Provided by: ispell_3.4.05-1_amd64 bug


       ispell,  buildhash, munchlist, findaffix, tryaffix, icombine, ijoin - Interactive spelling


       ispell [common-flags] [-M|-N] [-Lcontext] [-V] files
       ispell [common-flags] -l
       ispell [common-flags] [-f file] [-s] [-a|-A]
       ispell [-d file] [-w chars] -c
       ispell [-d file] [-w chars] -e[e]
       ispell [-d file] -D
       ispell -v[v]

              [-t] [-n] [-H] [-o] [-b] [-x] [-B] [-C] [-P] [-m] [-S]  [-d  file]  [-p  file]  [-w
              chars] [-W n] [-T type] [-kname list] [-F program]

       Helper programs:

       buildhash [-s] dict-file affix-file hash-file
       buildhash -s count affix-file

       munchlist [-l aff-file] [-c conv-file] [-T suffix]
                 [-s hash-file] [-D] [-v] [-w chars] [files]

       findaffix [-p|-s] [-f] [-c] [-m min] [-M max] [-e elim]
                 [-t tabchar] [-l low] [files]

       tryaffix [-p|-s] [-c] expanded-file affix[+addition] ...

       icombine [-T type] [-w chars] [aff-file]

       ijoin [-s|-u] join-options file1 file2


       Ispell  is  fashioned  after the spell program from ITS (called ispell on Twenex systems.)
       The most common usage is "ispell filename".  In this case, ispell will display  each  word
       which  does  not appear in the dictionary at the top of the screen and allow you to change
       it.  If there are "near misses" in the dictionary (words which differ  by  only  a  single
       letter,  a  missing  or  extra letter, a pair of transposed letters, or a missing space or
       hyphen), then they are also displayed on following  lines.   As  well  as  "near  misses",
       ispell  may  display  other  guesses at ways to make the word from a known root, with each
       guess preceded by question marks.  Finally, the line containing the word and the  previous
       line  are  printed  at  the bottom of the screen.  If your terminal can display in reverse
       video, the word itself is  highlighted.   You  have  the  option  of  replacing  the  word
       completely,  or  choosing  one  of the suggested words.  Commands are single characters as
       follows (case is ignored):

              R      Replace the misspelled word completely.

              Space  Accept the word this time only.

              A      Accept the word for the rest of this ispell session.

              I      Accept the word, capitalized as it  is  in  the  file,  and  update  private

              U      Accept the word, and add an uncapitalized (actually, all lower-case) version
                     to the private dictionary.

              0–n    Replace with one of the suggested words.

              L      Look up words in system dictionary  (controlled  by  the  WORDS  compilation

              X      Write the rest of this file, ignoring misspellings, and start next file.

              Q      Exit immediately and leave the file unchanged.

              !      Shell escape.

              ^L     Redraw screen.

              ^Z     Suspend ispell.

              ?      Give help screen.

       If  the  -M  switch  is  specified,  a one-line mini-menu at the bottom of the screen will
       summarize these options.  Conversely, the -N switch may be used to suppress the mini-menu.
       (The minimenu is displayed by default if ispell was compiled with the MINIMENU option, but
       these two switches will always override the default).

       If the -L flag is given, the specified number is used as the number of lines of context to
       be shown at the bottom of the screen (The default is to calculate the amount of context as
       a certain percentage of the screen size).  The amount of context is subject to  a  system-
       imposed limit.

       If the -V flag is given, characters that are not in the 7-bit ANSI printable character set
       will always be displayed in the style of "cat  -v",  even  if  ispell  thinks  that  these
       characters  are  valid ISO Latin-1 on your system.  This is useful when working with older
       terminals.  Without this switch, ispell will display 8-bit characters "as is" if they have
       been defined as string characters for the chosen file type.

       "Normal" mode, as well as the -l, -a, and -A options and interactive mode (see below) also
       accepts the following "common" flags on the command line:

              -t     The input file is in TeX or LaTeX format.

              -n     The input file is in nroff/troff format.

              -H     The input file is in SGML/HTML format.  (This should really be -s,  but  for
                     historical reasons that flag was already taken.)

              -o     The  input  file should be treated as ordinary text.  (This could be used to
                     override DEFTEXFLAG.)

              -g     The input file is  in  Debian  control  file  format.   Ispell  will  ignore
                     everything outside the Description(s).

              -b     Create a backup file by appending ".bak" to the name of the input file.

              -x     Delete the backup file after spell-checking is finished.

              -B     Report run-together words with missing blanks as spelling errors.

