Provided by: youtube-dl_2021.12.17-1_all bug


       youtube-dl - download videos from or other video platforms


       youtube-dl [OPTIONS] URL [URL...]


       youtube-dl  is  a  command-line program to download videos from and a few more
       sites.  It requires the Python interpreter, version 2.6, 2.7,  or  3.2+,  and  it  is  not
       platform  specific.   It  should  work  on  your  Unix box, on Windows or on macOS.  It is
       released to the public domain, which means you can modify it, redistribute it  or  use  it
       however you like.


       -h, --help
              Print this help text and exit

              Print program version and exit

       -i, --ignore-errors
              Continue on download errors, for example to skip unavailable videos in a playlist

              Abort  downloading  of  further  videos (in the playlist or the command line) if an
              error occurs

              Display the current browser identification

              List all supported extractors

              Output descriptions of all supported extractors

              Force extraction to use the generic extractor

       --default-search PREFIX
              Use this prefix for unqualified  URLs.   For  example  "gvsearch2:"  downloads  two
              videos  from  google videos for youtube- dl "large apple".  Use the value "auto" to
              let youtube-dl guess ("auto_warning" to emit a  warning  when  guessing).   "error"
              just  throws  an  error.   The default value "fixup_error" repairs broken URLs, but
              emits an error if this is not possible instead of searching.

              Do not read configuration files.  When  given  in  the  global  configuration  file
              /etc/youtube-dl.conf:  Do  not  read  the  user configuration in ~/.config/youtube-
              dl/config (%APPDATA%/youtube-dl/config.txt on Windows)

       --config-location PATH
              Location of the configuration file; either the path to the config or its containing

              Do not extract the videos of a playlist, only list them.

              Mark videos watched (YouTube only)

              Do not mark videos watched (YouTube only)

              Do not emit color codes in output

   Network Options:
       --proxy URL
              Use  the specified HTTP/HTTPS/SOCKS proxy.  To enable SOCKS proxy, specify a proper
              scheme.  For example socks5://  Pass in an  empty  string  (--proxy
              "") for direct connection

       --socket-timeout SECONDS
              Time to wait before giving up, in seconds

       --source-address IP
              Client-side IP address to bind to

       -4, --force-ipv4
              Make all connections via IPv4

       -6, --force-ipv6
              Make all connections via IPv6

   Geo Restriction:
       --geo-verification-proxy URL
              Use this proxy to verify the IP address for some geo-restricted sites.  The default
              proxy specified by --proxy (or none, if the option is not present) is used for  the
              actual downloading.

              Bypass geographic restriction via faking X-Forwarded-For HTTP header

              Do not bypass geographic restriction via faking X-Forwarded-For HTTP header

       --geo-bypass-country CODE
              Force  bypass geographic restriction with explicitly provided two-letter ISO 3166-2
              country code

       --geo-bypass-ip-block IP_BLOCK
              Force bypass geographic restriction with  explicitly  provided  IP  block  in  CIDR

   Video Selection:
       --playlist-start NUMBER
              Playlist video to start at (default is 1)

       --playlist-end NUMBER
              Playlist video to end at (default is last)

       --playlist-items ITEM_SPEC
              Playlist  video  items  to download.  Specify indices of the videos in the playlist
              separated by commas like: "-- playlist-items  1,2,5,8"  if  you  want  to  download
              videos  indexed  1,  2, 5, 8 in the playlist.  You can specify range: " --playlist-
              items 1-3,7,10-13", it will download the videos at index 1, 2, 3, 7, 10, 11, 12 and

       --match-title REGEX
              Download only matching titles (regex or caseless sub-string)

       --reject-title REGEX
              Skip download for matching titles (regex or caseless sub-string)

       --max-downloads NUMBER
              Abort after downloading NUMBER files

       --min-filesize SIZE
              Do not download any videos smaller than SIZE (e.g.  50k or 44.6m)

       --max-filesize SIZE
              Do not download any videos larger than SIZE (e.g.  50k or 44.6m)

       --date DATE
              Download only videos uploaded in this date

       --datebefore DATE
              Download only videos uploaded on or before this date (i.e.  inclusive)

       --dateafter DATE
              Download only videos uploaded on or after this date (i.e.  inclusive)

       --min-views COUNT
              Do not download any videos with less than COUNT views

       --max-views COUNT
              Do not download any videos with more than COUNT views

       --match-filter FILTER
              Generic  video  filter.   Specify  any key (see the "OUTPUT TEMPLATE" for a list of
              available keys) to match if the key is present, !key to check if  the  key  is  not
              present, key > NUMBER (like "comment_count > 12", also works with >=, <, <=, !=, =)
              to compare against a number, key = 'LITERAL' (like "uploader = 'Mike Smith'",  also
              works with !=) to match against a string literal and & to require multiple matches.
              Values which are not known are excluded unless you put a question  mark  (?)  after
              the operator.  For example, to only match videos that have been liked more than 100
              times and disliked less  than  50  times  (or  the  dislike  functionality  is  not
              available  at  the  given  service),  but who also have a description, use --match-
              filter "like_count > 100 & dislike_count <?  50 & description" .

              Download only the video, if the URL refers to a video and a playlist.

              Download the playlist, if the URL refers to a video and a playlist.

       --age-limit YEARS
              Download only videos suitable for the given age

       --download-archive FILE
              Download only videos not listed in  the  archive  file.   Record  the  IDs  of  all
              downloaded videos in it.

              Download advertisements as well (experimental)

   Download Options:
       -r, --limit-rate RATE
              Maximum download rate in bytes per second (e.g.  50K or 4.2M)

       -R, --retries RETRIES
              Number of retries (default is 10), or "infinite".

       --fragment-retries RETRIES
              Number  of  retries  for a fragment (default is 10), or "infinite" (DASH, hlsnative
              and ISM)

              Skip unavailable fragments (DASH, hlsnative and ISM)

              Abort downloading when some fragment is not available

              Keep downloaded fragments on disk after  downloading  is  finished;  fragments  are
              erased by default

       --buffer-size SIZE
              Size of download buffer (e.g.  1024 or 16K) (default is 1024)

              Do  not  automatically  adjust  the  buffer  size.   By default, the buffer size is
              automatically resized from an initial value of SIZE.

       --http-chunk-size SIZE
              Size of a chunk for chunk-based HTTP downloading (e.g.  10485760 or  10M)  (default
              is  disabled).   May  be  useful  for  bypassing  bandwidth throttling imposed by a
              webserver (experimental)

              Download playlist videos in reverse order

              Download playlist videos in random order

              Set file xattribute ytdl.filesize with expected file size

              Use the native HLS downloader instead of ffmpeg

              Use ffmpeg instead of the native HLS downloader

              Use the mpegts  container  for  HLS  videos,  allowing  to  play  the  video  while
              downloading (some players may not be able to play it)

       --external-downloader COMMAND
              Use  the  specified  external  downloader.  Currently supports aria2c,avconv,axel,c

       --external-downloader-args ARGS
              Give these arguments to the external downloader

   Filesystem Options:
       -a, --batch-file FILE
              File containing URLs to download ('-' for stdin), one URL per line.  Lines starting
              with '#', ';' or ']' are considered as comments and ignored.

       --id   Use only video ID in file name

       -o, --output TEMPLATE
              Output filename template, see the "OUTPUT TEMPLATE" for all the info

       --output-na-placeholder PLACEHOLDER
              Placeholder  value for unavailable meta fields in output filename template (default
              is "NA")

       --autonumber-start NUMBER
              Specify the start value for %(autonumber)s (default is 1)

              Restrict filenames to only ASCII characters, and avoid "&" and spaces in filenames

       -w, --no-overwrites
              Do not overwrite files

       -c, --continue
              Force resume of partially downloaded files.  By  default,  youtube-dl  will  resume
              downloads if possible.

              Do not resume partially downloaded files (restart from beginning)

              Do not use .part files - write directly into output file

              Do not use the Last-modified header to set the file modification time

              Write video description to a .description file

              Write video metadata to a .info.json file

              Write video annotations to a .annotations.xml file

       --load-info-json FILE
              JSON  file  containing the video information (created with the "--write- info-json"

       --cookies FILE
              File to read cookies from and dump cookie jar in

       --cache-dir DIR
              Location in the filesystem where youtube-dl can store some  downloaded  information
              permanently.   By  default  $XDG_CACHE_HOME/youtube-dl or ~/.cache/youtube-dl .  At
              the moment, only YouTube player files (for videos with obfuscated  signatures)  are
              cached, but that may change.

