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       makemime - Create MIME-formatted messages


       makemime [options...]

       makemime [@filename]


       makemime creates MIME-formatted messages of arbitrary complexity.  makemime reads one or
       more individual files, MIME-encodes them, adds basic MIME headers, and adds any additional
       headers specified bye command line options. The result is saved to another file or
       standard output. Complex MIME-formatted messages are created by piping together multiple
       instances of makemime. Advanced options direct makemime to fork() itself, and handle the
       details of setting up all the pipelines.

       In most cases, options for makemime come directly from the command line. @filename reads
       the options from a file. "@&n" reads options from a pipe on file descriptor #n. "@-" is a
       shortcut for "@&0", which reads options from standard input.

       When options are read from a file or a pipe, each option must be on a line by itself. If
       an option requires an argument, the argument must follow on the next line.

       For readability, leading whitespace is deleted when options are read from a file or a
       pipe. Empty lines are also ignored, as well as lines that begin with the '#' character.

       Options and their arguments may contain characters that are special characters to the
       shell, such as '(' and ')'. These characters must be backslashed when specified on the
       command line, to avoid their special meaning to the shell. These characters MUST NOT be
       backslashed when options are read from a file or a pipe. Similarly, the contents of most
       headers nearly always include spaces. Therefore they must be quoted when specified on the
       command line. Header contents MUST NOT be quoted when options come from a file or a pipe.

       makemime reads the content to be formatted as a MIME message from some other file. The
       files can also be a pipe. It is possible to supply both the options and a file from the
       same pipe, by terminating the options list with a line containing the single character
       "-". The remainder of the pipe will be available to be used as an input file (which must
       be explicitly specified by one of the options). Of course, only one input file can come
       from a single pipe.

   MIME overview
       A MIME-formatted message contains one or several MIME sections. MIME headers specify how
       multiple MIME sections are to be interpreted as a whole (whether they are attached
       together; whether they are alternative representations of the same content; or something
       even more esoteric). This manual page gives a very brief, terse, overview of basic MIME
       concepts. The description is biased towards describing the functionality of the makemime
       utility. See RFC 2045[1], RFC 2046[2], RFC 2047[3], RFC 2048[4], and RFC 2049[4] for a
       formal definition of MIME-formatted messages.

       Each file in a MIME message is encoded as a single MIME section. A MIME section consists
       of at least one header line, "Content-Type:". The "Content-Type:" header gives the type of
       the data ontained in the file. Other header lines may also be present. Their relative
       order does not matter. MIME headers are followed by a blank line, then the contents of the
       file, encoded appropriately. All MIME sections generated by makemime will always contain
       another header, "Content-Transfer-Encoding:". This header gives the encoding method used
       for the file; it is an optional header, but makemime always creates it.

       The MIME encoding method defaults to "7bit" if this header is absent.  7bit encoding is
       only suitable for plain text messages in the US-ASCII character set. The "8bit" encoding
       method is used by plain text messages in other character sets that use octets with the
       high bit set. An alternative to 8bit encoding is "quoted-printable". The "base64" encoding
       method is used for files containing binary data (anything other than plain text).

       MIME sections that contain text messages have their "Content-Type:" header set to
       "text/plain"; or "text/html" for HTML messages. There are also several other, rare,
       content types that can be used. MIME sections that contain other kinds of data will use
       some other, appropriate "Content-Type:" header, such as "image/gif", or "audio/x-wav".

       MIME sections that contain textual content may also use the base64 encoding method, they
       are not required to use 7bit, 8bit, or quoted-printable. "text/pdf" sections, that contain
       PDF files, typically contain binary data and must use the base64 encoding. Consequently,
       MIME sections that typically contain binary data, such as image/gif and audio/x-wav, are
       free to use encodings other than base64, as long as all the data can be represented by
       printable characters (but, in practice, that never happens).

       MIME sections may also contain other, optional, headers such as "Content-Disposition:",
       "Content-ID:", and "Content-Name:". Consult the appropriate RFCs for the specific usage of
       these headers. These headers can be added by makemime by using the -a option, as described
       below. These headers play no part in creating the overall structure of a MIME-encoded
       message, and makemime does not care much about these headers. It simply includes them, and
       their content, upon request.