              -C     Consider run-together words as valid compounds.

              -P     Don't generate extra root/affix combinations.

              -m     Make possible root/affix combinations that aren't in the dictionary.

              -S     Sort the list of guesses by probable correctness.

              -d file
                     Specify an alternate dictionary file.  For example, use -d british to choose
                     /usr/lib/ispell/british.{aff|hash}   instead   of   your   default    ispell

              -p file
                     Specify an alternate personal dictionary.

              -w chars
                     Specify additional characters that can be part of a word.

              -W n   Specify length of words that are always valid.

              -T type
                     Assume a given formatter type for all files.

       The  -H, -n, -t, and -o options select whether ispell runs in HTML (-H), nroff/troff (-n),
       TeX/LaTeX (-t), or ordinary text (-o) input mode.  mode.  (The default mode is  controlled
       by  the  DEFTEXFLAG  installation  option, but is normally nroff/troff mode for historical
       reasons.)  Unless overridden by one of the  mode-selection  switches,  TeX/LaTeX  mode  is
       automatically  selected  if  an  input  file  has  the  extension ".tex", and HTML mode is
       automatically selected if an input file has the extension ".html" or ".htm".

       In HTML mode, HTML tags delimited  by  <>  signs  are  skipped,  except  that  the  "ALT="
       construct  is recognized if it appears with no spaces around the equals sign, and the text
       inside is spell-checked.

       In TeX/LaTeX mode, whenever a backslash ("\") is found,  ispell  will  skip  to  the  next
       whitespace or TeX/LaTeX delimiter.  Certain commands contain arguments which should not be
       checked, such as labels and reference keys as are found in the \cite command,  since  they
       contain  arbitrary,  non-word  arguments.   Spell checking is also suppressed when in math
       mode.  Thus, for example, given

              \chapter {This is a Ckapter} \cite{SCH86}

       ispell will find "Ckapter" but not "SCH".  The  -t  option  does  not  recognize  the  TeX
       comment  character "%", so comments are also spell-checked.  It also assumes correct LaTeX
       syntax.  Arguments to infrequently used commands and some optional arguments are sometimes
       checked  unnecessarily.   The bibliography will not be checked if ispell was compiled with
       IGNOREBIB defined.  Otherwise, the bibliography will be checked but the reference key will

       References  for  the tib (if available on your system), bibliography system, that is, text
       between a ``[.'' or ``<.'' and ``.]'' or ``.>'' will always be ignored in TeX/LaTeX mode.

       The -b and -x options control whether ispell leaves a backup (.bak) file  for  each  input
       file.   The  .bak  file  contains  the  pre-corrected  text.  If there are file opening or
       writing errors, the .bak file may be left for recovery purposes even with the  -x  option.
       The default for this option is controlled by the DEFNOBACKUPFLAG installation option.

       The  -B and -C options control how ispell handles run-together words, such as "notthe" for
       "not the".  If -B is specified, such words will be considered as errors, and  ispell  will
       list  variations  with  an  inserted  blank  or hyphen as possible replacements.  If -C is
       specified, run-together words will be considered to be valid compounds, so  long  as  both
       components  are  in  the dictionary, and each component is at least as long as a language-
       dependent minimum (3 characters, by default).  This is useful for languages such as German
       and  Norwegian,  where  many  compound  words  are  formed  by  concatenation.  (Note that
       compounds formed from three or more root words will  still  be  considered  errors).   The
       default for this option is language-dependent; in a multi-lingual installation the default
       may vary depending on which dictionary you choose.   Warning:  the  -C  option  can  cause
       ispell to recognize non-words and misspellings.  Use it with caution!

       The  -P  and  -m  options control when ispell automatically generates suggested root/affix
       combinations for possible addition to your personal dictionary.  (These are the entries in
       the  "guess" list which are preceded by question marks.)  If -P is specified, such guesses
       are displayed only if ispell cannot generate any  possibilities  that  match  the  current
       dictionary.  If -m is specified, such guesses are always displayed.  This can be useful if
       the dictionary has a limited word list, or a word list with few  suffixes.   However,  you
       should  be careful when using this option, as it can generate guesses that produce invalid
       words.  The default for this option is controlled by the dictionary file used.

       The -S option suppresses  ispell's  normal  behavior  of  sorting  the  list  of  possible
       replacement  words.   Some  people  may  prefer  this,  since  it  somewhat  enhances  the
       probability that the correct word will be low-numbered.

