Provided by: rrdtool_1.7.2-4ubuntu1_amd64 bug


       rrdcreate - Set up a new Round Robin Database


       rrdtool create filename [--start|-b start time] [--step|-s step] [--template|-t template-
       file] [--source|-r source-file] [--no-overwrite|-O] [--daemon|-d address] [DS:ds-
       name[=mapped-ds-name[[source-index]]]:DST:dst arguments] [RRA:CF:cf arguments]


       The create function of RRDtool lets you set up new Round Robin Database (RRD) files.  The
       file is created at its final, full size and filled with *UNKNOWN* data, unless one or more
       source RRD files have been specified and they hold suitable data to "pre-fill" the new RRD

       The name of the RRD you want to create. RRD files should end with the extension .rrd.
       However, RRDtool will accept any filename.

   --start|-b start time (default: now - 10s)
       Specifies the time in seconds since 1970-01-01 UTC when the first value should be added to
       the RRD. RRDtool will not accept any data timed before or at the time specified.

       See also "AT-STYLE TIME SPECIFICATION" in rrdfetch for other ways to specify time.

       If one or more source files is used to pre-fill the new RRD, the --start option may be
       omitted. In that case, the latest update time among all source files will be used as the
       last update time of the new RRD file, effectively setting the start time.

   --step|-s step (default: 300 seconds)
       Specifies the base interval in seconds with which data will be fed into the RRD.  A
       scaling factor may be present as a suffix to the integer; see "STEP, HEARTBEAT, and Rows
       As Durations".

       Do not clobber an existing file of the same name.

   --daemon|-d address
       Address of the rrdcached daemon.  For a list of accepted formats, see the -l option in the
       rrdcached manual.

        rrdtool create --daemon unix:/var/run/rrdcached.sock /var/lib/rrd/foo.rrd I<other options>

   [--template|-t template-file]
       Specifies a template RRD file to take step, DS and RRA definitions from. This allows one
       to base the structure of a new file on some existing file. The data of the template file
       is NOT used for pre-filling, but it is possible to specify the same file as a source file
       (see below).

       Additional DS and RRA definitions are permitted, and will be added to those taken from the

   --source|-r source-file
       One or more source RRD files may be named on the command line. Data from these source
       files will be used to prefill the created RRD file. The output file and one source file
       may refer to the same file name. This will effectively replace the source file with the
       new RRD file. While there is the danger to loose the source file because it gets replaced,
       there is no danger that the source and the new file may be "garbled" together at any point
       in time, because the new file will always be created as a temporary file first and will
       only be moved to its final destination once it has been written in its entirety.

       Prefilling is done by matching up DS names, RRAs and consolidation functions and choosing
       the best available data resolution when doing so. Prefilling may not be mathematically
       correct in all cases (e.g. if resolutions have to change due to changed stepping of the
       target RRD and old and new resolutions do not match up with old/new bin boundaries in

       In other words: A best effort is made to preserve data during prefilling.  Also, pre-
       filling of RRAs may only be possible for certain kinds of DS types. Prefilling may also
       have strange effects on Holt-Winters forecasting RRAs. In other words: there is no
       guarantee for data-correctness.

       When "pre-filling" a RRD file, the structure of the new file must be specified as usual
       using DS and RRA specifications as outlined below. Data will be taken from source files
       based on DS names and types and in the order the source files are specified in. Data
       sources with the same name from different source files will be combined to form a new data
       source. Generally, for any point in time the new RRD file will cover after its creation,
       data from only one source file will have been used for pre-filling. However, data from
       multiple sources may be combined if it refers to different times or an earlier named
       source file holds unknown data for a time where a later one holds known data.

       If this automatic data selection is not desired, the DS syntax allows one to specify a
       mapping of target and source data sources for prefilling. This syntax allows one to rename
       data sources and to restrict prefilling for a DS to only use data from a single source

       Prefilling currently only works reliably for RRAs using one of the classic consolidation
       functions, that is one of: AVERAGE, MIN, MAX, LAST. It might also currently have problems
       with COMPUTE data sources.

