Provided by: datapacker_1.0.3build1_amd64 bug


       datapacker - Tool to pack files into the minimum number        of bins


       datapacker [ -0 ] [ -a ACTION ] [ -b FORMAT ] [ -d ] [ -p ] [ -S SIZE ] -s SIZE FILE ...

       datapacker -h | --help


       datapacker is a tool to group files by size.  It is designed to group files such that they
       fill fixed-size containers (called "bins") using the minimum number of  containers.   This
       is  useful,  for instance, if you want to archive a number of files to CD or DVD, and want
       to organize them such that you use the minimum possible number of CDs or DVDs.

       In many cases, datapacker  executes  almost  instantaneously.   Of  particular  note,  the
       hardlink action (see OPTIONS below) can be used to effectively copy data into bins without
       having to actually copy the data at all.

       datapacker is a tool in the traditional Unix style; it can be used in pipes and call other


       Here  are the command-line options you may set for datapacker.  Please note that -s and at
       least one file (see FILE SPECIFICATION below) is mandatory.


       --null When reading a list of files from standard input (see  FILE  SPECIFICATION  below),
              expect  the  input  to be separated by NULL (ASCII 0) characters instead of one per
              line.  Especially useful with find -print0.

       -a ACTION

              Defines what action to take with the matches.  Please note that, with  any  action,
              the output will be sorted by bin, with bin 1 first.  Possible actions include:

              print  Print  one  human-readable line per file.  Each line contains the bin number
                     (in the format given by -b), an ASCII tab character, then the filename.

                     Print one semi-human-readable line per bin.   Each  line  contains  the  bin
                     number,  then  a  list  of filenames to place in that bin, with an ASCII tab
                     character after the bin number and between each filename.

              print0 For each file, output the bin number (according to the format given by  -b),
                     an  ASCII  NULL  character,  the filename, and another ASCII NULL character.
                     Ideal for use with xargs -0 -L 2.

                     For each file, execute the specified COMMAND via  the  shell.   The  program
                     COMMAND will be passed information on its command line as indicated below.

                     It  is  an  error if the generated command line for a given bin is too large
                     for the system.

                     A nonzero exit code from any COMMAND will cause datapacker to terminate.  If
                     COMMAND contains quotes, don't forget to quote the entire command, as in:

                     datapacker '--action=exec:echo "Bin: $1"; shift; ls "$@"'

                     The arguments to the given command will be:

                     • argv[0]  ($0  in  shell)  will be the name of the shell used to invoke the
                       command -- $SHELL or /bin/sh.

                     • argv[1] ($1 in shell) will be the bin number, formatted according to -b.

                     • argv[2] and on ($2 and on in shell) will be the files to place in that bin

                     For each file, create a hardlink at bin/filename pointing  to  the  original
                     input  filename.   Creates  the  directory  bin  as  necessary.  Alternative
                     locations and formats for bin can be specified with -b.  All bin directories
                     and all input must reside on the same filesystem.

                     After  you are done processing the results of the bin, you may safely delete
                     the bins without deleting original data.  Alternatively, you could leave the
                     bins and delete the original data.  Either approach will be workable.

                     It is an error to attempt to make a hard link across filesystems, or to have
                     two input files with the same filename in different paths.  datapacker  will
                     exit on either of these situations.

                     See also --deep-links.

                     Like  hardlink, but create symlinks instead.  Symlinks can span filesystems,
                     but you will lose information if you remove  the  original  (pre-bin)  data.
                     Like  hardlink,  it  is an error to have a single filename occur in multiple
                     input directories with this option.

                     See also --deep-links.

       -b FORMAT

              Defines the output format for the bin name.  This format is given as a %d input  to
              a  function  that  interprets  it  as  printf(3) would.  This can be useful both to
              define the name and the location  of  your  bins.   When  running  datapacker  with
              certain  arguments, the bin format can be taken to be a directory in which files in
              that bin are linked.  The default is %03d,  which  outputs  integers  with  leading
              zeros to make all bin names at least three characters wide.

              Other  useful  variants  could  include  destdir/%d to put the string "destdir/" in
              front of the bin number, which is rendered without leading zeros.


              Enable debug mode.  This is here for future expansion and does not  currently  have
              any effect.


              When  used  with  the  symlink or hardlink action, instead of making all links in a
              single flat directory under the bin, mimic the source directory structure under the
              bin.   Makes  most  sense when used with -p, but could also be useful without it if
              there are files with the same name in different source directories.

       --help Display brief usage information and exit.


              Normally, datapacker uses an efficient algorithm that tries to rearrange files such
              that  the  number of bins required is minimized.  Sometimes you may instead wish to
              preserve the ordering of files at the expense of potentially using more  bins.   In
              these cases, you would want to use this option.

              As  an  example  of  such  a  situation: perhaps you have taken one photo a day for
              several years.  You would like to archive these photos to CD, but you want them  to
              be  stored  in  chronological  order.  You have named the files such that the names
              indicate order, so you can pass the file list to datapacker using  -p  to  preserve
              the  ordering  in  your bins.  Thus, bin 1 will contain the oldest files, bin 2 the
              second-oldest, and so on.  If -p wasn't used, you might  use  fewer  CDs,  but  the
              photos  would  be  spread  out across all CDs without preserving your chronological

       -s SIZE

              Gives the size of each bin in bytes.  Suffixes such as "k", "m", "g", etc.  may  be
              used  to  indicate  kilobytes, megabytes, gigabytes, and so forth.  Numbers such as
              1.5g are valid, and if needed, will be rounded  to  the  nearest  possible  integer

              The size of the first bin may be overridden with -S.