       The -d option is used to specify an alternate  hashed  dictionary  file,  other  than  the
       default.   If  the  filename does not contain a "/", the library directory for the default
       dictionary file is prefixed; thus,  to  use  a  dictionary  in  the  local  directory  "-d
       ./xxx.hash"  must  be used.  This is useful to allow dictionaries for alternate languages.
       Unlike previous versions of ispell, a dictionary of  /dev/null  is  invalid,  because  the
       dictionary  contains the affix table.  If you need an effectively empty dictionary, create
       a one-entry list with an unlikely string (e.g., "qqqqq").

       The -p option is used to specify an alternate personal dictionary file.  If the file  name
       does not begin with "/", $HOME is prefixed.  Also, the shell variable WORDLIST may be set,
       which renames the personal dictionary in the same manner.  The command line overrides  any
       WORDLIST  setting.   If  neither  the  -p  switch nor the WORDLIST environment variable is
       given, ispell will search for a personal dictionary in  both  the  current  directory  and
       $HOME,  creating  one  in  $HOME  if  none is found.  The preferred name is constructed by
       appending ".ispell_" to the base name of the hash file.   For  example,  if  you  use  the
       English  dictionary,  your personal dictionary would be named ".ispell_english".  However,
       if the file ".ispell_words" exists, it will be used as the personal dictionary  regardless
       of  the  language  hash  file  chosen.   This  feature is included primarily for backwards

       If the -p option is not specified, ispell will look for personal dictionaries in both  the
       current directory and the home directory.  If dictionaries exist in both places, they will
       be merged.  If any words are added to the personal dictionary, they will be written to the
       current  directory  if  a dictionary already existed in that place; otherwise they will be
       written to the dictionary in the home directory.

       The -w option may be used to specify characters other  than  alphabetics  which  may  also
       appear in words.  For instance, -w "&" will allow "AT&T" to be picked up.  Underscores are
       useful in many technical documents.  There is an admittedly crude provision in this option
       for 8-bit international characters.  Non-printing characters may be specified in the usual
       way by inserting a backslash followed by the octal character code; e.g., "\014" for a form
       feed.  Alternatively, if "n" appears in the character string, the (up to) three characters
       following are a DECIMAL code 0–255, for the character.  For example, to include bells  and
       form  feeds  in  your  words (an admittedly silly thing to do, but aren't most pedagogical


       Numeric digits other than the three following "n" are simply numeric characters.   Use  of
       "n"  does  not  conflict  with  anything  because  actual  alphabetics  have  no meaning -
       alphabetics are already accepted.  Ispell will typically be used with input from  a  file,
       meaning  that  preserving  parity for possible 8 bit characters from the input text is OK.
       If you specify the -l option, and actually type text from the terminal,  this  may  create
       problems if your stty settings preserve parity.

       It  is  not  possible  to  use -w with certain characters.  In particular, the flag-marker
       character for the language (defined in the affix file, but usually "/") can never be  made
       into a word character.

       The  -W  option  may  be  used to change the length of words that ispell always accepts as
       valid.  Normally, ispell will accept all 1-character words as valid, which  is  equivalent
       to  specifying "-W 1."  (The default for this switch is actually controlled by the MINWORD
       installation option, so it may vary at your installation.)  If you want all  words  to  be
       checked  against  the  dictionary, regardless of length, you might want to specify "-W 0".
       On the other hand, if your document specifies a lot of three-letter  acronyms,  you  would
       specify "-W 3" to accept all words of three letters or less.  Regardless of the setting of
       this option, ispell will only generate words that  are  in  the  dictionary  as  suggested
       replacements  for  words;  this prevents the list from becoming too long.  Obviously, this
       option can be very dangerous, since short misspellings may be missed.   If  you  use  this
       option  a  lot,  you  should  probably make a last pass without it before you publish your
       document, to protect yourself against errors.

       The -T option is used to specify a default formatter type for  use  in  generating  string
       characters.   This  switch  overrides the default type determined from the file name.  The
       type argument may be either one of the unique names defined in  the  language  affix  file
       (e.g.,  nroff)  or  a file suffix including the dot (e.g., .tex).  If no -T option appears
       and no type can be determined from the  file  name,  the  default  string  character  type
       declared in the language affix file will be used.