       Note that the act of prefilling during create is similar to a lot of the operations
       available via the tune command, but using create syntax.

   DS:ds-name[=mapped-ds-name[[source-index]]]:DST:dst arguments
       A single RRD can accept input from several data sources (DS), for example incoming and
       outgoing traffic on a specific communication line. With the DS configuration option you
       must define some basic properties of each data source you want to store in the RRD.

       ds-name is the name you will use to reference this particular data source from an RRD. A
       ds-name must be 1 to 19 characters long in the characters [a-zA-Z0-9_].

       DST defines the Data Source Type. The remaining arguments of a data source entry depend on
       the data source type. For GAUGE, COUNTER, DERIVE, DCOUNTER, DDERIVE and ABSOLUTE the
       format for a data source entry is:

       DS:ds-name:{GAUGE | COUNTER | DERIVE | DCOUNTER | DDERIVE | ABSOLUTE}:heartbeat:min:max

       For COMPUTE data sources, the format is:


       In order to decide which data source type to use, review the definitions that follow. Also
       consult the section on "HOW TO MEASURE" for further insight.

           is for things like temperatures or number of people in a room or the value of a RedHat

           is for continuous incrementing counters like the ifInOctets counter in a router. The
           COUNTER data source assumes that the counter never decreases, except when a counter
           overflows.  The update function takes the overflow into account.  The counter is
           stored as a per-second rate. When the counter overflows, RRDtool checks if the
           overflow happened at the 32bit or 64bit border and acts accordingly by adding an
           appropriate value to the result.

           the same as COUNTER, but for quantities expressed as double-precision floating point
           number.  Could be used to track quantities that increment by non-integer numbers, i.e.
           number of seconds that some routine has taken to run, total weight processed by some
           technology equipment etc.  The only substantial difference is that DCOUNTER can either
           be upward counting or downward counting, but not both at the same time.  The current
           direction is detected automatically on the second non-undefined counter update and any
           further change in the direction is considered a reset.  The new direction is
           determined and locked in by the second update after reset and its difference to the
           value at reset.

           will store the derivative of the line going from the last to the current value of the
           data source. This can be useful for gauges, for example, to measure the rate of people
           entering or leaving a room. Internally, derive works exactly like COUNTER but without
           overflow checks. So if your counter does not reset at 32 or 64 bit you might want to
           use DERIVE and combine it with a MIN value of 0.

           the same as DERIVE, but for quantities expressed as double-precision floating point

           NOTE on COUNTER vs DERIVE

           by Don Baarda <>

           If you cannot tolerate ever mistaking the occasional counter reset for a legitimate
           counter wrap, and would prefer "Unknowns" for all legitimate counter wraps and resets,
           always use DERIVE with min=0. Otherwise, using COUNTER with a suitable max will return
           correct values for all legitimate counter wraps, mark some counter resets as
           "Unknown", but can mistake some counter resets for a legitimate counter wrap.

           For a 5 minute step and 32-bit counter, the probability of mistaking a counter reset
           for a legitimate wrap is arguably about 0.8% per 1Mbps of maximum bandwidth. Note that
           this equates to 80% for 100Mbps interfaces, so for high bandwidth interfaces and a
           32bit counter, DERIVE with min=0 is probably preferable. If you are using a 64bit
           counter, just about any max setting will eliminate the possibility of mistaking a
           reset for a counter wrap.

           is for counters which get reset upon reading. This is used for fast counters which
           tend to overflow. So instead of reading them normally you reset them after every read
           to make sure you have a maximum time available before the next overflow. Another usage
           is for things you count like number of messages since the last update.

           is for storing the result of a formula applied to other data sources in the RRD. This
           data source is not supplied a value on update, but rather its Primary Data Points
           (PDPs) are computed from the PDPs of the data sources according to the rpn-expression
           that defines the formula. Consolidation functions are then applied normally to the
           PDPs of the COMPUTE data source (that is the rpn-expression is only applied to
           generate PDPs). In database software, such data sets are referred to as "virtual" or
           "computed" columns.

