Provided by: zsh-common_5.9-1_all bug


       zshcontrib - user contributions to zsh


       The  Zsh source distribution includes a number of items contributed by the user community.
       These are not inherently a part of the shell, and some may not be available in  every  zsh
       installation.   The  most  significant of these are documented here.  For documentation on
       other contributed items such as shell functions, look for comments in the function  source


   Accessing On-Line Help
       The  key  sequence  ESC  h  is  normally  bound by ZLE to execute the run-help widget (see
       zshzle(1)).  This invokes the run-help command with the  command  word  from  the  current
       input line as its argument.  By default, run-help is an alias for the man command, so this
       often fails when the command word is a shell  builtin  or  a  user-defined  function.   By
       redefining the run-help alias, one can improve the on-line help provided by the shell.

       The  helpfiles utility, found in the Util directory of the distribution, is a Perl program
       that can be used to process the zsh manual to produce a separate help file for each  shell
       builtin  and  for  many other shell features as well.  The autoloadable run-help function,
       found in Functions/Misc, searches for these helpfiles and performs several other tests  to
       produce the most complete help possible for the command.

       Help   files   are   installed   by   default  to  a  subdirectory  of  /usr/share/zsh  or

       To create your own help files with helpfiles, choose  or  create  a  directory  where  the
       individual  command help files will reside.  For example, you might choose ~/zsh_help.  If
       you unpacked the zsh distribution in your home directory, you would use the commands:

              mkdir ~/zsh_help
              perl ~/zsh-5.9/Util/helpfiles ~/zsh_help

       The HELPDIR parameter tells run-help where to look for the help files. When unset, it uses
       the  default  installation  path.   To  use  your  own  set of help files, set this to the
       appropriate path in one of your startup files:


       To use the run-help function, you need to add lines something like the following  to  your
       .zshrc or equivalent startup file:

              unalias run-help
              autoload run-help

       Note  that  in  order for `autoload run-help' to work, the run-help file must be in one of
       the directories named in your fpath array (see zshparam(1)).  This should already  be  the
       case  if  you have a standard zsh installation; if it is not, copy Functions/Misc/run-help
       to an appropriate directory.

   Recompiling Functions
       If you frequently edit your zsh functions, or periodically update your zsh installation to
       track  the  latest  developments,  you  may  find  that function digests compiled with the
       zcompile builtin are frequently out of date with respect to  the  function  source  files.
       This is not usually a problem, because zsh always looks for the newest file when loading a
       function, but it may cause slower shell startup and function loading.  Also, if  a  digest
       file  is explicitly used as an element of fpath, zsh won't check whether any of its source
       files has changed.

       The zrecompile autoloadable function,  found  in  Functions/Misc,  can  be  used  to  keep
       function digests up to date.

       zrecompile [ -qt ] [ name ... ]
       zrecompile [ -qt ] -p arg ... [ -- arg ... ]
              This tries to find *.zwc files and automatically re-compile them if at least one of
              the original files is newer than the compiled file.  This works only if  the  names
              stored  in  the compiled files are full paths or are relative to the directory that
              contains the .zwc file.

              In the first form, each name is  the  name  of  a  compiled  file  or  a  directory
              containing  *.zwc  files  that  should  be checked.  If no arguments are given, the
              directories and *.zwc files in fpath are used.

              When -t is given, no compilation is performed, but a return status of  zero  (true)
              is  set  if  there  are  files  that  need  to  be re-compiled and non-zero (false)
              otherwise.  The -q option quiets the chatty output that describes  what  zrecompile
              is doing.

              Without  the  -t  option,  the  return  status  is  zero  if  all files that needed
              re-compilation could be compiled and non-zero if compilation for at  least  one  of
              the files failed.

              If  the  -p  option  is  given,  the  args  are  interpreted as one or more sets of
              arguments for zcompile, separated by `--'.  For example:

                     zrecompile -p \
                                -R ~/.zshrc -- \
                                -M ~/.zcompdump -- \
                                ~/zsh/comp.zwc ~/zsh/Completion/*/_*

              This compiles ~/.zshrc into ~/.zshrc.zwc if that doesn't exist or if  it  is  older
              than ~/.zshrc. The compiled file will be marked for reading instead of mapping. The
              same is done for ~/.zcompdump and  ~/.zcompdump.zwc,  but  this  compiled  file  is
              marked  for mapping. The last line re-creates the file ~/zsh/comp.zwc if any of the
              files matching the given pattern is newer than it.

              Without the -p option, zrecompile does not create  function  digests  that  do  not
              already exist, nor does it add new functions to the digest.