       Multiple files are formatted as a single message MIME message in two steps: first, by
       creating a MIME section for each file; and then creating a single MIME section that
       contains other MIME sections. A "multipart/mixed" MIME section contains a collection of
       MIME sections that represent different objects, attached together. A
       "multipart/alternative" MIME section contains a collection of MIME sections which are
       alternative representations of the same object, such as an HTML and a plain text version
       of the same message. Other "multipart" MIME sections also exist, and their usage is
       defined by their respective RFCs.

   Creating a single MIME section
       makemime {-c "type"} [-e "encoding"] [-o outputfile] [-C "charset"] [-N "name"]
                [-a "header: value"...] {filename}

       The -c option reads filename, encodes it appropriately, adds the "Content-Type: type" and
       "Content-Transfer-Encoding:" MIME headers, then writes the result to standard output.
       type can be any valid MIME type, except for multipart. Setting filename to "-" reads from
       standard input. Setting filename to "&n" reads from file descriptor #n.

       The -C option sets the MIME charset attribute for text/plain content. The -N option sets
       the name attribute for Content-Type:.

       encoding argument should be specified. It's more efficient to do so.  encoding must be one
       of the following: 7bit, 8bit, quoted-printable, or base64.

       If encoding is not specified, makemime reads the filename twice - once to figure out the
       best encoding method, and the second time to encode filename. If filename is a pipe
       makemime creates a temporary file, which is not very efficient if filename is large.
       However letting makemime pick the encoding method is more convenient if filename is
       relatively small.

       Another possibility is to omit encoding and set type to auto. This combination sets
       "Content-Type:" to either text/plain, or application/octet-stream, based on the selected

       By default the encoded MIME section is written to standard output. The -o option writes
       the MIME section to outputfile.  outputfile may be "&n", which writes the MIME section to
       a pipe on file descriptor #n.

       makemime does not generate any other headers. Particularly, the "Mime-Version:" header is
       required for MIME-formatted E-mail messages. Additional headers are specified by the -a
       option, which may be used multiple times to insert multiple headers.  makemime doesn't do
       anything with them except to insert the headers into the generated MIME section.

       Note that "Mime-Version:" is only required for the top level MIME section. This header is
       not required for individual MIME sections that are later combined into a multipart MIME

           The -c option must occur listed first, the remaining options must follow the -c

   Creating a multipart MIME collection
       makemime {-m "multipart/type"} [-e "encoding"] [-o outputfile] [-a "header: value"...]

       The -m option is identical to the -c option, except for three differences.

       type must be either "multipart/mixed", "multipart/alternative", or some other MIME
       multipart content type. Additionally, "encoding" can only be "7bit" or "8bit", and will
       default to "8bit" if not specified. Finally, filename must be a MIME-formatted section,
       NOT a regular file. Usually filename is created by a previous invocation of makemime (it
       can also be a pipe, like the -c option), but it can be created via any other means.

       The -m option creates an initial multipart MIME collection, that contains only one MIME
       section, taken from filename. The collection is written to standard output, or the pipe or
       to outputfile.

   Creating a multipart MIME section
       makemime {-j file1"} [-o outputfile] {file2}

       This option adds a MIME section to an existing MIME collection.  file1 must be a MIME
       collection that was previously created by the -m option.  file2 must be a MIME section
       that was previously created by the -c option. The -j options adds the MIME section in
       file2 to the MIME collection in file1. The result is written to standard output or to

       file1 and/or file2 may be "@&n" which reads from file descriptor #n. The outputfile may
       also specify a file descriptor.

       file1 and file2 should ideally be created by makemime as well. It's also possible to use
       MIME-formatted files created by other software, but with some degree of care.  makemime is
       not intended to be a MIME parser, but a MIME generator. However some amount of MIME
       parsing is necessary to append a MIME section to an existing MIME collection.  makemime's
       parsing is sufficient for appending a new section to a MIME collection, as long as the
       MIME headers in the MIME collections are straightforward. Very convoluted MIME headers may
       confuse makemime, and it may not be able to handle them.

   Recursive MIME collections
       MIME collection may contain other MIME collections as well as MIME sections. The -m and
       the -j options may use a multipart MIME collection in place of a MIME section
       automatically because a multipart MIME collection is just a special type of a MIME
       section. The following example encodes a text message that can be alternatively
       represented as HTML or plain text, with some additional attachments:

       1. Create a MIME collection that has a text/plain and a text/html MIME section.

       2. Create a MIME collection consisting of the MIME section generated in step one, plus
       additional MIME sections containing other attachments.