       heartbeat defines the maximum number of seconds that may pass between two updates of this
       data source before the value of the data source is assumed to be *UNKNOWN*.

       min and max define the expected range values for data supplied by a data source. If min
       and/or max are specified any value outside the defined range will be regarded as
       *UNKNOWN*. If you do not know or care about min and max, set them to U for unknown. Note
       that min and max always refer to the processed values of the DS. For a traffic-COUNTER
       type DS this would be the maximum and minimum data-rate expected from the device.

       If information on minimal/maximal expected values is available, always set the min and/or
       max properties. This will help RRDtool in doing a simple sanity check on the data supplied
       when running update.

       rpn-expression defines the formula used to compute the PDPs of a COMPUTE data source from
       other data sources in the same <RRD>. It is similar to defining a CDEF argument for the
       graph command. Please refer to that manual page for a list and description of RPN
       operations supported. For COMPUTE data sources, the following RPN operations are not
       supported: COUNT, PREV, TIME, and LTIME. In addition, in defining the RPN expression, the
       COMPUTE data source may only refer to the names of data source listed previously in the
       create command. This is similar to the restriction that CDEFs must refer only to DEFs and
       CDEFs previously defined in the same graph command.

       When pre-filling the new RRD file using one or more source RRDs, the DS specification may
       hold an optional mapping after the DS name. This takes the form of an equal sign followed
       by a mapped-to DS name and an optional source index enclosed in square brackets.

       For example, the DS


       specifies that the DS named a should be pre-filled from the DS named b in the second
       listed source file (source indices are 1-based).

   RRA:CF:cf arguments
       The purpose of an RRD is to store data in the round robin archives (RRA). An archive
       consists of a number of data values or statistics for each of the defined data-sources
       (DS) and is defined with an RRA line.

       When data is entered into an RRD, it is first fit into time slots of the length defined
       with the -s option, thus becoming a primary data point.

       The data is also processed with the consolidation function (CF) of the archive. There are
       several consolidation functions that consolidate primary data points via an aggregate
       function: AVERAGE, MIN, MAX, LAST.

           the average of the data points is stored.

       MIN the smallest of the data points is stored.

       MAX the largest of the data points is stored.

           the last data points is used.

       Note that data aggregation inevitably leads to loss of precision and information. The
       trick is to pick the aggregate function such that the interesting properties of your data
       is kept across the aggregation process.

       The format of RRA line for these consolidation functions is:

       RRA:{AVERAGE | MIN | MAX | LAST}:xff:steps:rows

       xff The xfiles factor defines what part of a consolidation interval may be made up from
       *UNKNOWN* data while the consolidated value is still regarded as known. It is given as the
       ratio of allowed *UNKNOWN* PDPs to the number of PDPs in the interval. Thus, it ranges
       from 0 to 1 (exclusive).

       steps defines how many of these primary data points are used to build a consolidated data
       point which then goes into the archive.  See also "STEP, HEARTBEAT, and Rows As

       rows defines how many generations of data values are kept in an RRA.  Obviously, this has
       to be greater than zero.  See also "STEP, HEARTBEAT, and Rows As Durations".

Aberrant Behavior Detection with Holt-Winters Forecasting

       In addition to the aggregate functions, there are a set of specialized functions that
       enable RRDtool to provide data smoothing (via the Holt-Winters forecasting algorithm),
       confidence bands, and the flagging aberrant behavior in the data source time series:

       •   RRA:HWPREDICT:rows:alpha:beta:seasonal period[:rra-num]

       •   RRA:MHWPREDICT:rows:alpha:beta:seasonal period[:rra-num]

       •   RRA:SEASONAL:seasonal period:gamma:rra-num[:smoothing-window=fraction]