              Disable filesystem caching

              Delete all filesystem cache files

   Thumbnail Options:
              Write thumbnail image to disk

              Write all thumbnail image formats to disk

              Simulate and list all available thumbnail formats

   Verbosity / Simulation Options:
       -q, --quiet
              Activate quiet mode

              Ignore warnings

       -s, --simulate
              Do not download the video and do not write anything to disk

              Do not download the video

       -g, --get-url
              Simulate, quiet but print URL

       -e, --get-title
              Simulate, quiet but print title

              Simulate, quiet but print id

              Simulate, quiet but print thumbnail URL

              Simulate, quiet but print video description

              Simulate, quiet but print video length

              Simulate, quiet but print output filename

              Simulate, quiet but print output format

       -j, --dump-json
              Simulate,  quiet  but  print  JSON  information.   See  the "OUTPUT TEMPLATE" for a
              description of available keys.

       -J, --dump-single-json
              Simulate, quiet but print JSON information for each command-line argument.  If  the
              URL refers to a playlist, dump the whole playlist information in a single line.

              Be quiet and print the video information as JSON (video is still being downloaded).

              Output progress bar as new lines

              Do not print progress bar

              Display progress in console titlebar

       -v, --verbose
              Print various debugging information

              Print downloaded pages encoded using base64 to debug problems (very verbose)

              Write  downloaded  intermediary  pages  to  files in the current directory to debug

              Display sent and read HTTP traffic

       -C, --call-home
              Contact the youtube-dl server for debugging

              Do NOT contact the youtube-dl server for debugging

       --encoding ENCODING
              Force the specified encoding (experimental)

              Suppress HTTPS certificate validation

              Use an unencrypted connection to retrieve information about the video.   (Currently
              supported only for YouTube)

       --user-agent UA
              Specify a custom user agent

       --referer URL
              Specify a custom referer, use if the video access is restricted to one domain

       --add-header FIELD:VALUE
              Specify  a custom HTTP header and its value, separated by a colon ':'.  You can use
              this option multiple times

              Work around terminals that lack bidirectional  text  support.   Requires  bidiv  or
              fribidi executable in PATH

       --sleep-interval SECONDS
              Number of seconds to sleep before each download when used alone or a lower bound of
              a range for randomized sleep before  each  download  (minimum  possible  number  of
              seconds to sleep) when used along with --max-sleep-interval.

       --max-sleep-interval SECONDS
              Upper  bound of a range for randomized sleep before each download (maximum possible
              number of seconds to sleep).  Must only be used along with --min- sleep-interval.

   Video Format Options:
       -f, --format FORMAT
              Video format code, see the "FORMAT SELECTION" for all the info

              Download all available video formats

              Prefer free video formats unless a specific one is requested

       -F, --list-formats
              List all available formats of requested videos

              Do not download the DASH manifests and related data on YouTube videos

       --merge-output-format FORMAT
              If a merge is required  (e.g.   bestvideo+bestaudio),  output  to  given  container
              format.  One of mkv, mp4, ogg, webm, flv.  Ignored if no merge is required

   Subtitle Options:
              Write subtitle file

              Write automatically generated subtitle file (YouTube only)

              Download all the available subtitles of the video

              List all available subtitles for the video

       --sub-format FORMAT
              Subtitle format, accepts formats preference, for example: "srt" or "ass/srt/best"

       --sub-lang LANGS
              Languages  of the subtitles to download (optional) separated by commas, use --list-
              subs for available language tags

   Authentication Options:
       -u, --username USERNAME
              Login with this account ID

       -p, --password PASSWORD
              Account password.  If this option is left out, youtube-dl will ask interactively.

       -2, --twofactor TWOFACTOR
              Two-factor authentication code

       -n, --netrc
              Use .netrc authentication data

       --video-password PASSWORD
              Video password (vimeo, youku)

   Adobe Pass Options:
       --ap-mso MSO
              Adobe Pass multiple-system operator (TV provider) identifier, use --ap-list-mso for
              a list of available MSOs

       --ap-username USERNAME
              Multiple-system operator account login

       --ap-password PASSWORD
              Multiple-system  operator account password.  If this option is left out, youtube-dl
              will ask interactively.

              List all supported multiple-system operators

   Post-processing Options:
       -x, --extract-audio
              Convert   video   files   to   audio-only   files   (requires   ffmpeg/avconv   and

       --audio-format FORMAT
              Specify  audio  format:  "best",  "aac", "flac", "mp3", "m4a", "opus", "vorbis", or
              "wav"; "best" by default; No effect without -x

       --audio-quality QUALITY
              Specify ffmpeg/avconv audio quality, insert  a  value  between  0  (better)  and  9
              (worse) for VBR or a specific bitrate like 128K (default 5)

       --recode-video FORMAT
              Encode   the   video   to   another   format  if  necessary  (currently  supported:

       --postprocessor-args ARGS
              Give these arguments to the postprocessor

       -k, --keep-video
              Keep the video file on disk after the  post-processing;  the  video  is  erased  by

              Do  not overwrite post-processed files; the post-processed files are overwritten by

              Embed subtitles in the video (only for mp4, webm and mkv videos)

              Embed thumbnail in the audio as cover art

              Write metadata to the video file

       --metadata-from-title FORMAT
              Parse additional metadata like song title /  artist  from  the  video  title.   The
              format  syntax  is  the  same  as  --output.  Regular expression with named capture
              groups may also be used.  The parsed parameters replace existing values.   Example:
              --metadata-from-title  "%(artist)s  -  %(title)s"  matches a title like "Coldplay -
              Paradise".  Example (regex): --metadata-from-title "(?P.+?) - (?P

              Write metadata to the video file's xattrs (using dublin core and xdg standards)

       --fixup POLICY
              Automatically correct known faults of the file.  One of never  (do  nothing),  warn
              (only  emit  a  warning),  detect_or_warn  (the  default;  fix file if we can, warn

              Prefer avconv over ffmpeg for running the postprocessors

              Prefer ffmpeg over avconv for running the postprocessors (default)

       --ffmpeg-location PATH
              Location of the ffmpeg/avconv  binary;  either  the  path  to  the  binary  or  its
              containing directory.

       --exec CMD
              Execute  a  command  on  the file after downloading and post-processing, similar to
              find's -exec syntax.  Example: --exec 'adb push {} /sdcard/Music/ && rm {}'

       --convert-subs FORMAT
              Convert the subtitles to other format (currently supported: srt|ass|vtt|lrc)


       You  can  configure  youtube-dl  by  placing  any  supported  command  line  option  to  a
       configuration  file.  On Linux and macOS, the system wide configuration file is located at
       /etc/youtube-dl.conf and the user wide configuration file at  ~/.config/youtube-dl/config.
       On Windows, the user wide configuration file locations are %APPDATA%\youtube-dl\config.txt
       or C:\Users\<user name>\youtube-dl.conf.  Note that by default configuration file may  not
       exist so you may need to create it yourself.

       For  example,  with  the  following  configuration file youtube-dl will always extract the
       audio, not copy the mtime, use a proxy and save all videos under Movies directory in  your
       home directory:

              # Lines starting with # are comments

              # Always extract audio

              # Do not copy the mtime

              # Use this proxy

              # Save all videos under Movies directory in your home directory
              -o ~/Movies/%(title)s.%(ext)s

       Note  that  options  in  configuration file are just the same options aka switches used in
       regular command line calls thus there must be no whitespace after - or  --,  e.g.   -o  or
       --proxy but not - o or -- proxy.

       You can use --ignore-config if you want to disable the configuration file for a particular
       youtube-dl run.

       You can also use --config-location if you want to use  custom  configuration  file  for  a
       particular youtube-dl run.

   Authentication with .netrc file
       You  may  also want to configure automatic credentials storage for extractors that support
       authentication (by providing login and password with --username and --password)  in  order
       not  to  pass  credentials  as  command  line  arguments on every youtube-dl execution and
       prevent tracking plain text passwords in the shell command history.  You can achieve  this
       using a .netrc file ( on a per extractor basis.
       For that you will need to create a .netrc file in your $HOME and restrict  permissions  to
       read/write by only you:

              touch $HOME/.netrc
              chmod a-rwx,u+rw $HOME/.netrc

       After  that  you  can  add  credentials  for  an  extractor in the following format, where
       extractor is the name of the extractor in lowercase:

              machine <extractor> login <login> password <password>

       For example:

              machine youtube login password my_youtube_password
              machine twitch login my_twitch_account_name password my_twitch_password

       To activate authentication with the .netrc file you should pass --netrc to  youtube-dl  or
       place it in the configuration file.

       On  Windows  you  may  also  need  to setup the %HOME% environment variable manually.  For

              set HOME=%USERPROFILE%


       The -o option allows users to indicate a template for the output file names.

       tl;dr: navigate me to examples.