              Here  are the sizes of some commonly-used bins.  For each item, I have provided you
              with both the underlying recording capacity of the disc and a suggested  value  for
              -s.  The suggested value for -s is lower than the underlying capacity because there
              is overhead imposed by the filesystem stored on the disc.  You  will  perhaps  find
              that  the  suggested  value for -s is lower than optimal for discs that contain few
              large files, and higher than desired for discs that contain vast amounts  of  small

              • CD-ROM, 74-minute (standard): 650m / 600m

              • CD-ROM, 80-minute: 703m / 650m

              • CD-ROM, 90-minute: 790m / 740m

              • CD-ROM, 99-minute: 870m / 820m

              • DVD+-R: 4.377g / 4g

              • DVD+R, dual layer: 8.5g / 8g


              The  size  of  the  first  bin.  If not given, defaults to the value given with -s.
              This may be useful if you will be using  a  mechanism  outside  datapacker  to  add
              additional  information  to  the first bin: perhaps an index of which bin has which
              file, the information necessary to make a CD bootable, etc.  You may use  the  same
              suffixes as with -s with this option.

       --sort Sorts the list of files to process before acting upon them.  When combined with -p,
              causes the output to be sorted.  This option has  no  effect  save  increasing  CPU
              usage when not combined with -p.

       After  the  options,  you must supply one or more files to consider for packing into bins.
       Alternatively, instead of listing files on the command line, you may list a single  hyphen
       (-), which tells datapacker to read the list of files from standard input (stdin).

       datapacker  never recurses into subdirectories.  If you want a recursive search -- finding
       all files in a given directory and all its subdirectories -- see the second example in the
       EXAMPLES  section  below.   datapacker  is  designed  to  integrate  with  find(1) in this
       situation to let you take advantage of find's built-in powerful  recursion  and  filtering

       When  reading files from standard input, it is assumed that the list contains one distinct
       filename per line.  Seasoned POSIX veterans will recognize  the  inherent  limitations  in
       this  format.   For  that  reason,  when  given  -0 in conjunction with the single file -,
       datapacker will instead expect, on standard input, a list of files, each one terminated by
       an  ASCII  NULL  character.   Such  a  list can be easily generated with find(1) using its
       -print0 option.


       • Put all JPEG images in ~/Pictures into bins (using  hardlinks)  under  the  pre-existing
         directory ~/bins, no more than 600MB per bin:

         datapacker -b ~/bins/%03d -s 600m -a hardlink ~/Pictures/*.jpg

       • Put  all  files  in ~/Pictures or any subdirectory thereof into 600MB bins under ~/bins,
         using hardlinking.  This is a simple example to follow if you simply  want  a  recursive
         search of all files.

         find ~/Pictures -type f -print0 | \
           datapacker -0 -b ~/bins/%03d -s 600m -a hardlink -

       • Find  all  JPEG  images  in  ~/Pictures  or any subdirectory thereof, put them into bins
         (using hardlinks) under the pre-existing directory ~/bins, no more than 600MB per bin:

         find ~/Pictures -name "*.jpg" -print0 | \
           datapacker -0 -b ~/bins/%03d -s 600m -a hardlink -

       • Find all JPEG images as above, put them  in  4GB  bins,  but  instead  of  putting  them
         anywhere, calculate the size of each bin and display it.

         find ~/Pictures -name "*.jpg" -print0 | \
           datapacker -0 -b ~/bins/%03d -s 4g \
           '--action=exec:echo -n "$1: "; shift; du -ch "$@" | grep total' \

         This will display output like so:

         /home/jgoerzen/bins/001: 4.0G   total
         /home/jgoerzen/bins/002: 4.0G   total
         /home/jgoerzen/bins/003: 4.0G   total
         /home/jgoerzen/bins/004: 992M   total

         Note:  the  grep pattern in this example is simple, but will cause unexpected results if
         any matching file contains the word "total".

       • Find all JPEG images as above, and generate 600MB ISO images of them  in  ~/bins.   This
         will generate the ISO images directly without ever hardlinking files into ~/bins.

         find ~/Pictures -name "*.jpg" -print0 | \
           datapacker -0 -b ~/bins/%03d.iso -s 4g \
           '--action=exec:BIN="$1"; shift; mkisofs -r -J -o "$BIN" "$@"' \

         You  could, if you so desired, pipe this result directly into a DVD-burning application.
         Or, you could use growisofs to burn a DVD+R in a single step.


       It is an error if any specified file exceeds the value given with -s or -S.

       It is also an error if any specified files disappear while datapacker is running.


       Reports of bugs should be reported online at the datapacker homepage.   Debian  users  are
       encouraged to instead use the Debian bug-tracking system.


       datapacker, and this manual, are Copyright (C) 2008 John Goerzen.

       All  code,  documentation,  and  build  scripts  are  under  the  following license unless
       otherwise noted:

       This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of
       the  GNU  General  Public  License  as  published  by the Free Software Foundation, either
       version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

       This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY  WARRANTY;
       without  even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
       See the GNU General Public License for more details.

       You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program.
       If not, see

       The  GNU  General  Public  License  is  available  in  the  file  COPYING  in  the  source
       distribution.  Debian GNU/Linux users may find this in /usr/share/common-licenses/GPL-3.

       If the GPL is unacceptable for your uses, please  e-mail  me;  alternative  terms  can  be
       negotiated for your project.


       datapacker,  its libraries, documentation, and all included files, except where noted, was
       written by John Goerzen <> and copyright is held  as  stated  in  the
       COPYRIGHT section.

       datapacker    may    be   downloaded,   and   information   found,   from   its   homepage


       mkisofs(1), genisoimage(1)