       •   RRA:DEVSEASONAL:seasonal period:gamma:rra-num[:smoothing-window=fraction]

       •   RRA:DEVPREDICT:rows:rra-numRRA:FAILURES:rows:threshold:window length:rra-num

       These RRAs differ from the true consolidation functions in several ways.  First, each of
       the RRAs is updated once for every primary data point.  Second, these RRAs are
       interdependent. To generate real-time confidence bounds, a matched set of SEASONAL,
       DEVSEASONAL, DEVPREDICT, and either HWPREDICT or MHWPREDICT must exist. Generating
       smoothed values of the primary data points requires a SEASONAL RRA and either an HWPREDICT
       or MHWPREDICT RRA. Aberrant behavior detection requires FAILURES, DEVSEASONAL, SEASONAL,
       and either HWPREDICT or MHWPREDICT.

       The predicted, or smoothed, values are stored in the HWPREDICT or MHWPREDICT RRA.
       HWPREDICT and MHWPREDICT are actually two variations on the Holt-Winters method. They are
       interchangeable. Both attempt to decompose data into three components: a baseline, a
       trend, and a seasonal coefficient.  HWPREDICT adds its seasonal coefficient to the
       baseline to form a prediction, whereas MHWPREDICT multiplies its seasonal coefficient by
       the baseline to form a prediction. The difference is noticeable when the baseline changes
       significantly in the course of a season; HWPREDICT will predict the seasonality to stay
       constant as the baseline changes, but MHWPREDICT will predict the seasonality to grow or
       shrink in proportion to the baseline. The proper choice of method depends on the thing
       being modeled. For simplicity, the rest of this discussion will refer to HWPREDICT, but
       MHWPREDICT may be substituted in its place.

       The predicted deviations are stored in DEVPREDICT (think a standard deviation which can be
       scaled to yield a confidence band). The FAILURES RRA stores binary indicators. A 1 marks
       the indexed observation as failure; that is, the number of confidence bounds violations in
       the preceding window of observations met or exceeded a specified threshold. An example of
       using these RRAs to graph confidence bounds and failures appears in rrdgraph.

       The SEASONAL and DEVSEASONAL RRAs store the seasonal coefficients for the Holt-Winters
       forecasting algorithm and the seasonal deviations, respectively.  There is one entry per
       observation time point in the seasonal cycle. For example, if primary data points are
       generated every five minutes and the seasonal cycle is 1 day, both SEASONAL and
       DEVSEASONAL will have 288 rows.

       In order to simplify the creation for the novice user, in addition to supporting explicit
       RRDtool create command supports implicit creation of the other four when HWPREDICT is
       specified alone and the final argument rra-num is omitted.

       rows specifies the length of the RRA prior to wrap around. Remember that there is a one-
       to-one correspondence between primary data points and entries in these RRAs. For the
       HWPREDICT CF, rows should be larger than the seasonal period. If the DEVPREDICT RRA is
       implicitly created, the default number of rows is the same as the HWPREDICT rows argument.
       If the FAILURES RRA is implicitly created, rows will be set to the seasonal period
       argument of the HWPREDICT RRA. Of course, the RRDtool resize command is available if these
       defaults are not sufficient and the creator wishes to avoid explicit creations of the
       other specialized function RRAs.

       seasonal period specifies the number of primary data points in a seasonal cycle. If
       SEASONAL and DEVSEASONAL are implicitly created, this argument for those RRAs is set
       automatically to the value specified by HWPREDICT. If they are explicitly created, the
       creator should verify that all three seasonal period arguments agree.

       alpha is the adaption parameter of the intercept (or baseline) coefficient in the Holt-
       Winters forecasting algorithm. See rrdtool for a description of this algorithm. alpha must
       lie between 0 and 1. A value closer to 1 means that more recent observations carry greater
       weight in predicting the baseline component of the forecast. A value closer to 0 means
       that past history carries greater weight in predicting the baseline component.