       The basic usage is not to set any template arguments when downloading a single file,  like
       in  youtube-dl  -o  funny_video.flv "https://some/video".  However, it may contain special
       sequences that will be replaced when downloading each video.  The special sequences may be
       formatted       according       to      python      string      formatting      operations
       (      For     example,
       %(NAME)s  or  %(NAME)05d.   To  clarify,  that  is  a percent symbol followed by a name in
       parentheses, followed by formatting operations.  Allowed names along  with  sequence  type

       • id (string): Video identifier

       • title (string): Video title

       • url (string): Video URL

       • ext (string): Video filename extension

       • alt_title (string): A secondary title of the video

       • display_id (string): An alternative identifier for the video

       • uploader (string): Full name of the video uploader

       • license (string): License name the video is licensed under

       • creator (string): The creator of the video

       • release_date (string): The date (YYYYMMDD) when the video was released

       • timestamp (numeric): UNIX timestamp of the moment the video became available

       • upload_date (string): Video upload date (YYYYMMDD)

       • uploader_id (string): Nickname or id of the video uploader

       • channel (string): Full name of the channel the video is uploaded on

       • channel_id (string): Id of the channel

       • location (string): Physical location where the video was filmed

       • duration (numeric): Length of the video in seconds

       • view_count (numeric): How many users have watched the video on the platform

       • like_count (numeric): Number of positive ratings of the video

       • dislike_count (numeric): Number of negative ratings of the video

       • repost_count (numeric): Number of reposts of the video

       • average_rating  (numeric):  Average  rating give by users, the scale used depends on the

       • comment_count (numeric): Number of comments on the video

       • age_limit (numeric): Age restriction for the video (years)

       • is_live (boolean): Whether this video is a live stream or a fixed-length video

       • start_time (numeric): Time in seconds where the reproduction should start, as  specified
         in the URL

       • end_time  (numeric):  Time in seconds where the reproduction should end, as specified in
         the URL

       • format (string): A human-readable description of the format

       • format_id (string): Format code specified by --format

       • format_note (string): Additional info about the format

       • width (numeric): Width of the video

       • height (numeric): Height of the video

       • resolution (string): Textual description of width and height

       • tbr (numeric): Average bitrate of audio and video in KBit/s

       • abr (numeric): Average audio bitrate in KBit/s

       • acodec (string): Name of the audio codec in use

       • asr (numeric): Audio sampling rate in Hertz

       • vbr (numeric): Average video bitrate in KBit/s

       • fps (numeric): Frame rate

       • vcodec (string): Name of the video codec in use

       • container (string): Name of the container format

       • filesize (numeric): The number of bytes, if known in advance

       • filesize_approx (numeric): An estimate for the number of bytes

       • protocol (string): The protocol that will be used for the actual download

       • extractor (string): Name of the extractor

       • extractor_key (string): Key name of the extractor

       • epoch (numeric): Unix epoch when creating the file

       • autonumber (numeric): Number that will be increased  with  each  download,  starting  at

       • playlist (string): Name or id of the playlist that contains the video

       • playlist_index  (numeric):  Index of the video in the playlist padded with leading zeros
         according to the total length of the playlist

       • playlist_id (string): Playlist identifier

       • playlist_title (string): Playlist title

       • playlist_uploader (string): Full name of the playlist uploader

       • playlist_uploader_id (string): Nickname or id of the playlist uploader

       Available for the video that belongs to some logical chapter or section:

       • chapter (string): Name or title of the chapter the video belongs to

       • chapter_number (numeric): Number of the chapter the video belongs to

       • chapter_id (string): Id of the chapter the video belongs to

       Available for the video that is an episode of some series or programme:

       • series (string): Title of the series or programme the video episode belongs to

       • season (string): Title of the season the video episode belongs to

       • season_number (numeric): Number of the season the video episode belongs to

       • season_id (string): Id of the season the video episode belongs to

       • episode (string): Title of the video episode

       • episode_number (numeric): Number of the video episode within a season

       • episode_id (string): Id of the video episode

       Available for the media that is a track or a part of a music album:

       • track (string): Title of the track

       • track_number (numeric): Number of the track within an album or a disc

       • track_id (string): Id of the track

       • artist (string): Artist(s) of the track

       • genre (string): Genre(s) of the track

       • album (string): Title of the album the track belongs to

       • album_type (string): Type of the album

       • album_artist (string): List of all artists appeared on the album

       • disc_number (numeric): Number of the disc or other physical medium the track belongs to

       • release_year (numeric): Year (YYYY) when the album was released

       Each aforementioned sequence when referenced in an output template will be replaced by the
       actual  value corresponding to the sequence name.  Note that some of the sequences are not
       guaranteed to be present since they depend  on  the  metadata  obtained  by  a  particular
       extractor.  Such sequences will be replaced with placeholder value provided with --output-
       na-placeholder (NA by default).

       For example for -o %(title)s-%(id)s.%(ext)s and an mp4 video with  title  youtube-dl  test
       video  and  id  BaW_jenozKcj, this will result in a youtube-dl test video-BaW_jenozKcj.mp4
       file created in the current directory.

       For  numeric  sequences  you  can   use   numeric   related   formatting,   for   example,
       %(view_count)05d  will  result  in  a  string  with  view  count padded with zeros up to 5
       characters, like in 00042.

       Output   templates   can   also   contain   arbitrary   hierarchical   path,   e.g.     -o
       '%(playlist)s/%(playlist_index)s  -  %(title)s.%(ext)s'  which  will result in downloading
       each video in a directory corresponding to this path template.  Any missing directory will
       be automatically created for you.

       To use percent literals in an output template use %%.  To output to stdout use -o -.

       The current default template is %(title)s-%(id)s.%(ext)s.

       In  some  cases,  you don't want special characters such as 中, spaces, or &, such as when
       transferring the downloaded filename to a Windows system or the filename through an  8bit-
       unsafe channel.  In these cases, add the --restrict-filenames flag to get a shorter title:

   Output template and Windows batch files
       If you are using an output template inside a Windows batch file then you must escape plain
       percent characters (%) by doubling, so that -o "%(title)s-%(id)s.%(ext)s" should become -o
       "%%(title)s-%%(id)s.%%(ext)s".   However  you  should  not  touch  %'s  that are not plain
       characters,  e.g.   environment  variables  for   expansion   should   stay   intact:   -o

   Output template examples
       Note that on Windows you may need to use double quotes instead of single.

              $ youtube-dl --get-filename -o '%(title)s.%(ext)s' BaW_jenozKc
              youtube-dl test video ''_ä↭𝕐.mp4    # All kinds of weird characters

              $ youtube-dl --get-filename -o '%(title)s.%(ext)s' BaW_jenozKc --restrict-filenames
              youtube-dl_test_video_.mp4          # A simple file name

              # Download YouTube playlist videos in separate directory indexed by video order in a playlist
              $ youtube-dl -o '%(playlist)s/%(playlist_index)s - %(title)s.%(ext)s'

              # Download all playlists of YouTube channel/user keeping each playlist in separate directory:
              $ youtube-dl -o '%(uploader)s/%(playlist)s/%(playlist_index)s - %(title)s.%(ext)s'

              # Download Udemy course keeping each chapter in separate directory under MyVideos directory in your home
              $ youtube-dl -u user -p password -o '~/MyVideos/%(playlist)s/%(chapter_number)s - %(chapter)s/%(title)s.%(ext)s'

              # Download entire series season keeping each series and each season in separate directory under C:/MyVideos
              $ youtube-dl -o "C:/MyVideos/%(series)s/%(season_number)s - %(season)s/%(episode_number)s - %(episode)s.%(ext)s"

              # Stream the video being downloaded to stdout
              $ youtube-dl -o - BaW_jenozKc


       By  default youtube-dl tries to download the best available quality, i.e.  if you want the
       best quality you don't need to pass any special options, youtube-dl will guess it for  you
       by default.

       But  sometimes you may want to download in a different format, for example when you are on
       a slow or intermittent connection.  The key mechanism  for  achieving  this  is  so-called
       format  selection based on which you can explicitly specify desired format, select formats
       based on some criterion or criteria, setup precedence and much more.

       The general syntax for format selection is --format FORMAT  or  shorter  -f  FORMAT  where
       FORMAT  is a selector expression, i.e.  an expression that describes format or formats you
       would like to download.

       tl;dr: navigate me to examples.

       The simplest case is requesting a specific format, for example with -f 22 you can download
       the  format  with format code equal to 22.  You can get the list of available format codes
       for particular video using --list-formats  or  -F.   Note  that  these  format  codes  are
       extractor specific.