       The  following  shell loop is an example of a method for creating function digests for all
       functions in your fpath, assuming that you have write permission to the directories:

              for ((i=1; i <= $#fpath; ++i)); do
                if [[ $dir == (.|..) || $dir == (.|..)/* ]]; then
                if [[ -w $dir:h && -n $files ]]; then
                  if ( cd $dir:h &&
                       zrecompile -p -U -z $zwc $files ); then

       The -U and -z options are appropriate for functions in the default zsh installation fpath;
       you may need to use different options for your personal function directories.

       Once  the digests have been created and your fpath modified to refer to them, you can keep
       them up to date by running zrecompile with no arguments.

   Keyboard Definition
       The  large  number  of  possible  combinations  of  keyboards,  workstations,   terminals,
       emulators,  and  window  systems makes it impossible for zsh to have built-in key bindings
       for every situation.  The zkbd utility, found in  Functions/Misc,  can  help  you  quickly
       create key bindings for your configuration.

       Run zkbd either as an autoloaded function, or as a shell script:

              zsh -f ~/zsh-5.9/Functions/Misc/zkbd

       When you run zkbd, it first asks you to enter your terminal type; if the default it offers
       is correct, just press return.  It then asks you to press a number of  different  keys  to
       determine  characteristics  of  your  keyboard  and  terminal;  zkbd warns you if it finds
       anything out of the ordinary, such as a Delete key that sends neither ^H nor ^?.

       The keystrokes read by zkbd are recorded as a definition for an  associative  array  named
       key,  written  to  a  file  in  the  subdirectory .zkbd within either your HOME or ZDOTDIR
       directory.  The name of the file is composed from the TERM, VENDOR and OSTYPE  parameters,
       joined by hyphens.

       You  may  read this file into your .zshrc or another startup file with the `source' or `.'
       commands, then reference the key parameter in bindkey commands, like this:

              source ${ZDOTDIR:-$HOME}/.zkbd/$TERM-$VENDOR-$OSTYPE
              [[ -n ${key[Left]} ]] && bindkey "${key[Left]}" backward-char
              [[ -n ${key[Right]} ]] && bindkey "${key[Right]}" forward-char
              # etc.

       Note that in order for `autoload zkbd' to work, the zkdb  file  must  be  in  one  of  the
       directories  named in your fpath array (see zshparam(1)).  This should already be the case
       if you have a standard zsh installation; if it is  not,  copy  Functions/Misc/zkbd  to  an
       appropriate directory.

   Dumping Shell State
       Occasionally  you may encounter what appears to be a bug in the shell, particularly if you
       are using a beta version of zsh or a development release.  Usually  it  is  sufficient  to
       send  a  description  of  the  problem  to  one of the zsh mailing lists (see zsh(1)), but
       sometimes one of the zsh developers will need to recreate your  environment  in  order  to
       track the problem down.

       The  script  named  reporter, found in the Util directory of the distribution, is provided
       for this purpose.  (It is  also  possible  to  autoload  reporter,  but  reporter  is  not
       installed  in  fpath by default.)  This script outputs a detailed dump of the shell state,
       in the form of another script that can be read with `zsh -f' to recreate that state.

       To use reporter, read the script into your shell with the `.'  command  and  redirect  the
       output into a file:

              . ~/zsh-5.9/Util/reporter >

       You  should  check the file for any sensitive information such as passwords and
       delete them by hand before sending the script to the developers.  Also, as the output  can
       be  voluminous,  it's  best  to wait for the developers to ask for this information before
       sending it.

       You can also use reporter to dump only a subset of the shell  state.   This  is  sometimes
       useful for creating startup files for the first time.  Most of the output from reporter is
       far more detailed than usually is necessary for a startup file, but the aliases,  options,
       and zstyles states may be useful because they include only changes from the defaults.  The
       bindings state may be useful if you have created any of your own keymaps, because reporter
       arranges to dump the keymap creation commands as well as the bindings for every keymap.

       As  is  usual with automated tools, if you create a startup file with reporter, you should
       edit the results to remove unnecessary commands.   Note  that  if  you're  using  the  new
       completion  system,  you  should  not  dump the functions state to your startup files with
       reporter; use the compdump function instead (see zshcompsys(1)).

       reporter [ state ... ]
              Print to standard output the indicated subset of  the  current  shell  state.   The
              state arguments may be one or more of:

              all    Output everything listed below.
                     Output alias definitions.
                     Output ZLE key maps and bindings.
                     Output  old-style  compctl commands.  New completion is covered by functions
                     and zstyles.
                     Output autoloads and function definitions.
              limits Output limit commands.
                     Output setopt commands.
              styles Same as zstyles.
                     Output shell parameter assignments, plus export commands for any environment
                     Output zstyle commands.

              If the state is omitted, all is assumed.