       beta is the adaption parameter of the slope (or linear trend) coefficient in the Holt-
       Winters forecasting algorithm. beta must lie between 0 and 1 and plays the same role as
       alpha with respect to the predicted linear trend.

       gamma is the adaption parameter of the seasonal coefficients in the Holt-Winters
       forecasting algorithm (HWPREDICT) or the adaption parameter in the exponential smoothing
       update of the seasonal deviations. It must lie between 0 and 1. If the SEASONAL and
       DEVSEASONAL RRAs are created implicitly, they will both have the same value for gamma: the
       value specified for the HWPREDICT alpha argument. Note that because there is one seasonal
       coefficient (or deviation) for each time point during the seasonal cycle, the adaptation
       rate is much slower than the baseline. Each seasonal coefficient is only updated (or
       adapts) when the observed value occurs at the offset in the seasonal cycle corresponding
       to that coefficient.

       If SEASONAL and DEVSEASONAL RRAs are created explicitly, gamma need not be the same for
       both. Note that gamma can also be changed via the RRDtool tune command.

       smoothing-window specifies the fraction of a season that should be averaged around each
       point. By default, the value of smoothing-window is 0.05, which means each value in
       SEASONAL and DEVSEASONAL will be occasionally replaced by averaging it with its (seasonal
       period*0.05) nearest neighbors.  Setting smoothing-window to zero will disable the
       running-average smoother altogether.

       rra-num provides the links between related RRAs. If HWPREDICT is specified alone and the
       other RRAs are created implicitly, then there is no need to worry about this argument. If
       RRAs are created explicitly, then carefully pay attention to this argument. For each RRA
       which includes this argument, there is a dependency between that RRA and another RRA. The
       rra-num argument is the 1-based index in the order of RRA creation (that is, the order
       they appear in the create command). The dependent RRA for each RRA requiring the rra-num
       argument is listed here:

       •   HWPREDICT rra-num is the index of the SEASONAL RRA.

       •   SEASONAL rra-num is the index of the HWPREDICT RRA.

       •   DEVPREDICT rra-num is the index of the DEVSEASONAL RRA.

       •   DEVSEASONAL rra-num is the index of the HWPREDICT RRA.

       •   FAILURES rra-num is the index of the DEVSEASONAL RRA.

       threshold is the minimum number of violations (observed values outside the confidence
       bounds) within a window that constitutes a failure. If the FAILURES RRA is implicitly
       created, the default value is 7.

       window length is the number of time points in the window. Specify an integer greater than
       or equal to the threshold and less than or equal to 28.  The time interval this window
       represents depends on the interval between primary data points. If the FAILURES RRA is
       implicitly created, the default value is 9.

STEP, HEARTBEAT, and Rows As Durations

       Traditionally RRDtool specified PDP intervals in seconds, and most other values as either
       seconds or PDP counts.  This made the specification for databases rather opaque; for

        rrdtool create power.rrd \
          --start now-2h --step 1 \
          DS:watts:GAUGE:300:0:24000 \
          RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:1:864000 \
          RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:60:129600 \
          RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:3600:13392 \

       creates a database of power values collected once per second, with a five minute (300
       second) heartbeat, and four RRAs: ten days of one second, 90 days of one minute, 18 months
       of one hour, and ten years of one day averages.

       Step, heartbeat, and PDP counts and rows may also be specified as durations, which are
       positive integers with a single-character suffix that specifies a scaling factor.  See
       "rrd_scaled_duration" in librrd for scale factors of the supported suffixes: "s"
       (seconds), "m" (minutes), "h" (hours), "d" (days), "w" (weeks), "M" (months), and "y"

       Scaled step and heartbeat values (which are natively durations in seconds) are used
       directly, while consolidation function row arguments are divided by their step to produce
       the number of rows.

