Provided by: sudo-ldap_1.9.11p3-1ubuntu1_amd64 bug


     cvtsudoers — convert between sudoers file formats


     cvtsudoers [-ehMpV] [-b dn] [-c conf_file] [-d deftypes] [-f output_format]
                [-i input_format] [-I increment] [-l log_file] [-m filter] [-o output_file]
                [-O start_point] [-P padding] [-s sections] [input_file ...]


     The cvtsudoers utility accepts one or more security policies in either sudoers or LDIF
     format as input, and generates a single policy of the specified format as output.  The
     default input format is sudoers. The default output format is LDIF.  It is only possible to
     convert a policy file that is syntactically correct.

     If no input_file is specified, or if it is ‘-’, the policy is read from the standard input.
     Input files may be optionally prefixed with a host name followed by a colon (‘:’) to make
     the policy rules specific to a host when merging multiple files.  By default, the result is
     written to the standard output.

     The options are as follows:

     -b dn, --base=dn
                 The base DN (distinguished name) that will be used when performing LDAP queries.
                 Typically this is of the form ou=SUDOers,dc=my-domain,dc=com for the domain
         If this option is not specified, the value of the SUDOERS_BASE
                 environment variable will be used instead.  Only necessary when converting to
                 LDIF format.

     -c conf_file, --config=conf_file
                 Specify the path to the configuration file.  Defaults to /etc/cvtsudoers.conf.

     -d deftypes, --defaults=deftypes
                 Only convert Defaults entries of the specified types.  One or more Defaults
                 types may be specified, separated by a comma (‘,’).  The supported types are:

                 all       All Defaults entries.

                 global    Global Defaults entries that are applied regardless of user, runas,
                           host, or command.

                 user      Per-user Defaults entries.

                 runas     Per-runas user Defaults entries.

                 host      Per-host Defaults entries.

                 command   Per-command Defaults entries.

                 See the Defaults section in sudoers(5) for more information.

                 If the -d option is not specified, all Defaults entries will be converted.

     -e, --expand-aliases
                 Expand aliases in input_file.  Aliases are preserved by default when the output
                 format is JSON or sudoers.

     -f output_format, --output-format=output_format
                 Specify the output format (case-insensitive).  The following formats are

                 CSV       CSV (comma-separated value) files are often used by spreadsheets and
                           report generators.  For CSV output, cvtsudoers double quotes strings
                           that contain commas.  For each literal double quote character present
                           inside the string, two double quotes are output.  This method of
                           quoting commas is compatible with most spreadsheet programs.

                 JSON      JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) files are usually easier for third-
                           party applications to consume than the traditional sudoers format.
                           The various values have explicit types which removes much of the
                           ambiguity of the sudoers format.

                 LDIF      LDIF (LDAP Data Interchange Format) files can be imported into an LDAP
                           server for use with sudoers.ldap(5).

                           Conversion to LDIF has the following limitations:

                             Command, host, runas, and user-specific Defaults lines cannot be
                              translated as they don't have an equivalent in the sudoers LDAP

                             Command, host, runas, and user aliases are not supported by the
                              sudoers LDAP schema so they are expanded during the conversion.

                 sudoers   Traditional sudoers format.  A new sudoers file will be reconstructed
                           from the parsed input file.  Comments are not preserved and data from
                           any include files will be output inline.

                 When the -M option is also specified, perform group queries using file instead
                 of the system group database.

     -h, --help  Display a short help message to the standard output and exit.

     -i input_format, --input-format=input_format
                 Specify the input format.  The following formats are supported:

                 LDIF      LDIF (LDAP Data Interchange Format) files can be exported from an LDAP
                           server to convert security policies used by sudoers.ldap(5).  If a
                           base DN (distinguished name) is specified, only sudoRole objects that
                           match the base DN will be processed.  Not all sudoOptions specified in
                           a sudoRole can be translated from LDIF to sudoers format.

                 sudoers   Traditional sudoers format.  This is the default input format.