       You  can also use a file extension (currently 3gp, aac, flv, m4a, mp3, mp4, ogg, wav, webm
       are supported) to download the best quality format of a particular file  extension  served
       as  a  single  file,  e.g.   -f  webm  will download the best quality format with the webm
       extension served as a single file.

       You can also use special names to select particular edge case formats:

       • best: Select the best quality format represented by a single file with video and audio.

       • worst: Select the worst quality format represented by  a  single  file  with  video  and

       • bestvideo:  Select  the  best  quality video-only format (e.g.  DASH video).  May not be

       • worstvideo: Select the worst quality video-only format.  May not be available.

       • bestaudio: Select the best quality audio only-format.  May not be available.

       • worstaudio: Select the worst quality audio only-format.  May not be available.

       For example, to download the worst quality video-only format you can use -f worstvideo.

       If you want to download multiple videos and they don't have the  same  formats  available,
       you  can  specify  the  order  of  preference  using  slashes.   Note  that slash is left-
       associative, i.e.  formats on the left hand side are preferred, for  example  -f  22/17/18
       will  download  format  22 if it's available, otherwise it will download format 17 if it's
       available, otherwise it will download format 18  if  it's  available,  otherwise  it  will
       complain that no suitable formats are available for download.

       If you want to download several formats of the same video use a comma as a separator, e.g.
       -f 22,17,18 will download all these three formats, of course if they are available.  Or  a
       more    sophisticated    example    combined    with    the    precedence    feature:   -f

       You can also filter the video formats by  putting  a  condition  in  brackets,  as  in  -f
       "best[height=720]" (or -f "[filesize>10M]").

       The  following  numeric meta fields can be used with comparisons <, <=, >, >=, = (equals),
       != (not equals):

       • filesize: The number of bytes, if known in advance

       • width: Width of the video, if known

       • height: Height of the video, if known

       • tbr: Average bitrate of audio and video in KBit/s

       • abr: Average audio bitrate in KBit/s

       • vbr: Average video bitrate in KBit/s

       • asr: Audio sampling rate in Hertz

       • fps: Frame rate

       Also filtering work for comparisons = (equals), ^=  (starts  with),  $=  (ends  with),  *=
       (contains) and following string meta fields:

       • ext: File extension

       • acodec: Name of the audio codec in use

       • vcodec: Name of the video codec in use

       • container: Name of the container format

       • protocol:  The  protocol  that  will  be used for the actual download, lower-case (http,
         https, rtsp, rtmp, rtmpe, mms, f4m, ism, http_dash_segments, m3u8, or m3u8_native)

       • format_id: A short description of the format

       • language: Language code

       Any string comparison may be prefixed with negation ! in  order  to  produce  an  opposite
       comparison, e.g.  !*= (does not contain).

       Note  that  none of the aforementioned meta fields are guaranteed to be present since this
       solely depends on the metadata  obtained  by  particular  extractor,  i.e.   the  metadata
       offered by the video hoster.

       Formats  for  which the value is not known are excluded unless you put a question mark (?)
       after the operator.  You can combine format filters, so  -f  "[height  <=?  720][tbr>500]"
       selects  up  to 720p videos (or videos where the height is not known) with a bitrate of at
       least 500 KBit/s.

       You can merge the video and audio of two formats into  a  single  file  using  -f  <video-
       format>+<audio-format>   (requires   ffmpeg   or   avconv   installed),   for  example  -f
       bestvideo+bestaudio will download the best video-only format, the best  audio-only  format
       and mux them together with ffmpeg/avconv.

       Format  selectors  can  also  be  grouped  using  parentheses,  for example if you want to
       download the best mp4 and webm formats with a  height  lower  than  480  you  can  use  -f

       Since   the   end   of   April   2015   and   version   2015.04.26,   youtube-dl  uses  -f
       bestvideo+bestaudio/best    as    the    default    format    selection     (see     #5447
       (,    #5456   (
       org/youtube-dl/issues/5456)).   If  ffmpeg  or  avconv  are  installed  this  results   in
       downloading bestvideo and bestaudio separately and muxing them together into a single file
       giving the best overall quality available.  Otherwise it falls back to best and results in
       downloading  the  best available quality served as a single file.  best is also needed for
       videos that don't come from YouTube because they don't provide the audio and video in  two
       different  files.   If you want to only download some DASH formats (for example if you are
       not interested in getting videos with a resolution higher than  1080p),  you  can  add  -f
       bestvideo[height<=?1080]+bestaudio/best  to your configuration file.  Note that if you use
       youtube-dl to stream to stdout (and most likely to pipe it to  your  media  player  then),
       i.e.  you explicitly specify output template as -o -, youtube-dl still uses -f best format
       selection in order to start content delivery immediately to your player and  not  to  wait
       until bestvideo and bestaudio are downloaded and muxed.

       If  you  want  to  preserve  the  old  format  selection  behavior  (prior  to  youtube-dl
       2015.04.26), i.e.  you want to download the best  available  quality  media  served  as  a
       single  file, you should explicitly specify your choice with -f best.  You may want to add
       it to the configuration file in order not to type it every time you run youtube-dl.

   Format selection examples
       Note that on Windows you may need to use double quotes instead of single.

              # Download best mp4 format available or any other best if no mp4 available
              $ youtube-dl -f 'bestvideo[ext=mp4]+bestaudio[ext=m4a]/best[ext=mp4]/best'

              # Download best format available but no better than 480p
              $ youtube-dl -f 'bestvideo[height<=480]+bestaudio/best[height<=480]'

              # Download best video only format but no bigger than 50 MB
              $ youtube-dl -f 'best[filesize<50M]'

              # Download best format available via direct link over HTTP/HTTPS protocol
              $ youtube-dl -f '(bestvideo+bestaudio/best)[protocol^=http]'

              # Download the best video format and the best audio format without merging them
              $ youtube-dl -f 'bestvideo,bestaudio' -o '%(title)s.f%(format_id)s.%(ext)s'

       Note that in the last  example,  an  output  template  is  recommended  as  bestvideo  and
       bestaudio may have the same file name.


       Videos  can  be  filtered  by  their upload date using the options --date, --datebefore or
       --dateafter.  They accept dates in two formats:

       • Absolute dates: Dates in the format YYYYMMDD.

       • Relative dates: Dates in the format (now|today)[+-][0-9](day|week|month|year)(s)?


              # Download only the videos uploaded in the last 6 months
              $ youtube-dl --dateafter now-6months

              # Download only the videos uploaded on January 1, 1970
              $ youtube-dl --date 19700101

              $ # Download only the videos uploaded in the 200x decade
              $ youtube-dl --dateafter 20000101 --datebefore 20091231


   How do I update youtube-dl?
       If   you've    followed    our    manual    installation    instructions    (https://ytdl-,  you  can simply run youtube-dl -U (or, on Linux,
       sudo youtube-dl -U).

       If you have used pip, a simple sudo pip install -U youtube-dl is sufficient to update.

       If you have installed youtube-dl using a package manager like  apt-get  or  yum,  use  the
       standard  system  update  mechanism  to update.  Note that distribution packages are often
       outdated.  As a rule of thumb, youtube-dl releases at least once a month, and often weekly
       or  even  daily.   Simply  go  to  to  find  out  the  current version.
       Unfortunately, there is nothing we youtube-dl  developers  can  do  if  your  distribution
       serves  a  really outdated version.  You can (and should) complain to your distribution in
       their bugtracker or support forum.

       As a last resort, you can also uninstall the version installed by your package manager and
       follow our manual installation instructions.  For that, remove the distribution's package,
       with a line like

              sudo apt-get remove -y youtube-dl

       Afterwards,  simply   follow   our   manual   installation   instructions   (https://ytdl-

              sudo wget -O /usr/local/bin/youtube-dl
              sudo chmod a+rx /usr/local/bin/youtube-dl
              hash -r

       Again, from then on you'll be able to update with sudo youtube-dl -U.

   youtube-dl is extremely slow to start on Windows
       Add a file exclusion for youtube-dl.exe in Windows Defender settings.

   I'm getting an error Unable to extract OpenGraph title on YouTube playlists
       YouTube  changed their playlist format in March 2014 and later on, so you'll need at least
       youtube-dl 2014.07.25 to download all YouTube videos.

       If you have installed youtube-dl with a package  manager,  pip,  or  a  tarball,
       please  use that to update.  Note that Ubuntu packages do not seem to get updated anymore.
       Since we are not affiliated with Ubuntu, there is little we can do.  Feel free  to  report
       bugs   (   to   the   Ubuntu
       packaging                              people                              (mailto:ubuntu-  - all they have to do
       is update the package to a somewhat recent version.  See above for a way to update.