       The -k option is used to enhance the behavior of certain deformatters.  The name parameter
       gives the name of a deformatter keyword set (see below), and the list  parameter  gives  a
       list of one or more keywords that are to be treated specially.  If list begins with a plus
       (+) sign, it is added to the existing keywords; otherwise it replaces the existing keyword
       list.   For  example,  -ktexskip1  +bibliographystyle  adds "bibliographystyle" to the TeX
       skip-1 list, while -khtmlignore pre,strong replaces the HTML ignore list  with  "pre"  and
       "strong".  The lists available are:

              TeX/LaTeX  commands  that  take a single argument that should not be spell-checked,
              such as "bibliographystyle".  The default is  "end",  "vspace",  "hspace",  "cite",
              "ref",    "parbox",   "label",   "input",   "nocite",   "include",   "includeonly",
              "documentstyle",  "documentclass",  "usepackage",  "selectlanguage",   "pagestyle",
              "pagenumbering", "hyphenation", "pageref", and "psfig", plus "bibliography" in some
              installations.  These keywords are case-sensitive.

              TeX/LaTeX commands that take two arguments that should not be  spell-checked,  such
              as  "setlength".  The default is "rule", "setcounter", "addtocounter", "setlength",
              "addtolength", and "settowidth".  These keywords are case-sensitive.

              HTML tags that delimit text that should not be spell-checked until the matching end
              tag  is  reached.   The  default  is  "code",  "samp", "kbd", "pre", "listing", and
              "address".  These keywords are case-insensitive.  (Note  that  the  content  inside
              HTML tags, such as HREF=, is not normally checked.)

              Subfields  that  should  be  spell-checked  even  inside HTML tags.  The default is
              "alt", so that the ALT= portion of IMG tags will be spell-checked.  These  keywords
              are case-insensitive.

       All  of  the above keyword lists can also be modified by environment variables whose names
       are the same as above, except in uppercase, e.g., TEXSKIP1.  The -k switch  overrides  (or
       adds  to)  the environment variables, and the environment variables override or add to the
       built-in defaults.

       The -F switch specifies an external deformatter program.  This program  should  read  data
       from  its  standard  input  and  write  to  its standard output.  The program must produce
       exactly one character of  output  for  each  character  of  input,  or  ispell  will  lose
       synchronization  and  corrupt  the output file.  Whitespace characters (especially blanks,
       tabs, and newlines) and characters that should be spell-checked should be  passed  through
       unchanged.  Characters that should not be spell-checked should be converted into blanks or
       other non-word characters.  For example, an HTML deformatter might turn all HTML tags into
       blanks, and also blank out all text delimited by tags such as "code" or "kbd".

       The  -F  switch  is  the  preferred  way to deformat files for ispell, and eventually will
       become the only way.

       If ispell is invoked without any filenames or mode switches, it enters an interactive mode
       designed  to  let the user check the spelling of individual words.  The program repeatedly
       prompts on standard output with "word:" and  responds  with  either  "ok"  (possibly  with
       commentary), "not found", or "how about" followed by a list of suggestions.

       The  -l  or "list" option to ispell is used to produce a list of misspelled words from the
       standard input.

       The -a option is intended to be used from other programs through a pipe.   In  this  mode,
       ispell  prints a one-line version identification message, and then begins reading lines of
       input.  For each input line, a single line is written to the standard output for each word
       checked  for  spelling on the line.  If the word was found in the main dictionary, or your
       personal dictionary, then the line contains only a '*'.  If the  word  was  found  through
       affix  removal, then the line contains a '+', a space, and the root word.  If the word was
       found through compound formation  (concatenation  of  two  words,  controlled  by  the  -C
       option), then the line contains only a '-'.

       If the word is not in the dictionary, but there are near misses, then the line contains an
       '&', a space, the misspelled word, a space, the number  of  near  misses,  the  number  of
       characters  between  the beginning of the line and the beginning of the misspelled word, a
       colon, another space, and a list of the  near  misses  separated  by  commas  and  spaces.
       Following  the  near misses (and identified only by the count of near misses), if the word
       could be formed by adding (invalid) affixes to a  known  root,  is  a  list  of  suggested
       derivations,  again  separated  by commas and spaces.  If there are no near misses at all,
       the line format is the same, except that the '&' is replaced by  '?'  (and  the  near-miss
       count  is  always  zero).   The suggested derivations following the near misses are in the

              [prefix+] root [-prefix] [-suffix] [+suffix]

       (e.g., "re+fry-y+ies" to get "refries") where each optional  pfx  and  sfx  is  a  string.
       Also,  each  near  miss  or  guess  is  capitalized the same as the input word unless such
       capitalization is invalid; in the latter case each  near  miss  is  capitalized  correctly
       according to the dictionary.

       Finally, if the word does not appear in the dictionary, and there are no near misses, then
       the line contains a '#', a space, the misspelled word, a space, and the  character  offset
       from  the  beginning  of  the  line.   Each  sentence  of text input is terminated with an
       additional blank line, indicating that ispell has completed processing the input line.

