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       git-bundle - Move objects and refs by archive


       git bundle create [-q | --quiet | --progress | --all-progress] [--all-progress-implied]
                           [--version=<version>] <file> <git-rev-list-args>
       git bundle verify [-q | --quiet] <file>
       git bundle list-heads <file> [<refname>...]
       git bundle unbundle [--progress] <file> [<refname>...]


       Create, unpack, and manipulate "bundle" files. Bundles are used for the "offline" transfer
       of Git objects without an active "server" sitting on the other side of the network

       They can be used to create both incremental and full backups of a repository, and to relay
       the state of the references in one repository to another.

       Git commands that fetch or otherwise "read" via protocols such as ssh:// and https:// can
       also operate on bundle files. It is possible git-clone(1) a new repository from a bundle,
       to use git-fetch(1) to fetch from one, and to list the references contained within it with
       git-ls-remote(1). There’s no corresponding "write" support, i.e.a git push into a bundle
       is not supported.

       See the "EXAMPLES" section below for examples of how to use bundles.


       Bundles are .pack files (see git-pack-objects(1)) with a header indicating what references
       are contained within the bundle.

       Like the the packed archive format itself bundles can either be self-contained, or be
       created using exclusions. See the "OBJECT PREREQUISITES" section below.

       Bundles created using revision exclusions are "thin packs" created using the --thin option
       to git-pack-objects(1), and unbundled using the --fix-thin option to git-index-pack(1).

       There is no option to create a "thick pack" when using revision exclusions, and users
       should not be concerned about the difference. By using "thin packs", bundles created using
       exclusions are smaller in size. That they’re "thin" under the hood is merely noted here as
       a curiosity, and as a reference to other documentation.

       See the bundle-format documentation[1] for more details and the discussion of "thin pack"
       in the pack format documentation[2] for further details.


       create [options] <file> <git-rev-list-args>
           Used to create a bundle named file. This requires the <git-rev-list-args> arguments to
           define the bundle contents.  options contains the options specific to the git bundle
           create subcommand.

       verify <file>
           Used to check that a bundle file is valid and will apply cleanly to the current
           repository. This includes checks on the bundle format itself as well as checking that
           the prerequisite commits exist and are fully linked in the current repository. Then,
           git bundle prints a list of missing commits, if any. Finally, information about
           additional capabilities, such as "object filter", is printed. See "Capabilities" in
           link:technical/bundle-format.html for more information. The exit code is zero for
           success, but will be nonzero if the bundle file is invalid.

       list-heads <file>
           Lists the references defined in the bundle. If followed by a list of references, only
           references matching those given are printed out.

       unbundle <file>
           Passes the objects in the bundle to git index-pack for storage in the repository, then
           prints the names of all defined references. If a list of references is given, only
           references matching those in the list are printed. This command is really plumbing,
           intended to be called only by git fetch.

           A list of arguments, acceptable to git rev-parse and git rev-list (and containing a
           named ref, see SPECIFYING REFERENCES below), that specifies the specific objects and
           references to transport. For example, master~10..master causes the current master
           reference to be packaged along with all objects added since its 10th ancestor commit.
           There is no explicit limit to the number of references and objects that may be

           A list of references used to limit the references reported as available. This is
           principally of use to git fetch, which expects to receive only those references asked
           for and not necessarily everything in the pack (in this case, git bundle acts like git

           Progress status is reported on the standard error stream by default when it is
           attached to a terminal, unless -q is specified. This flag forces progress status even
           if the standard error stream is not directed to a terminal.

           When --stdout is specified then progress report is displayed during the object count
           and compression phases but inhibited during the write-out phase. The reason is that in
           some cases the output stream is directly linked to another command which may wish to
           display progress status of its own as it processes incoming pack data. This flag is
           like --progress except that it forces progress report for the write-out phase as well
           even if --stdout is used.

           This is used to imply --all-progress whenever progress display is activated. Unlike
           --all-progress this flag doesn’t actually force any progress display by itself.

           Specify the bundle version. Version 2 is the older format and can only be used with
           SHA-1 repositories; the newer version 3 contains capabilities that permit extensions.
           The default is the oldest supported format, based on the hash algorithm in use.

       -q, --quiet
           This flag makes the command not to report its progress on the standard error stream.


       Revisions must be accompanied by reference names to be packaged in a bundle.

       More than one reference may be packaged, and more than one set of prerequisite objects can
       be specified. The objects packaged are those not contained in the union of the

       The git bundle create command resolves the reference names for you using the same rules as
       git rev-parse --abbrev-ref=loose. Each prerequisite can be specified explicitly (e.g.
       ^master~10), or implicitly (e.g. master~10..master, --since=10.days.ago master).