   I'm getting an error when  trying  to  use  output  template:  error:  using  output  template
       conflicts with using title, video ID or auto number
       Make  sure you are not using -o with any of these options -t, --title, --id, -A or --auto-
       number set in command line or in a configuration file.  Remove the latter if any.

   Do I always have to pass -citw?
       By default, youtube-dl intends to have the best  options  (incidentally,  if  you  have  a
       convincing  case  that  these  should be different, please file an issue where you explain
       that (  Therefore, it is unnecessary and sometimes harmful to copy
       long  option  strings  from webpages.  In particular, the only option out of -citw that is
       regularly useful is -i.

   Can you please put the -b option back?
       Most people asking this question are not aware that youtube-dl now defaults to downloading
       the  highest available quality as reported by YouTube, which will be 1080p or 720p in some
       cases, so you no longer need the -b option.  For some specific videos, maybe YouTube  does
       not  report  them  to be available in a specific high quality format you're interested in.
       In that case, simply request it with the -f option and youtube-dl will try to download it.

   I get HTTP error 402 when trying to download a video. What's this?
       Apparently YouTube requires you to pass a CAPTCHA test if you download  too  much.   We're
       considering  to  provide  a  way  to  let  you solve the CAPTCHA (
       org/youtube-dl/issues/154), but at the moment, your best course of action  is  pointing  a
       web browser to the youtube URL, solving the CAPTCHA, and restart youtube-dl.

   Do I need any other programs?
       youtube-dl  works  fine  on  its  own  on  most  sites.   However,  if you want to convert
       video/audio, you'll need avconv ( or ffmpeg  (
       On  some sites - most notably YouTube - videos can be retrieved in a higher quality format
       without sound.  youtube-dl will detect whether avconv/ffmpeg is present and  automatically
       pick the best option.

       Videos  or  video  formats streamed via RTMP protocol can only be downloaded when rtmpdump
       ( is installed.  Downloading MMS and RTSP  videos  requires
       either mplayer ( or mpv ( to be installed.

   I have downloaded a video but how can I play it?
       Once  the  video is fully downloaded, use any video player, such as mpv (,
       vlc ( or mplayer (

   I extracted a video URL with -g, but it does not play on another machine / in my web browser.
       It depends a lot on the service.  In many cases, requests for the video (to  download/play
       it) must come from the same IP address and with the same cookies and/or HTTP headers.  Use
       the --cookies option to write the required cookies into a file, and advise your downloader
       to  read  cookies from that file.  Some sites also require a common user agent to be used,
       use --dump-user-agent to see the one in use by youtube-dl.  You  can  also  get  necessary
       cookies and HTTP headers from JSON output obtained with --dump-json.

       It  may  be  beneficial  to  use IPv6; in some cases, the restrictions are only applied to
       IPv4.  Some services (sometimes only for a subset of videos) do not restrict the video URL
       by IP address, cookie, or user-agent, but these are the exception rather than the rule.

       Please  bear in mind that some URL protocols are not supported by browsers out of the box,
       including RTMP.  If you are using -g, your own downloader must support these as well.

       If you want to play the video on a machine that is not running youtube-dl, you  can  relay
       the video content from the machine that runs youtube-dl.  You can use -o - to let youtube-
       dl stream a video to stdout, or simply allow the player to download the files  written  by
       youtube-dl in turn.

   ERROR: no fmt_url_map or conn information found in video info
       YouTube has switched to a new video info format in July 2011 which is not supported by old
       versions of youtube-dl.  See above for how to update youtube-dl.

   ERROR: unable to download video
       YouTube requires an additional signature since September 2012 which is  not  supported  by
       old versions of youtube-dl.  See above for how to update youtube-dl.

   Video  URL  contains  an  ampersand and I'm getting some strange output [1] 2839 or 'v' is not
       recognized as an internal or external command
       That's actually the output from your shell.  Since ampersand is one of the  special  shell
       characters  it's  interpreted  by  the  shell preventing you from passing the whole URL to
       youtube-dl.  To disable your shell from interpreting the ampersands (or any other  special
       characters) you have to either put the whole URL in quotes or escape them with a backslash
       (which approach will work depends on your shell).

       For example if your URL is you should  end
       up with following command:

       youtube-dl ''



       For Windows you have to use the double quotes:

       youtube-dl ""

   ExtractorError: Could not find JS function u'OF'
       In  February  2015, the new YouTube player contained a character sequence in a string that
       was misinterpreted by old versions of youtube-dl.  See above for how to update youtube-dl.

   HTTP Error 429: Too Many Requests or 402: Payment Required
       These two error codes indicate that the service is blocking your  IP  address  because  of
       overuse.   Usually  this  is  a  soft  block  meaning that you can gain access again after
       solving CAPTCHA.  Just open a browser and solve a CAPTCHA the  service  suggests  you  and
       after  that  pass  cookies to youtube-dl.  Note that if your machine has multiple external
       IPs then you should also pass exactly the same IP you've used  for  solving  CAPTCHA  with
       --source-address.  Also you may need to pass a User-Agent HTTP header of your browser with

       If this is not the case (no CAPTCHA suggested to  solve  by  the  service)  then  you  can
       contact  the  service and ask them to unblock your IP address, or - if you have acquired a
       whitelisted IP address already - use the --proxy or  --source-address  options  to  select
       another IP address.

   SyntaxError: Non-ASCII character
       The error

              File "youtube-dl", line 2
              SyntaxError: Non-ASCII character '\x93' ...

       means you're using an outdated version of Python.  Please update to Python 2.6 or 2.7.

   What is this binary file? Where has the code gone?
       Since  June  2012 (#342 ( youtube-dl is
       packed as an executable zipfile, simply unzip it (might need  renaming  to
       first  on some systems) or clone the git repository, as laid out above.  If you modify the
       code, you can run it by executing the file.  To recompile the executable,  run
       make youtube-dl.

   The exe throws an error due to missing MSVCR100.dll
       To  run  the  exe  you  need to install first the Microsoft Visual C++ 2010 Service Pack 1
       Redistributable                               Package                                (x86)

   On Windows, how should I set up ffmpeg and youtube-dl? Where should I put the exe files?
       If you put youtube-dl and ffmpeg in the same directory that  you're  running  the  command
       from, it will work, but that's rather cumbersome.

       To  make  a different directory work - either for ffmpeg, or for youtube-dl, or for both -
       simply create the directory (say,  C:\bin,  or  C:\Users\<User  name>\bin),  put  all  the
       executables   directly   in   there,   and   then   set  your  PATH  environment  variable
       ( to include that directory.

       From then on, after restarting your shell, you will be able to access both youtube-dl  and
       ffmpeg (and youtube-dl will be able to find ffmpeg) by simply typing youtube-dl or ffmpeg,
       no matter what directory you're in.

   How do I put downloads into a specific folder?
       Use    the    -o    to    specify    an    output     template,     for     example     -o
       "/home/user/videos/%(title)s-%(id)s.%(ext)s".  If you want this for all of your downloads,
       put the option into your configuration file.

   How do I download a video starting with a -?
       Either prepend or separate the ID from the  options  with

              youtube-dl -- -wNyEUrxzFU
              youtube-dl ""

   How do I pass cookies to youtube-dl?
       Use the --cookies option, for example --cookies /path/to/cookies/file.txt.

       In  order  to  extract  cookies  from  browser  use  any  conforming browser extension for
       exporting         cookies.          For         example,          Get          cookies.txt
       cookiestxt/bgaddhkoddajcdgocldbbfleckgcbcid/)     (for     Chrome)     or      cookies.txt
       ( (for Firefox).

       Note  that  the  cookies file must be in Mozilla/Netscape format and the first line of the
       cookies file must be either # HTTP Cookie File or # Netscape HTTP Cookie File.  Make  sure
       you  have  correct  newline  format ( in the cookies
       file and convert newlines if necessary to correspond with your OS, namely CRLF (\r\n)  for
       Windows  and LF (\n) for Unix and Unix-like systems (Linux, macOS, etc.).  HTTP Error 400:
       Bad Request when using --cookies is a good sign of invalid newline format.

       Passing cookies to youtube-dl is  a  good  way  to  workaround  login  when  a  particular
       extractor  does  not  implement it explicitly.  Another use case is working around CAPTCHA
       ( some websites require you to solve  in  particular
       cases in order to get access (e.g.  YouTube, CloudFlare).