       These output lines can be summarized as follows:

              OK:    *

              Root:  + <root>


              Miss:  & <original> <count> <offset>: <miss>, <miss>, ..., <guess>, ...

              Guess: ? <original> 0 <offset>: <guess>, <guess>, ...

              None:  # <original> <offset>

       For example, a dummy dictionary containing the words "fray", "Frey", "fry", and  "refried"
       might produce the following response to the command "echo 'frqy refries' | ispell -a -m -d
              (#) International Ispell Version 3.0.05 (beta), 08/10/91
              & frqy 3 0: fray, Frey, fry
              & refries 1 5: refried, re+fry-y+ies

       This mode is also suitable for interactive use when you want to figure out the spelling of
       a single word.

       The  -A  option  works  just  like  -a,  except  that  if  a  line  begins with the string
       "&Include_File&", the rest of the line is taken as the name of a file to read for  further
       words.   Input returns to the original file when the include file is exhausted.  Inclusion
       may be nested up to five deep.  The  key  string  may  be  changed  with  the  environment
       variable INCLUDE_STRING (the ampersands, if any, must be included).

       When  in  the  -a mode, ispell will also accept lines of single words prefixed with any of
       '*', '&', '@', '+', '-', '~', '#', '!', '%', '`', or '^'.  A line starting with '*'  tells
       ispell  to  insert the word into the user's dictionary (similar to the I command).  A line
       starting with '&' tells ispell to insert an all-lowercase version of  the  word  into  the
       user's  dictionary  (similar to the U command).  A line starting with '@' causes ispell to
       accept this word in the future (similar to the A command).   A  line  starting  with  '+',
       followed immediately by tex or nroff will cause ispell to parse future input according the
       syntax of that formatter.  A line  consisting  solely  of  a  '+'  will  place  ispell  in
       TeX/LaTeX  mode (similar to the -t option) and '-' returns ispell to nroff/troff mode (but
       these commands are obsolete).  However, the string character type is not changed; the  '~'
       command  must  be used to do this.  A line starting with '~' causes ispell to set internal
       parameters (in particular, the default string character type) based on the filename  given
       in  the  rest of the line.  (A file suffix is sufficient, but the period must be included.
       Instead of a file name or suffix, a unique name, as listed in the language affix file, may
       be  specified.)   However,  the formatter parsing is not changed;  the '+' command must be
       used to change the formatter.  A line prefixed with '#' will cause the personal dictionary
       to  be  saved.   A  line prefixed with '!' will turn on terse mode (see below), and a line
       prefixed with '%' will return ispell to normal (non-terse) mode.  A line prefixed with '`'
       will  turn  on  verbose-correction  mode  (see  below);  this mode can only be disabled by
       turning on terse mode with '%'.

       Any input following the prefix characters '+', '-', '#', '!', '%', or '`' is  ignored,  as
       is  any  input  following  the  filename  on a '~' line.  To allow spell-checking of lines
       beginning with these characters, a line starting  with  '^'  has  that  character  removed
       before  it  is  passed  to  the  spell-checking code.  It is recommended that programmatic
       interfaces prefix every data line with an uparrow to  protect  themselves  against  future
       changes in ispell.

       To summarize these:

              *      Add to personal dictionary

              @      Accept word, but leave out of dictionary

              #      Save current personal dictionary

              ~      Set parameters based on filename

              +      Enter TeX mode

              -      Exit TeX mode

              !      Enter terse mode

              %      Exit terse mode

              `      Enter verbose-correction mode

              ^      Spell-check rest of line

       In  terse  mode, ispell will not print lines beginning with '*', '+', or '-', all of which
       indicate correct words.  This  significantly  improves  running  speed  when  the  driving
       program is going to ignore correct words anyway.

       In  verbose-correction  mode,  ispell  includes  the  original  word immediately after the
       indicator character in output lines beginning with '*', '+',  and  '-',  which  simplifies
       interaction for some programs.

       The  -s  option  is  only valid in conjunction with the -a or -A options, and only on BSD-
       derived systems.  If specified, ispell will stop itself with a SIGTSTP signal  after  each
       line  of input.  It will not read more input until it receives a SIGCONT signal.  This may
       be useful for handshaking with certain text editors.

       The -f option is only valid in conjunction with the -a or -A options.  If -f is specified,
       ispell will write its results to the given file, rather than to standard output.

       The  -v  option  causes ispell to print its current version identification on the standard
       output and exit.  If the switch is doubled, ispell will also print the options that it was
       compiled with.