       All of these simple cases are OK (assuming we have a "master" and "next" branch):

           $ git bundle create master.bundle master
           $ echo master | git bundle create master.bundle --stdin
           $ git bundle create master-and-next.bundle master next
           $ (echo master; echo next) | git bundle create master-and-next.bundle --stdin

       And so are these (and the same but omitted --stdin examples):

           $ git bundle create recent-master.bundle master~10..master
           $ git bundle create recent-updates.bundle master~10..master

       A revision name or a range whose right-hand-side cannot be resolved to a reference is not

           $ git bundle create HEAD.bundle $(git rev-parse HEAD)
           fatal: Refusing to create empty bundle.
           $ git bundle create master-yesterday.bundle master~10..master~5
           fatal: Refusing to create empty bundle.


       When creating bundles it is possible to create a self-contained bundle that can be
       unbundled in a repository with no common history, as well as providing negative revisions
       to exclude objects needed in the earlier parts of the history.

       Feeding a revision such as new to git bundle create will create a bundle file that
       contains all the objects reachable from the revision new. That bundle can be unbundled in
       any repository to obtain a full history that leads to the revision new:

           $ git bundle create full.bundle new

       A revision range such as will produce a bundle file that will require the
       revision old (and any objects reachable from it) to exist for the bundle to be

           $ git bundle create full.bundle

       A self-contained bundle without any prerequisites can be extracted into anywhere, even
       into an empty repository, or be cloned from (i.e., new, but not

       It is okay to err on the side of caution, causing the bundle file to contain objects
       already in the destination, as these are ignored when unpacking at the destination.

       If you want to match git clone --mirror, which would include your refs such as
       refs/remotes/*, use --all. If you want to provide the same set of refs that a clone
       directly from the source repository would get, use --branches --tags for the

       The git bundle verify command can be used to check whether your recipient repository has
       the required prerequisite commits for a bundle.


       Assume you want to transfer the history from a repository R1 on machine A to another
       repository R2 on machine B. For whatever reason, direct connection between A and B is not
       allowed, but we can move data from A to B via some mechanism (CD, email, etc.). We want to
       update R2 with development made on the branch master in R1.

       To bootstrap the process, you can first create a bundle that does not have any
       prerequisites. You can use a tag to remember up to what commit you last processed, in
       order to make it easy to later update the other repository with an incremental bundle:

           machineA$ cd R1
           machineA$ git bundle create file.bundle master
           machineA$ git tag -f lastR2bundle master

       Then you transfer file.bundle to the target machine B. Because this bundle does not
       require any existing object to be extracted, you can create a new repository on machine B
       by cloning from it:

           machineB$ git clone -b master /home/me/tmp/file.bundle R2

       This will define a remote called "origin" in the resulting repository that lets you fetch
       and pull from the bundle. The $GIT_DIR/config file in R2 will have an entry like this:

           [remote "origin"]
               url = /home/me/tmp/file.bundle
               fetch = refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*

       To update the resulting mine.git repository, you can fetch or pull after replacing the
       bundle stored at /home/me/tmp/file.bundle with incremental updates.

       After working some more in the original repository, you can create an incremental bundle
       to update the other repository:

           machineA$ cd R1
           machineA$ git bundle create file.bundle lastR2bundle..master
           machineA$ git tag -f lastR2bundle master

       You then transfer the bundle to the other machine to replace /home/me/tmp/file.bundle, and
       pull from it.

           machineB$ cd R2
           machineB$ git pull

       If you know up to what commit the intended recipient repository should have the necessary
       objects, you can use that knowledge to specify the prerequisites, giving a cut-off point
       to limit the revisions and objects that go in the resulting bundle. The previous example
       used the lastR2bundle tag for this purpose, but you can use any other options that you
       would give to the git-log(1) command. Here are more examples:

       You can use a tag that is present in both:

           $ git bundle create mybundle v1.0.0..master

       You can use a prerequisite based on time:

           $ git bundle create mybundle --since=10.days master

       You can use the number of commits:

           $ git bundle create mybundle -10 master

       You can run git-bundle verify to see if you can extract from a bundle that was created
       with a prerequisite:

           $ git bundle verify mybundle

       This will list what commits you must have in order to extract from the bundle and will
       error out if you do not have them.

       A bundle from a recipient repository’s point of view is just like a regular repository
       which it fetches or pulls from. You can, for example, map references when fetching:

           $ git fetch mybundle master:localRef

       You can also see what references it offers:

           $ git ls-remote mybundle


       Part of the git(1) suite


        1. the bundle-format documentation

        2. the pack format documentation