       For example:

           # Take two files containing the text and the html version of a message, and
           # add MIME headers to them.

           makemime -c "text/plain; charset=iso-8859-1" -o tmp1.txt msg.txt
           makemime -c "text/html; charset=iso-8859-1" -o tmp1.html msg.html

           # Combine the result into a multipart/alternative collection

           makemime -m "multipart/alternative" -a "Content-Disposition: inline" \
                                               -o tmp.ma1 tmp1.txt
           makemime -j tmp.ma1 -o tmp.ma2 tmp1.html

           # Add MIME headers to an image attachment.

           makemime -c "image/gif" -a "Content-Disposition: attachment" \
                                   -o tmp2.gif attachment.gif

           # Create the final multipart/mixed collection

           makemime -m "multipart/mixed" -a "Mime-Version: 1.0" \
                                         -o tmp.mm1 tmp.ma2
           makemime -j tmp.mm1 -o output.msg tmp2.gif

       output.msg now contains the complete MIME collection. Just add the Subject:, From:, and
       To: headers (can also be done by additional -a options, of course), and send it on its

   Building complex MIME encodings
       There are several different ways to build complete MIME encodings from multiple MIME
       sections. One way is to use temporary files to create MIME sections, then combine them
       together into a single MIME collection. A slightly more complicated approach involves
       setting up pipes between multiple makemime processes, in order to avoid using temporary

       This can be done manually, by hand. It is also possible to have makemime do this
       automatically.  makemime will set up these pipes and run multiple instances of itself to
       create a single MIME collection, with multiple attachments of complexity limited only by
       your system's limit on the maximum number of open files and pipes.

       Any file that's read by the -c, -m, and -j options ( -o specifies a file to create, and
       doesn't count) may be replaced by a single argument containing a left parenthesis,
       additional options, then a single argument containing a right parenthesis. A single
       invocation of makemime can only use one -c, -m, or -j option. However, another -c, -m, or
       -j option may be specified inside the left and the right parenthesis, and its output is
       used in place of the file it replaced. In the previous example the third and the fourth
       invocation of makemime can be replaced with the following command:

           makemime -j \(                                           \
                          -m "multipart/alternative"                \
                          -a "Content-Disposition: inline" tmp1.txt \
                        \) -o tmp.ma2                               \

       Note that the parenthesis must be backslashed, to avoid their special meaning to the
       shell. An equivalent argument file would have the following contents:

                     Content-Disposition: inline

       These constructs can be arbitrarily nested, and are limited by the amount of available
       memory and resources. The entire sequence in the previous section is equivalent to the
       following command:

           makemime -j                                                 \
                    \(                                                 \
                       -m "multipart/mixed"                            \
                       -a "Mime-Version: 1.0"                          \
                       \(                                              \
                           -j                                          \
                           \(                                          \
                              -m "multipart/alternative"               \
                              -a "Content-Disposition: inline"         \
                              \(                                       \
                                 -c "text/plain; charset=iso-8859-1"   \
                                 msg.txt                               \
                              \)                                       \
                           \)                                          \
                           \(                                          \
                               -c "text/html; charset=iso-8859-1"      \
                               msg.html                                \
                           \)                                          \
                       \)                                              \
                    \)                                                 \
                    -o output.msg                                      \
                    \(                                                 \
                       -c "image/gif"                                  \
                       -a "Content-Disposition: attachment"            \
                       attachment.gif                                  \

       An equivalent argument file would be:

                  Mime-Version: 1.0
                          Content-Disposition: inline
                              text/plain; charset=iso-8859-1
                          text/html; charset=iso-8859-1
                  Content-Disposition: attachment


       maildrop(1)[5], maildropfilter(5)[6], reformail(1)[7], reformime(1)[8], egrep(1), grep(1),
       courier(8)[9], sendmail(8), RFC 2045[1], RFC 2046[2], RFC 2047[3], RFC 2048[4], RFC


       Sam Varshavchik


        1. RFC 2045

        2. RFC 2046

        3. RFC 2047

        4. RFC 2048

        5. maildrop(1)
           [set $man.base.url.for.relative.links]/maildrop.html

        6. maildropfilter(5)
           [set $man.base.url.for.relative.links]/maildropfilter.html

        7. reformail(1)
           [set $man.base.url.for.relative.links]/reformail.html

        8. reformime(1)
           [set $man.base.url.for.relative.links]/reformime.html

        9. courier(8)
           [set $man.base.url.for.relative.links]/courier.html