       The  -c,  -e[1\n5],  and  -D  options  of  ispell,  are  primarily intended for use by the
       munchlist shell script.  The -c switch causes a list of words to be read from the standard
       input.   For  each  word, a list of possible root words and affixes will be written to the
       standard output.  Some of the root words will be invalid and must  be  filtered  from  the
       output by other means; the munchlist script does this.  As an example, the command:

              echo BOTHER | ispell -c


              BOTHER BOTHE/R BOTH/R

       The  -e  switch  is  the reverse of -c; it expands affix flags to produce a list of words.
       For example, the command:

              echo BOTH/R | ispell -e


              BOTH BOTHER

       An optional expansion level can also be specified.  A level of 1 (-e1) is the same  as  -e
       alone.   A  level  of  2 causes the original root/affix combination to be prepended to the

              BOTH/R BOTH BOTHER

       A level of 3 causes multiple lines to be output, one for each  generated  word,  with  the
       original root/affix combination followed by the word it creates:

              BOTH/R BOTH
              BOTH/R BOTHER

       A  level  of 4 causes a floating-point number to be appended to each of the level-3 lines,
       giving the ratio between the length of the root and the  total  length  of  all  generated
       words including the root:

              BOTH/R BOTH 2.500000
              BOTH/R BOTHER 2.500000

       A  level  of  5  causes  multiple lines to be output, one for each generated word.  If the
       generated word did not use any affixes, the line is  just  that  word.   If  one  or  more
       affixes  were used, the original root and the affixes actually used are printed, joined by
       a plus sign; then the generated word is printed:

              BOTH+R BOTHER

       Finally, the -D flag causes the affix tables from the dictionary  file  to  be  dumped  to
       standard output.

       Ispell  is  aware  of  the  correct capitalizations of words in the dictionary and in your
       personal dictionary.  As well as recognizing words that must be capitalized (e.g., George)
       and  words that must be all-capitals (e.g., NASA), it can also handle words with "unusual"
       capitalization (e.g., "ITCorp" or "TeX").  If a word is capitalized incorrectly, the  list
       of   possibilities   will   include   all  acceptable  capitalizations.   (More  than  one
       capitalization may be acceptable; for example,  my  dictionary  lists  both  "ITCorp"  and

       Normally,  this  feature  will  not cause you surprises, but there is one circumstance you
       need to be aware of.  If you use "I" to add a word to  your  dictionary  that  is  at  the
       beginning  of a sentence (e.g., the first word of this paragraph if "normally" were not in
       the dictionary), it will be marked as "capitalization required".  A  subsequent  usage  of
       this  word without capitalization (e.g., the quoted word in the previous sentence) will be
       considered a misspelling by ispell, and it will suggest the capitalized version.  You must
       then  compare  the  actual  spellings  by  eye, and then type "I" to add the uncapitalized
       variant to your personal dictionary.  You can avoid this problem by using "U" to  add  the
       original word, rather than "I".

       The rules for capitalization are as follows:

       (1)    Any word may appear in all capitals, as in headings.

       (2)    Any  word  that  is  in  the  dictionary in all-lowercase form may appear either in
              lowercase or capitalized (as at the beginning of a sentence).

       (3)    Any word that has "funny" capitalization (i.e., it contains both cases and there is
              an uppercase character besides the first) must appear exactly as in the dictionary,
              except as permitted by rule (1).  If the word is acceptable  in  all-lowercase,  it
              must appear thus in a dictionary entry.

       The  buildhash  program  builds  hashed dictionary files for later use by ispell.  The raw
       word list (with affix flags) is given in dict-file, and the affix  flags  are  defined  by
       affix-file.   The  hashed  output  is  written to hash-file.  The formats of the two input
       files are described in ispell(5).  The -s (silent)  option  suppresses  the  usual  status
       messages that are written to the standard error device.

       The  munchlist  shell  script  is  used  to reduce the size of dictionary files, primarily
       personal dictionary files.  It is also capable  of  combining  dictionaries  from  various
       sources.   The given files are read (standard input if no arguments are given), reduced to
       a minimal set of roots and affixes that will match the same list of words, and written  to
       standard output.

       Input  for  munchlist  contains  of raw words (e.g from your personal dictionary files) or
       root and affix combinations (probably generated in earlier munchlist runs).  Each word  or
       root/affix combination must be on a separate line.

       The  -D  (debug)  option  leaves  temporary  files  around under standard names instead of
       deleting them, so that the script can be debugged.  Warning: on a multiuser  system,  this
       can  be  a security hole.  To avoid possible destruction of important files, don't run the
       script as root, and set MUNCHDEBUGDIR to the name of a directory that only you can access.