   How do I stream directly to media player?
       You  will first need to tell youtube-dl to stream media to stdout with -o -, and also tell
       your media player to read from stdin (it must be capable of this for streaming)  and  then
       pipe  former  to latter.  For example, streaming to vlc ( can be
       achieved with:

              youtube-dl -o - "" | vlc -

   How do I download only new videos from a playlist?
       Use download-archive feature.   With  this  feature  you  should  initially  download  the
       complete  playlist  with  --download-archive  /path/to/download/archive/file.txt that will
       record identifiers of all the videos in a special file.  Each subsequent run with the same
       --download-archive  will  download  only  new  videos  and  skip all videos that have been
       downloaded before.  Note that only successful downloads are recorded in the file.

       For example, at first,

              youtube-dl --download-archive archive.txt ""

       will download the complete PLwiyx1dc3P2JR9N8gQaQN_BCvlSlap7re playlist and create  a  file
       archive.txt.  Each subsequent run will only download new videos if any:

              youtube-dl --download-archive archive.txt ""

   Should I add --hls-prefer-native into my config?
       When  youtube-dl  detects  an  HLS  video,  it  can  download  it either with the built-in
       downloader or ffmpeg.  Since many HLS streams are slightly invalid  and  ffmpeg/youtube-dl
       each  handle  some  invalid  cases better than the other, there is an option to switch the
       downloader if needed.

       When youtube-dl knows that one particular downloader works better  for  a  given  website,
       that  downloader  will be picked.  Otherwise, youtube-dl will pick the best downloader for
       general compatibility, which at the moment happens to be ffmpeg.  This choice  may  change
       in  future  versions  of  youtube-dl,  with improvements of the built-in downloader and/or

       In particular, the generic extractor (used when  your  website  is  not  in  the  list  of
       supported  sites by youtube-dl (
       cannot mandate one specific downloader.

       If you put either --hls-prefer-native or --hls-prefer-ffmpeg into  your  configuration,  a
       different subset of videos will fail to download correctly.  Instead, it is much better to
       file an issue ( or a pull request which details why  the  native  or
       the ffmpeg HLS downloader is a better choice for your use case.

   Can you add support for this anime video site, or site which shows current movies for free?
       As  a  matter  of  policy  (as  well as legality), youtube-dl does not include support for
       services that specialize in infringing copyright.  As a  rule  of  thumb,  if  you  cannot
       easily  find a video that the service is quite obviously allowed to distribute (i.e.  that
       has been uploaded by the creator, the creator's distributor, or is published under a  free
       license), the service is probably unfit for inclusion to youtube-dl.

       A  note on the service that they don't host the infringing content, but just link to those
       who do, is evidence that the service should not be included  into  youtube-dl.   The  same
       goes for any DMCA note when the whole front page of the service is filled with videos they
       are not allowed to distribute.  A "fair use" note is equally unconvincing if  the  service
       shows copyright-protected videos in full without authorization.

       Support  requests for services that do purchase the rights to distribute their content are
       perfectly fine though.  If in doubt, you can simply include a  source  that  mentions  the
       legitimate purchase of content.

   How can I speed up work on my issue?
       (Also  known as: Help, my important issue not being solved!) The youtube-dl core developer
       team is quite small.  While we do our best to solve as many issues as possible,  sometimes
       that can take quite a while.  To speed up your issue, here's what you can do:

       First  of  all,  please do report the issue at our issue tracker (
       That allows us to coordinate all efforts by users and developers, and serves as a  unified
       point.  Unfortunately, the youtube-dl project has grown too large to use personal email as
       an effective communication channel.

       Please read the bug reporting instructions below.  A lot of bugs lack  all  the  necessary
       information.   If you can, offer proxy, VPN, or shell access to the youtube-dl developers.
       If you are able to, test the issue  from  multiple  computers  in  multiple  countries  to
       exclude local censorship or misconfiguration issues.

       If  nobody  is interested in solving your issue, you are welcome to take matters into your
       own hands and submit a pull request (or coerce/pay somebody else to do so).

       Feel free to bump the issue from time to time by writing a small comment ("Issue is  still
       present  in  youtube-dl  version  ...from France, but fixed from Belgium"), but please not
       more than once a month.  Please do not declare your issue as important or urgent.

   How can I detect whether a given URL is supported by youtube-dl?
       For one, have a look at the list of supported sites.  Note that it  can  sometimes  happen
       that  the  site  changes  its  URL  scheme (say, from to ) and youtube-dl reports an URL of a service in that list as
       unsupported.  In that case, simply report a bug.

       It is not possible to detect whether a URL is supported or not.  That's because youtube-dl
       contains a generic extractor which matches all URLs.   You  may  be  tempted  to  disable,
       exclude,  or remove the generic extractor, but the generic extractor not only allows users
       to extract videos from lots of websites that embed a video from another service,  but  may
       also  be  used  to  extract  video from a service that it's hosting itself.  Therefore, we
       neither recommend nor support disabling, excluding, or removing the generic extractor.

       If you want to find out whether a given URL is supported, simply call youtube-dl with  it.
       If  you  get  no  videos  back,  chances are the URL is either not referring to a video or
       unsupported.  You can find out which by examining the output (if you run youtube-dl on the
       console) or catching an UnsupportedError exception if you run it from a Python program.

Why do I need to go through that much red tape when filing bugs?

       Before  we had the issue template, despite our extensive bug reporting instructions, about
       80% of the issue reports we got were useless, for instance  because  people  used  ancient
       versions  hundreds  of releases old, because of simple syntactic errors (not in youtube-dl
       but in general shell usage), because the  problem  was  already  reported  multiple  times
       before,  because  people  did  not actually read an error message, even if it said "please
       install ffmpeg", because people did not mention the URL they were trying to  download  and
       many  more simple, easy-to-avoid problems, many of whom were totally unrelated to youtube-

       youtube-dl is an open-source project manned by too few volunteers, so  we'd  rather  spend
       time  fixing  bugs  where we are certain none of those simple problems apply, and where we
       can be reasonably confident to be able to reproduce the issue without asking the  reporter
       repeatedly.   As  such,  the  output  of  youtube-dl -v YOUR_URL_HERE is really all that's
       required to file an issue.  The issue template also guides you through  some  basic  steps
       you can do, such as checking that your version of youtube-dl is current.


       Most  users  do  not  need  to build youtube-dl and can download the builds (https://ytdl- or get them from their distribution.

       To run youtube-dl as a developer, you don't need to build anything either.  Simply execute

              python -m youtube_dl

       To run the test, simply invoke your favorite test runner, or execute a test file directly;
       any of the following work:

              python -m unittest discover
              python test/

       See item 6 of new extractor tutorial for how to run extractor specific test cases.

       If you want to create a build of youtube-dl yourself, you'll need

       • python

       • make (only GNU make is supported)

       • pandoc

       • zip

       • nosetests

   Adding support for a new site
       If  you  want  to  add  support  for  a  new site, first of all make sure this site is not
       dedicated to copyright infringement.  youtube-dl does not support  such  sites  thus  pull
       requests adding support for them will be rejected.

       After  you have ensured this site is distributing its content legally, you can follow this
       quick list (assuming your service is called yourextractor):

        1. Fork this repository (

        2. Check out the source code with:

                   git clone

        3. Start a new git branch with

                   cd youtube-dl
                   git checkout -b yourextractor

        4. Start with this simple template and save it to youtube_dl/extractor/

                  # coding: utf-8
                  from __future__ import unicode_literals

                  from .common import InfoExtractor

                  class YourExtractorIE(InfoExtractor):
                      _VALID_URL = r'https?://(?:www\.)?yourextractor\.com/watch/(?P<id>[0-9]+)'
                      _TEST = {
                          'url': '',
                          'md5': 'TODO: md5 sum of the first 10241 bytes of the video file (use --test)',
                          'info_dict': {
                              'id': '42',
                              'ext': 'mp4',
                              'title': 'Video title goes here',
                              'thumbnail': r're:^https?://.*\.jpg$',
                              # TODO more properties, either as:
                              # * A value
                              # * MD5 checksum; start the string with md5:
                              # * A regular expression; start the string with re:
                              # * Any Python type (for example int or float)

                      def _real_extract(self, url):
                          video_id = self._match_id(url)
                          webpage = self._download_webpage(url, video_id)

                          # TODO more code goes here, for example ...
                          title = self._html_search_regex(r'<h1>(.+?)</h1>', webpage, 'title')

                          return {
                              'id': video_id,
                              'title': title,
                              'description': self._og_search_description(webpage),
                              'uploader': self._search_regex(r'<div[^>]+id="uploader"[^>]*>([^<]+)<', webpage, 'uploader', fatal=False),
                              # TODO more properties (see youtube_dl/extractor/

        5. Add  an   import   in   youtube_dl/extractor/   (

        6. Run python test/ TestDownload.test_YourExtractor.  This should fail at
           first, but you can continually re-run it until you're done.  If you decide to add more
           than  one  test,  then rename _TEST to _TESTS and make it into a list of dictionaries.
           The     tests     will     then     be     named      TestDownload.test_YourExtractor,
           TestDownload.test_YourExtractor_1,  TestDownload.test_YourExtractor_2, etc.  Note that
           tests with only_matching key in test's dict are not counted in.

