a class, so it doesn't recognize inline member function definitions in  a
       structure.  It  also  doesn't  expect  the  class keyword in a typedef , so it incorrectly
       recognizes X as a definition in

        typedef class X  *  Y;

       It also doesn't recognize operator function definitions

        Bool Feature::operator==(const Feature & other)

       Nor does it recognize function definitions with a function pointer argument

        ParseTable::Recognize(int startState, char *pattern,
          int finishState, void (*FinalAction)(char *))