       The -v (verbose) option causes progress messages to be reported to stderr so you won't get
       nervous that munchlist has hung.

       If  the  -s  (strip)  option  is  specified, words that are in the specified hash-file are
       removed from the word list.  This can be useful with personal dictionaries.

       The -l option can be used to specify an alternate affix-file for munching dictionaries  in
       languages other than English.

       The  -c  option  can  be  used to convert dictionaries that were built with an older affix
       file, without risk of accidentally introducing  unintended  affix  combinations  into  the

       The  -T option allows dictionaries to be converted to a canonical string-character format.
       The suffix specified is looked up in the affix file (-l switch) to determine  the  string-
       character  format  used  for  the input file; the output always uses the canonical string-
       character format.  For example, a dictionary collected from  TeX  source  files  might  be
       converted to canonical format by specifying -T tex.

       The -w option is passed on to ispell.

       The  findaffix  shell script is an aid to writers of new language descriptions in choosing
       affixes.  The given dictionary files (standard input if none are given) are  examined  for
       possible  prefixes  (-p  switch)  or  suffixes  (-s  switch, the default).  Each commonly-
       occurring affix is presented along with a count of the number of times it appears  and  an
       estimate  of  the number of bytes that would be saved in a dictionary hash file if it were
       added to the language table.  Only  affixes  that  generate  valid  roots  (found  in  the
       original input) are listed.

       If the "-c" option is not given, the output lines are in the following format:


       where  strip  is  the  string  that  should be stripped from a root word before adding the
       affix, add is the affix to be added, count is a count of the number  of  times  that  this
       strip/add  combination appears, and bytes is an estimate of the number of bytes that might
       be saved in the raw dictionary file if this combination is added to the affix  file.   The
       field  separator  in the output will be the tab character specified by the -t switch;  the
       default is a slash ("/").

       If the -c ("clean output") option is given, the appearance of the output is made  visually
       cleaner (but harder to post-process) by changing it to:


       where  strip,  add,  count,  and  bytes  are as before, and <tab> represents the ASCII tab

       The method used to generate possible affixes will also generate longer affixes which  have
       common  headers or trailers.  For example, the two words "moth" and "mother" will generate
       not only the obvious substitution "+er" but also "-h+her"  and  "-th+ther"  (and  possibly
       even  longer  ones, depending on the value of min).  To prevent cluttering the output with
       such affixes, any affix pair that shares a  common  header  (or,  for  prefixes,  trailer)
       string  longer  than  elim characters (default 1) will be suppressed.  You may want to set
       "elim" to a value greater than 1 if your language has string characters; usually the  need
       for this parameter will become obvious when you examine the output of your findaffix run.

       Normally,  the affixes are sorted according to the estimate of bytes saved.  The -f switch
       may be used to cause the affixes to be sorted by frequency of appearance.

       To save output file space, affixes which occur fewer than 10 times  are  eliminated;  this
       limit  may  be changed with the -l switch.  The -M switch specifies a maximum affix length
       (default 8).  Affixes longer than this will not be reported.   (This  saves  on  temporary
       disk space and makes the script run faster.)

       Affixes  which  generate  stems  shorter than 3 characters are suppressed.  (A stem is the
       word after the strip string has been removed, and before the add string has  been  added.)
       This  reduces  both  the  running time and the size of the output file.  This limit may be
       changed with the -m switch.  The minimum stem length should only be set to 1 if you have a
       lot of free time and disk space (in the range of many days and hundreds of megabytes).

       The  findaffix  script  requires  a  non-blank field-separator character for internal use.
       Normally, this character is a slash ("/"), but if the slash appears as a character in  the
       input word list, a different character can be specified with the -t switch.

       Ispell  dictionaries  should  be  expanded  before  being  fed  to findaffix; in addition,
       characters that are not  in  the  English  alphabet  (if  any)  should  be  translated  to

       The  tryaffix  shell script is used to estimate the effectiveness of a proposed prefix (-p
       switch) or suffix (-s switch, the default) with a given expanded-file.  Only one affix can
       be  tried  with  each  execution  of  tryaffix, although multiple arguments can be used to
       describe varying forms of the same affix flag (e.g., the D flag for English can add either
       D  or ED depending on whether a trailing E is already present).  Each word in the expanded
       dictionary that ends (or begins) with the  chosen  suffix  (or  prefix)  has  that  suffix
       (prefix)  removed;  the dictionary is then searched for root words that match the stripped
       word.  Normally, all matching roots are written to standard output, but if the -c  (count)
       flag is given, only a statistical summary of the results is written.  The statistics given
       are a count of words the affix potentially applies to and an estimate  of  the  number  of
       dictionary bytes that a flag using the affix would save.  The estimate will be high if the
       flag generates words that are currently generated by other affix flags (e.g., in  English,
       bathers can be generated by either bath/X or bather/S).