        7. Have a look  at  youtube_dl/extractor/  (
           dl/blob/master/youtube_dl/extractor/  for  possible  helper  methods  and  a
           detailed   description   of   what   your   extractor   should    and    may    return
           Add tests and code for as many as you want.

        8. Make  sure  your  code  follows  youtube-dl coding conventions and check the code with
           flake8 (

                   $ flake8 youtube_dl/extractor/

        9. Make sure your code works under all Python ( versions  claimed
           supported by youtube-dl, namely 2.6, 2.7, and 3.2+.

       10. When  the  tests pass, add ( the new files and commit
           (  them  and  push  (
           push) the result, like this:

                  $ git add youtube_dl/extractor/
                  $ git add youtube_dl/extractor/
                  $ git commit -m '[yourextractor] Add new extractor'
                  $ git push origin yourextractor

       11. Finally,  create  a  pull  request  (
           request).  We'll then review and merge it.

       In any case, thank you very much for your contributions!

   youtube-dl coding conventions
       This section introduces a guide lines  for  writing  idiomatic,  robust  and  future-proof
       extractor code.

       Extractors  are  very fragile by nature since they depend on the layout of the source data
       provided by 3rd party media hosters out of your control and this layout tends  to  change.
       As  an  extractor  implementer your task is not only to write code that will extract media
       links and metadata correctly but also to minimize dependency on the  source's  layout  and
       even  to  make  the  code foresee potential future changes and be ready for that.  This is
       important because it will allow the extractor not to break on minor  layout  changes  thus
       keeping  old youtube-dl versions working.  Even though this breakage issue is easily fixed
       by emitting a new version of youtube-dl with a fix incorporated, all the previous versions
       become  broken  in  all  repositories  and  distros' packages that may not be so prompt in
       fetching the update from us.  Needless to say, some non rolling release distros may  never
       receive an update at all.

   Mandatory and optional metafields
       For  extraction to work youtube-dl relies on metadata your extractor extracts and provides
       to youtube-dl expressed by an information dictionary (
       or simply info dict.  Only the following meta fields  in  the  info  dict  are  considered
       mandatory for a successful extraction process by youtube-dl:

       • id (media identifier)

       • title (media title)

       • url (media download URL) or formats

       In  fact  only the last option is technically mandatory (i.e.  if you can't figure out the
       download location of the media the extraction does not make any sense).  But by convention
       youtube-dl  also treats id and title as mandatory.  Thus the aforementioned metafields are
       the critical data that the extraction does not make any sense without and if any  of  them
       fail to be extracted then the extractor is considered completely broken.

       Any                       field                      (
       apart  from  the  aforementioned ones are considered optional.  That means that extraction
       should be tolerant to  situations  when  sources  for  these  fields  can  potentially  be
       unavailable  (even  if  they are always available at the moment) and future-proof in order
       not to break the extraction of general purpose mandatory fields.

       Say you have some source dictionary meta that you've fetched as JSON with HTTP request and
       it has a key summary:

              meta = self._download_json(url, video_id)

       Assume at this point meta's layout is:

                  "summary": "some fancy summary text",

       Assume you want to extract summary and put it into the resulting info dict as description.
       Since description is an optional meta field you should be  ready  that  this  key  may  be
       missing from the meta dict, so that you should extract it like:

              description = meta.get('summary')  # correct

       and not like:

              description = meta['summary']  # incorrect

       The  latter will break extraction process with KeyError if summary disappears from meta at
       some later time  but  with  the  former  approach  extraction  will  just  go  ahead  with
       description  set  to  None  which  is  perfectly  fine (remember None is equivalent to the
       absence of data).

       Similarly, you should pass fatal=False when extracting optional data from a  webpage  with
       _search_regex, _html_search_regex or similar methods, for instance:

              description = self._search_regex(
                  webpage, 'description', fatal=False)

       With  fatal  set  to  False  if  _search_regex fails to extract description it will emit a
       warning and continue extraction.

       You can also pass default=<some fallback value>, for example:

              description = self._search_regex(
                  webpage, 'description', default=None)

       On failure this code will silently continue the extraction with description set  to  None.
       That is useful for metafields that may or may not be present.

   Provide fallbacks
       When  extracting  metadata  try  to  do so from multiple sources.  For example if title is
       present in several places, try extracting from at least some of them.  This makes it  more
       future-proof in case some of the sources become unavailable.

       Say  meta  from  the  previous example has a title and you are about to extract it.  Since
       title is a mandatory meta field you should end up with something like:

              title = meta['title']

       If title disappears from meta in future due to some  changes  on  the  hoster's  side  the
       extraction would fail since title is mandatory.  That's expected.

       Assume  that you have some another source you can extract title from, for example og:title
       HTML meta of a webpage.  In this case you can provide a fallback scenario:

              title = meta.get('title') or self._og_search_title(webpage)

       This code will try to extract from meta first and if  it  fails  it  will  try  extracting
       og:title from a webpage.

   Regular expressions
   Don't capture groups you don't use
       Capturing  group  must  be  an indication that it's used somewhere in the code.  Any group
       that is not used must be non capturing.

       Don't capture id attribute name here since you can't use it for anything anyway.





   Make regular expressions relaxed and flexible
       When using regular expressions try to write them fuzzy,  relaxed  and  flexible,  skipping
       insignificant parts that are more likely to change, allowing both single and double quotes
       for quoted values and so on.

       Say you need to extract title from the following HTML code:

              <span style="position: absolute; left: 910px; width: 90px; float: right; z-index: 9999;" class="title">some fancy title</span>

       The code for that task should look similar to:

              title = self._search_regex(
                  r'<span[^>]+class="title"[^>]*>([^<]+)', webpage, 'title')

       Or even better:

              title = self._search_regex(
                  webpage, 'title', group='title')

       Note how you tolerate potential changes in the style  attribute's  value  or  switch  from
       using double quotes to single for class attribute:

       The code definitely should not look like:

              title = self._search_regex(
                  r'<span style="position: absolute; left: 910px; width: 90px; float: right; z-index: 9999;" class="title">(.*?)</span>',
                  webpage, 'title', group='title')

   Long lines policy
       There  is  a  soft  limit  to  keep lines of code under 80 characters long.  This means it
       should be respected if possible and if it does not make readability and  code  maintenance

       For  example,  you  should  never split long string literals like URLs or some other often
       copied entities over multiple lines to fit this limit:





   Inline values
       Extracting variables is acceptable for reducing code duplication and improving readability
       of complex expressions.  However, you should avoid extracting variables used only once and
       moving them to opposite parts of the extractor file, which makes reading the  linear  flow


              title = self._html_search_regex(r'<title>([^<]+)</title>', webpage, 'title')


              TITLE_RE = r'<title>([^<]+)</title>'
              # ...some lines of code...
              title = self._html_search_regex(TITLE_RE, webpage, 'title')

   Collapse fallbacks
       Multiple  fallback  values can quickly become unwieldy.  Collapse multiple fallback values
       into a single expression via a list of patterns.


              description = self._html_search_meta(
                  ['og:description', 'description', 'twitter:description'],
                  webpage, 'description', default=None)


              description = (
                  self._og_search_description(webpage, default=None)
                  or self._html_search_meta('description', webpage, default=None)
                  or self._html_search_meta('twitter:description', webpage, default=None))

       Methods   supporting   list   of   patterns   are:   _search_regex,    _html_search_regex,
       _og_search_property, _html_search_meta.

   Trailing parentheses
       Always move trailing parentheses after the last argument.


                  lambda x: x['ResultSet']['Result'][0]['VideoUrlSet']['VideoUrl'],


                  lambda x: x['ResultSet']['Result'][0]['VideoUrlSet']['VideoUrl'],

   Use convenience conversion and parsing functions
       Wrap   all   extracted   numeric   data   into  safe  functions  from  youtube_dl/
       (     int_or_none,
       float_or_none.  Use them for string to number conversions as well.

       Use url_or_none for safe URL processing.

       Use try_get for safe metadata extraction from parsed JSON.

       Use  unified_strdate  for  uniform  upload_date  or  any  YYYYMMDD  meta field extraction,
       unified_timestamp  for  uniform  timestamp   extraction,   parse_filesize   for   filesize
       extraction, parse_count for count meta fields extraction, parse_resolution, parse_duration
       for duration extraction, parse_age_limit for age_limit extraction.