       With this feature the same specification as above can be written as:

        rrdtool create power.rrd \
          --start now-2h --step 1s \
          DS:watts:GAUGE:5m:0:24000 \
          RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:1s:10d \
          RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:1m:90d \
          RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:1h:18M \


       Here is an explanation by Don Baarda on the inner workings of RRDtool.  It may help you to
       sort out why all this *UNKNOWN* data is popping up in your databases:

       RRDtool gets fed samples/updates at arbitrary times. From these it builds Primary Data
       Points (PDPs) on every "step" interval. The PDPs are then accumulated into the RRAs.

       The "heartbeat" defines the maximum acceptable interval between samples/updates. If the
       interval between samples is less than "heartbeat", then an average rate is calculated and
       applied for that interval. If the interval between samples is longer than "heartbeat",
       then that entire interval is considered "unknown". Note that there are other things that
       can make a sample interval "unknown", such as the rate exceeding limits, or a sample that
       was explicitly marked as unknown.

       The known rates during a PDP's "step" interval are used to calculate an average rate for
       that PDP. If the total "unknown" time accounts for more than half the "step", the entire
       PDP is marked as "unknown". This means that a mixture of known and "unknown" sample times
       in a single PDP "step" may or may not add up to enough "known" time to warrant a known

       The "heartbeat" can be short (unusual) or long (typical) relative to the "step" interval
       between PDPs. A short "heartbeat" means you require multiple samples per PDP, and if you
       don't get them mark the PDP unknown. A long heartbeat can span multiple "steps", which
       means it is acceptable to have multiple PDPs calculated from a single sample. An extreme
       example of this might be a "step" of 5 minutes and a "heartbeat" of one day, in which case
       a single sample every day will result in all the PDPs for that entire day period being set
       to the same average rate. -- Don Baarda <>

              u|02|----* sample1, restart "hb"-timer
              u|03|   /
              u|04|  /
              u|05| /
              u|06|/     "hbt" expired
               |08|----* sample2, restart "hb"
               |09|   /
               |10|  /
              u|11|----* sample3, restart "hb"
              u|12|   /
              u|13|  /
        step1_u|14| /
              u|15|/     "swt" expired
               |17|----* sample4, restart "hb", create "pdp" for step1 =
               |18|   /  = unknown due to 10 "u" labeled secs > 0.5 * step
               |19|  /
               |20| /
               |21|----* sample5, restart "hb"
               |22|   /
               |23|  /
               |24|----* sample6, restart "hb"
               |25|   /
               |26|  /
               |27|----* sample7, restart "hb"
        step2__|28|   /
               |22|  /
               |23|----* sample8, restart "hb", create "pdp" for step1, create "cdp"
               |24|   /
               |25|  /

       graphics by


       Here are a few hints on how to measure:

           Usually you have some type of meter you can read to get the temperature.  The
           temperature is not really connected with a time. The only connection is that the
           temperature reading happened at a certain time. You can use the GAUGE data source type
           for this. RRDtool will then record your reading together with the time.

       Mail Messages
           Assume you have a method to count the number of messages transported by your mail
           server in a certain amount of time, giving you data like '5 messages in the last 65
           seconds'. If you look at the count of 5 like an ABSOLUTE data type you can simply
           update the RRD with the number 5 and the end time of your monitoring period. RRDtool
           will then record the number of messages per second. If at some later stage you want to
           know the number of messages transported in a day, you can get the average messages per
           second from RRDtool for the day in question and multiply this number with the number
           of seconds in a day. Because all math is run with Doubles, the precision should be

       It's always a Rate
           RRDtool stores rates in amount/second for COUNTER, DERIVE, DCOUNTER, DDERIVE and
           ABSOLUTE data.  When you plot the data, you will get on the y axis amount/second which
           you might be tempted to convert to an absolute amount by multiplying by the delta-time
           between the points. RRDtool plots continuous data, and as such is not appropriate for
           plotting absolute amounts as for example "total bytes" sent and received in a router.
           What you probably want is plot rates that you can scale to bytes/hour, for example, or
           plot absolute amounts with another tool that draws bar-plots, where the delta-time is
           clear on the plot for each point (such that when you read the graph you see for
           example GB on the y axis, days on the x axis and one bar for each day).