     -I increment, --increment=increment
                 When generating LDIF output, increment each sudoOrder attribute by the specified
                 number.  Defaults to an increment of 1.

     -l log_file, --logfile=log_file
                 Log conversion warnings to log_file instead of to the standard error.  This is
                 particularly useful when merging multiple sudoers files, which can generate a
                 large number of warnings.

     -m filter, --match=filter
                 Only output rules that match the specified filter.  A filter expression is made
                 up of one or more key = value pairs, separated by a comma (‘,’).  The key may be
                 “cmnd” (or “cmd”), “host”, “group”, or “user”.  For example, user = operator or
                 host = www.  An upper-case Cmnd_Alias, Host_alias, or Host_Alias may be
                 specified as the “cmnd”, “host”, or “user”.

                 A matching sudoers rule may also include users, groups, and hosts that are not
                 part of the filter.  This can happen when a rule includes multiple users,
                 groups, or hosts.  To prune out any non-matching user, group, or host from the
                 rules, the -p option may be used.

                 By default, the password and group databases are not consulted when matching
                 against the filter so the users and groups do not need to be present on the
                 local system (see the -M option).  Only aliases that are referenced by the
                 filtered policy rules will be displayed.

     -M, --match-local
                 When the -m option is also specified, use password and group database
                 information when matching users and groups in the filter.  Only users and groups
                 in the filter that exist on the local system will match, and a user's groups
                 will automatically be added to the filter.  If the -M is not specified, users
                 and groups in the filter do not need to exist on the local system, but all
                 groups used for matching must be explicitly listed in the filter.

     -o output_file, --output=output_file
                 Write the converted output to output_file.  If no output_file is specified, or
                 if it is ‘-’, the converted sudoers policy will be written to the standard

     -O start_point, --order-start=start_point
                 When generating LDIF output, use the number specified by start_point in the
                 sudoOrder attribute of the first sudoRole object.  Subsequent sudoRole object
                 use a sudoOrder value generated by adding an increment, see the -I option for
                 details.  Defaults to a starting point of 1.  A starting point of 0 will disable
                 the generation of sudoOrder attributes in the resulting LDIF file.

                 When the -M option is also specified, perform passwd queries using file instead
                 of the system passwd database.

     -p, --prune-matches
                 When the -m option is also specified, cvtsudoers will prune out non-matching
                 users, groups, and hosts from matching entries.

     -P padding, --padding=padding
                 When generating LDIF output, construct the initial sudoOrder value by
                 concatenating order_start and increment, padding the increment with zeros until
                 it consists of padding digits.  For example, if order_start is 1027, padding is
                 3, and increment is 1, the value of sudoOrder for the first entry will be
                 1027000, followed by 1027001, 1027002, etc.  If the number of sudoRole entries
                 is larger than the padding would allow, cvtsudoers will exit with an error.  By
                 default, no padding is performed.

     -s sections, --suppress=sections
                 Suppress the output of specific sections of the security policy.  One or more
                 section names may be specified, separated by a comma (‘,’).  The supported
                 section name are: defaults, aliases and privileges (which may be shortened to

     -V, --version
                 Print the cvtsudoers and sudoers grammar versions and exit.

   Merging multiple files
     When multiple input files are specified, cvtsudoers will attempt to merge them into a single
     policy file.  It is assumed that user and group names are consistent among the policy files
     to be merged.  For example, user “bob” on one host is the same as user “bob” on another

     When merging policy files, it is possible to prefix the input file name with a host name,
     separated by a colon (‘:’).  When the files are merged, the host name will be used to
     restrict the policy rules to that specific host where possible.

     The merging process is performed as follows:

       Each input file is parsed into internal sudoers data structures.