       The  dictionary  file,  expanded-file,  must  already  be expanded (using the -e switch of
       ispell) and sorted, and things will usually work best if  uppercase  has  been  folded  to
       lower with 'tr'.

       The  affix  arguments  are things to be stripped from the dictionary file to produce trial
       roots: for English, con (prefix) and ing (suffix) are examples.  The addition parts of the
       argument  are  letters that would have been stripped off the root before adding the affix.
       For example, in English the affix ing normally strips e for words ending  in  that  letter
       (e.g., like becomes liking) so we might run:

              tryaffix ing ing+e

       to cover both cases.

       All  of  the shell scripts contain documentation as commentary at the beginning; sometimes
       these comments contain useful information beyond the scope of this manual page.

       It is possible to install ispell in such a way as to only  support  ASCII  range  text  if

       The  icombine  program  is a helper for munchlist.  It reads a list of words in dictionary
       format (roots plus flags) from the standard input, and produces a reduced list on standard
       output  which combines common roots found on adjacent entries.  Identical roots which have
       differing  flags  will  have  their  flags  combined,  and  roots  which  have   differing
       capitalizations  will  be  combined in a way which only preserves important capitalization
       information.  The optional aff-file specifies a language file which defines the  character
       sets  used  and  the  meanings  of the various flags.  The -T switch can be used to select
       among alternative string character types by giving a dummy suffix that can be found in  an
       altstringtype statement.  The -w switch is identical to the same switch in ispell.

       The  ijoin  program  is  a re-implementation of join(1) which handles long lines and 8-bit
       characters correctly.  The -s switch specifies that the sort(1) program  used  to  prepare
       the  input  to  ijoin uses signed comparisons on 8-bit characters; the -u switch specifies
       that sort(1) uses unsigned comparisons.  All other options and behaviors  of  join(1)  are
       duplicated  as  exactly  as  possible based on the manual page, except that ijoin will not
       handle newline as a field separator.  See the join(1) manual page for more information.


              Default dictionary to use, if no -d flag is given.

              Formatter type or character encoding to use, if none is chosen by a flag option.

              Personal dictionary file name

              Code for file inclusion under the -A option

       TMPDIR Directory used for some of munchlist's temporary files

              Directory used to hold the output of munchlists' -D option.

              List of single-argument TeX keywords that ispell should ignore.

              List of two-argument TeX keywords that ispell should ignore.

              List of HTML keywords that delimit text that should not be spell-checked.

              List of HTML fields that should always be spell-checked, even inside a tag.


              Hashed dictionary (may be found in some other local  directory,  depending  on  the

              Affix-definition file for munchlist

              For the Lookup function.

              User's private dictionary

              Directory-specific private dictionary


       egrep(1),  look(1),  join(1), sort(1), spell(1), sq(1), tib (if available on your system),
       ispell(5), english(5)


       Ispell should understand more troff syntax, and deal more intelligently with contractions.

       Although small personal dictionaries are sorted before they are written out, the order  of
       capitalizations of the same word is somewhat random.

       When the -x flag is specified, ispell will unlink any existing .bak file.

       There are too many flags, and many of them have non-mnemonic names.

       The -e flag should accept mnemonic arguments instead of numeric ones.

       Munchlist  does  not  deal  very  gracefully  with  dictionaries  which contain "non-word"
       characters.  Such characters ought to be  deleted  from  the  dictionary  with  a  warning


       Pace  Willisson  (pace@mit-vax), 1983, based on the PDP-10 assembly version.  That version
       was written by R. E. Gorin in 1971, and later revised by W. E. Matson  (1974)  and  W.  B.
       Ackerman (1978).

       Collected, revised, and enhanced for the Usenet by Walt Buehring, 1987.

       Table-driven multi-lingual version by Geoff Kuenning, 1987–88.

       Large dictionaries provided by Bob Devine (vianet!devine).

       A  complete  list  of  contributors is too large to list here, but is distributed with the
       ispell sources in the file "Contributors".


       The version of ispell described by this manual page is International Ispell Version 3.4.05
       11 Mar 2022.

                                              local                                     ISPELL(1)