       Explore             youtube_dl/              (
       dl/blob/master/youtube_dl/ for more useful convenience functions.

   More examples
   Safely extract optional description from parsed JSON
              description = try_get(response, lambda x: x['result']['video'][0]['summary'], compat_str)

   Safely extract more optional metadata
              video = try_get(response, lambda x: x['result']['video'][0], dict) or {}
              description = video.get('summary')
              duration = float_or_none(video.get('durationMs'), scale=1000)
              view_count = int_or_none(video.get('views'))


       youtube-dl  makes  the  best  effort to be a good command-line program, and thus should be
       callable from any programming language.  If you encounter any problems parsing its output,
       feel free to create a report (

       From a Python program, you can embed youtube-dl in a more powerful fashion, like this:

              from __future__ import unicode_literals
              import youtube_dl

              ydl_opts = {}
              with youtube_dl.YoutubeDL(ydl_opts) as ydl:

       Most  likely, you'll want to use various options.  For a list of options available, have a
       look        at        youtube_dl/        (
       dl/blob/3e4cedf9e8cd3157df2457df7274d0c842421945/youtube_dl/   For
       a start, if you want to intercept youtube-dl's output, set a logger object.

       Here's a more complete example of a program that outputs only errors (and a short  message
       after the download is finished), and downloads/converts the video to an mp3 file:

              from __future__ import unicode_literals
              import youtube_dl

              class MyLogger(object):
                  def debug(self, msg):

                  def warning(self, msg):

                  def error(self, msg):

              def my_hook(d):
                  if d['status'] == 'finished':
                      print('Done downloading, now converting ...')

              ydl_opts = {
                  'format': 'bestaudio/best',
                  'postprocessors': [{
                      'key': 'FFmpegExtractAudio',
                      'preferredcodec': 'mp3',
                      'preferredquality': '192',
                  'logger': MyLogger(),
                  'progress_hooks': [my_hook],
              with youtube_dl.YoutubeDL(ydl_opts) as ydl:


       Bugs   and   suggestions  should  be  reported  at:  <
       dl/issues>.  Unless you were prompted to  or  there  is  another  pertinent  reason  (e.g.
       GitHub fails to accept the bug report), please do not send bug reports via personal email.
       For discussions, join us in the IRC channel #youtube-dl (irc://
       dl)  on  freenode  (webchat  (

       Please include the full output of youtube-dl when run with -v, i.e.  add -v flag  to  your
       command  line,  copy  the  whole  output  and post it in the issue body wrapped in ``` for
       better formatting.  It should look similar to this:

              $ youtube-dl -v <your command line>
              [debug] System config: []
              [debug] User config: []
              [debug] Command-line args: [u'-v', u'']
              [debug] Encodings: locale cp1251, fs mbcs, out cp866, pref cp1251
              [debug] youtube-dl version 2015.12.06
              [debug] Git HEAD: 135392e
              [debug] Python version 2.6.6 - Windows-2003Server-5.2.3790-SP2
              [debug] exe versions: ffmpeg N-75573-g1d0487f, ffprobe N-75573-g1d0487f, rtmpdump 2.4
              [debug] Proxy map: {}

       Do not post screenshots of verbose logs; only plain text is acceptable.

       The output (including the first lines) contains important debugging  information.   Issues
       without  the  full  output  are  often not reproducible and therefore do not get solved in
       short order, if ever.

       Please re-read your issue once again to avoid a couple of common  mistakes  (you  can  and
       should use this as a checklist):

   Is the description of the issue itself sufficient?
       We  often  get  issue  reports  that  we  cannot  really decipher.  While in most cases we
       eventually get the required information after asking back multiple times,  this  poses  an
       unnecessary  drain  on  our  resources.  Many contributors, including myself, are also not
       native speakers, so we may misread some parts.

       So please elaborate on what feature you are requesting, or what bug you want to be  fixed.
       Make sure that it's obvious

       • What the problem is

       • How it could be fixed

       • How your proposed solution would look like

       If  your  report  is shorter than two lines, it is almost certainly missing some of these,
       which makes it hard for us to respond to it.  We're often too polite to  close  the  issue
       outright,  but  the missing info makes misinterpretation likely.  As a committer myself, I
       often get frustrated by these issues, since the only possible way for me to  move  forward
       on them is to ask for clarification over and over.

       For  bug  reports,  this  means  that  your  report  should contain the complete output of
       youtube-dl when called with the -v flag.  The error message you get for (most)  bugs  even
       says  so,  but  you  would  not  believe  how  many of our bug reports do not contain this

       If your server has multiple IPs or you suspect censorship, adding  --call-home  may  be  a
       good  idea  to get more diagnostics.  If the error is ERROR: Unable to extract ... and you
       cannot reproduce it from multiple countries, add --dump-pages (warning: this will yield  a
       rather  large  output,  redirect  it  to  the file log.txt by adding >log.txt 2>&1 to your
       command-line) or upload the .dump files you  get  when  you  add  --write-pages  somewhere

       Site support requests must contain an example URL.  An example URL is a URL you might want
       to download, like  There should be an obvious
       video  present.  Except under very special circumstances, the main page of a video service
       (e.g. is not an example URL.

   Are you using the latest version?
       Before reporting any issue, type youtube-dl -U.  This should  report  that  you're  up-to-
       date.   About  20%  of  the  reports  we  receive  are already fixed, but people are using
       outdated versions.  This goes for feature requests as well.

   Is the issue already documented?
       Make sure that someone has not already opened the issue you're trying to open.  Search  at
       the  top  of  the window or browse the GitHub Issues (
       dl/search?type=Issues) of this repository.  If there is  an  issue,  feel  free  to  write
       something  along  the lines of "This affects me as well, with version 2015.01.01.  Here is
       some more information on the issue: ...".  While some issues may be old, a new  post  into
       them often spurs rapid activity.

   Why are existing options not enough?
       Before requesting a new feature, please have a quick peek at the list of supported options
       (    Many    feature
       requests  are  for  features  that actually exist already!  Please, absolutely do show off
       your work in the issue report and detail how the existing similar  options  do  not  solve
       your problem.

   Is there enough context in your bug report?
       People  want  to solve problems, and often think they do us a favor by breaking down their
       larger problems (e.g.  wanting to skip already downloaded files)  to  a  specific  request
       (e.g.   requesting  us  to look whether the file exists before downloading the info page).
       However, what often happens is that they break  down  the  problem  into  two  steps:  One
       simple, and one impossible (or extremely complicated one).

       We  are  then presented with a very complicated request when the original problem could be
       solved far easier, e.g.  by recording the downloaded video IDs in  a  separate  file.   To
       avoid  this, you must include the greater context where it is non-obvious.  In particular,
       every feature request that does not consist of  adding  support  for  a  new  site  should
       contain  a  use case scenario that explains in what situation the missing feature would be

   Does the issue involve one problem, and one problem only?
       Some of our users seem to think there is a limit of issues they can or should open.  There
       is  no limit of issues they can or should open.  While it may seem appealing to be able to
       dump all your issues into one ticket, that means that  someone  who  solves  one  of  your
       issues  cannot  mark the issue as closed.  Typically, reporting a bunch of issues leads to
       the ticket lingering since nobody wants to attack that behemoth, until someone  mercifully
       splits the issue into multiple ones.

       In  particular,  every  site  support request issue should only pertain to services at one
       site (generally under a common domain, but always using the same backend technology).   Do
       not  request support for vimeo user videos, White house podcasts, and Google Plus pages in
       the same issue.  Also, make sure  that  you  don't  post  bug  reports  alongside  feature
       requests.   As  a  rule of thumb, a feature request does not include outputs of youtube-dl
       that are not immediately related to the feature at hand.  Do not post reports of a network
       error alongside the request for a new video service.

   Is anyone going to need the feature?
       Only  post  features  that  you  (or  an  incapacitated friend you can personally talk to)
       require.  Do not post features because they seem like a good idea.   If  they  are  really
       useful, they will be requested by someone who requires them.

   Is your question about youtube-dl?
       It may sound strange, but some bug reports we receive are completely unrelated to youtube-
       dl and relate to a different, or even the reporter's own, application.  Please  make  sure
       that  you are actually using youtube-dl.  If you are using a UI for youtube-dl, report the
       bug to the maintainer of the actual application providing the UI.  On the other  hand,  if
       your  UI  for  youtube-dl  fails  in some way you believe is related to youtube-dl, by all
       means, go ahead and report the bug.


       youtube-dl is released into the public domain by the copyright holders.

       This README file was originally written by Daniel Bolton ( and
       is likewise released into the public domain.