       Aliases are merged and renamed as necessary to avoid conflicts.  In the event of a
        conflict, the first alias found is left as-is and subsequent aliases of the same name are
        renamed with a numeric suffix separated with a underscore (‘_’).  For example, if there
        are two different aliases named SERVERS, the first will be left as-is and the second will
        be renamed SERVERS_1.  References to the renamed alias are also updated in the policy
        file.  Duplicate aliases (those with identical contents) are pruned.

       Defaults settings are merged and duplicates are removed.  If there are conflicts in the
        Defaults settings, a warning is emitted for each conflict.  If a host name is specified
        with the input file, cvtsudoers will change the global Defaults settings in that file to
        be host-specific.  A warning is emitted for command, user, or runas-specific Defaults
        settings which cannot be made host-specific.

       Per-user rules are merged and duplicates are removed.  If a host name is specified with
        the input file, cvtsudoers will change rules that specify a host name of ALL to the host
        name associated with the policy file being merged.  The merging of rules is currently
        fairly simplistic but will be improved in a later release.

     It is possible to merge policy files with differing formats.

   The cvtsudoers.conf file
     Options in the form “keyword = value” may also be specified in a configuration file,
     /etc/cvtsudoers.conf by default.  The following keywords are recognized:

     defaults = deftypes
           See the description of the -d command line option.

     expand_aliases = yes | no
           See the description of the -e command line option.

     group_file = file
           See the description of the --group-file command line option.

     input_format = ldif | sudoers
           See the description of the -i command line option.

     match = filter
           See the description of the -m command line option.

     match_local = yes | no
           See the description of the -M command line option.

     order_increment = increment
           See the description of the -I command line option.

     order_start = start_point
           See the description of the -O command line option.

     output_format = csv | json | ldif | sudoers
           See the description of the -f command line option.

     padding = padding
           See the description of the -P command line option.

     passwd_file = file
           See the description of the --passwd-file command line option.

     prune_matches = yes | no
           See the description of the -p command line option.

     sudoers_base = dn
           See the description of the -b command line option.

     suppress = sections
           See the description of the -s command line option.

     Options on the command line will override values from the configuration file.


     /etc/cvtsudoers.conf      default configuration for cvtsudoers


     Convert /etc/sudoers to LDIF (LDAP Data Interchange Format) where the ldap.conf file uses a
     sudoers_base of my-domain,dc=com, storing the result in sudoers.ldif:

         $ cvtsudoers -b ou=SUDOers,dc=my-domain,dc=com -o sudoers.ldif \

     Convert /etc/sudoers to JSON format, storing the result in sudoers.json:

         $ cvtsudoers -f json -o sudoers.json /etc/sudoers

     Parse /etc/sudoers and display only rules that match user ambrose on host hastur:

         $ cvtsudoers -f sudoers -m user=ambrose,host=hastur /etc/sudoers

     Same as above, but expand aliases and prune out any non-matching users and hosts from the
     expanded entries.

         $ cvtsudoers -ep -f sudoers -m user=ambrose,host=hastur /etc/sudoers

     Convert sudoers.ldif from LDIF to traditional sudoers format:

         $ cvtsudoers -i ldif -f sudoers -o sudoers.ldif

     Merge a global sudoers file with two host-specific policy files from the hosts “xyzzy” and

         $ cvtsudoers -f sudoers -o sudoers.merged sudoers \
             xyzzy:sudoers.xyzzy plugh:sudoers.plugh


     sudoers(5), sudoers.ldap(5), sudo(8)


     Many people have worked on sudo over the years; this version consists of code written
     primarily by:

           Todd C. Miller

     See the file in the sudo distribution
     ( for an exhaustive list of people who have
     contributed to sudo.


     If you believe you have found a bug in cvtsudoers, you can submit a bug report at


     Limited free support is available via the sudo-users mailing list, see to subscribe or search the archives.


     cvtsudoers is provided “AS IS” and any express or implied warranties, including, but not
     limited to, the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose
     are disclaimed.  See the file distributed with sudo or for complete details.