        rrdtool create temperature.rrd --step 300 \
         DS:temp:GAUGE:600:-273:5000 \
         RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:1:1200 \
         RRA:MIN:0.5:12:2400 \
         RRA:MAX:0.5:12:2400 \

       This sets up an RRD called temperature.rrd which accepts one temperature value every 300
       seconds. If no new data is supplied for more than 600 seconds, the temperature becomes
       *UNKNOWN*.  The minimum acceptable value is -273 and the maximum is 5'000.

       A few archive areas are also defined. The first stores the temperatures supplied for 100
       hours (1'200 * 300 seconds = 100 hours). The second RRA stores the minimum temperature
       recorded over every hour (12 * 300 seconds = 1 hour), for 100 days (2'400 hours). The
       third and the fourth RRA's do the same for the maximum and average temperature,


        rrdtool create monitor.rrd --step 300        \
          DS:ifOutOctets:COUNTER:1800:0:4294967295   \
          RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:1:2016                     \

       This example is a monitor of a router interface. The first RRA tracks the traffic flow in
       octets; the second RRA generates the specialized functions RRAs for aberrant behavior
       detection. Note that the rra-num argument of HWPREDICT is missing, so the other RRAs will
       implicitly be created with default parameter values. In this example, the forecasting
       algorithm baseline adapts quickly; in fact the most recent one hour of observations (each
       at 5 minute intervals) accounts for 75% of the baseline prediction. The linear trend
       forecast adapts much more slowly. Observations made during the last day (at 288
       observations per day) account for only 65% of the predicted linear trend. Note: these
       computations rely on an exponential smoothing formula described in the LISA 2000 paper.

       The seasonal cycle is one day (288 data points at 300 second intervals), and the seasonal
       adaption parameter will be set to 0.1. The RRD file will store 5 days (1'440 data points)
       of forecasts and deviation predictions before wrap around. The file will store 1 day (a
       seasonal cycle) of 0-1 indicators in the FAILURES RRA.

       The same RRD file and RRAs are created with the following command, which explicitly
       creates all specialized function RRAs using "STEP, HEARTBEAT, and Rows As Durations".

        rrdtool create monitor.rrd --step 5m \
          DS:ifOutOctets:COUNTER:30m:0:4294967295 \
          RRA:AVERAGE:0.5:1:2016 \
          RRA:HWPREDICT:5d:0.1:0.0035:1d:3 \
          RRA:SEASONAL:1d:0.1:2 \
          RRA:DEVSEASONAL:1d:0.1:2 \
          RRA:DEVPREDICT:5d:5 \

       Of course, explicit creation need not replicate implicit create, a number of arguments
       could be changed.


        rrdtool create proxy.rrd --step 300 \
          DS:Requests:DERIVE:1800:0:U  \
          DS:Duration:DERIVE:1800:0:U  \
          DS:AvgReqDur:COMPUTE:Duration,Requests,0,EQ,1,Requests,IF,/ \

       This example is monitoring the average request duration during each 300 sec interval for
       requests processed by a web proxy during the interval.  In this case, the proxy exposes
       two counters, the number of requests processed since boot and the total cumulative
       duration of all processed requests. Clearly these counters both have some rollover point,
       but using the DERIVE data source also handles the reset that occurs when the web proxy is
       stopped and restarted.

       In the RRD, the first data source stores the requests per second rate during the interval.
       The second data source stores the total duration of all requests processed during the
       interval divided by 300. The COMPUTE data source divides each PDP of the AccumDuration by
       the corresponding PDP of TotalRequests and stores the average request duration. The
       remainder of the RPN expression handles the divide by zero case.


       Note that new rrd files will have the permission 0644 regardless of your umask setting. If
       a file with the same name previously exists, its permission settings will be copied to the
       new file.


       Tobias Oetiker <>, Peter Stamfest <>