       With  the  exception of `all', every state can be abbreviated by any prefix, even a single
       letter; thus a is the same as aliases, z is the same as zstyles, etc.

   Manipulating Hook Functions
       add-zsh-hook [ -L | -dD ] [ -Uzk ] hook function
              Several functions are special to the shell, as described  in  the  section  SPECIAL
              FUNCTIONS, see zshmisc(1), in that they are automatically called at specific points
              during shell execution.  Each has  an  associated  array  consisting  of  names  of
              functions  to  be  called  at the same point; these are so-called `hook functions'.
              The shell function add-zsh-hook  provides  a  simple  way  of  adding  or  removing
              functions from the array.

              hook  is  one  of  chpwd,  periodic,  precmd,  preexec,  zshaddhistory, zshexit, or
              zsh_directory_name,   the   special   functions    in    question.     Note    that
              zsh_directory_name  is  called in a different way from the other functions, but may
              still be manipulated as a hook.

              function is name of an ordinary shell function.  If no options are given this  will
              be  added to the array of functions to be executed in the given context.  Functions
              are invoked in the order they were added.

              If the option -L is given, the current values for the hook arrays are  listed  with

              If  the  option -d is given, the function is removed from the array of functions to
              be executed.

              If the option -D is given, the function is treated as a pattern  and  any  matching
              names of functions are removed from the array of functions to be executed.

              The  options  -U,  -z and -k are passed as arguments to autoload for function.  For
              functions contributed with zsh, the options -Uz are appropriate.

       add-zle-hook-widget [ -L | -dD ] [ -Uzk ] hook widgetname
              Several widget names are special to the line editor, as described  in  the  section
              Special  Widgets,  see zshzle(1), in that they are automatically called at specific
              points during editing.  Unlike function hooks, these do not use a predefined  array
              of  other  names  to call at the same point; the shell function add-zle-hook-widget
              maintains a similar array and arranges for  the  special  widget  to  invoke  those
              additional widgets.

              hook   is   one   of   isearch-exit,  isearch-update,  line-pre-redraw,  line-init,
              line-finish, history-line-set, or  keymap-select,  corresponding  to  each  of  the
              special  widgets zle-isearch-exit, etc.  The special widget names are also accepted
              as the hook argument.

              widgetname is the name of a ZLE widget.  If no options are given this is  added  to
              the  array of widgets to be invoked in the given hook context.  Widgets are invoked
              in the order they were added, with
                     zle widgetname -Nw -f "nolast" -- "$@"

              Note that this means that the `WIDGET' special parameter tracks the widgetname when
              the  widget  function is called, rather than tracking the name of the corresponding
              special hook widget.

              If the option -d is given, the widgetname is removed from the array of  widgets  to
              be executed.

              If  the option -D is given, the widgetname is treated as a pattern and any matching
              names of widgets are removed from the array.

              If widgetname does not name an existing widget when  added  to  the  array,  it  is
              assumed  that  a  shell  function  also  named  widgetname  is meant to provide the
              implementation of the widget.  This name is therefore marked for  autoloading,  and
              the options -U, -z and -k are passed as arguments to autoload as with add-zsh-hook.
              The widget is also created with `zle -N  widgetname'  to  cause  the  corresponding
              function to be loaded the first time the hook is called.

              The  arrays of widgetname are currently maintained in zstyle contexts, one for each
              hook context, with a style of `widgets'.  If the -L option is given,  this  set  of
              styles is listed with `zstyle -L'.  This implementation may change, and the special
              widgets that refer to the styles are created only if add-zle-hook-widget is  called
              to  add  at  least  one widget, so if this function is used for any hooks, then all
              hooks should be managed only via this function.


       The function cdr allows you  to  change  the  working  directory  to  a  previous  working
       directory from a list maintained automatically.  It is similar in concept to the directory
       stack controlled by the pushd, popd and dirs builtins, but is more configurable, and as it
       stores  all  entries  in  files  it is maintained across sessions and (by default) between
       terminal emulators in the current session.  Duplicates are automatically removed, so  that
       the list reflects the single most recent use of each directory.

       Note  that  the  pushd  directory stack is not actually modified or used by cdr unless you
       configure it to do so as described in the configuration section below.

       The system works by means of a hook function that  is  called  every  time  the  directory
       changes.   To install the system, autoload the required functions and use the add-zsh-hook
       function described above:

              autoload -Uz chpwd_recent_dirs cdr add-zsh-hook
              add-zsh-hook chpwd chpwd_recent_dirs

       Now every time you change directly interactively, no matter which  command  you  use,  the
       directory to which you change will be remembered in most-recent-first order.

       All direct user interaction is via the cdr function.

       The  argument  to  cdr  is  a  number  N corresponding to the Nth most recently changed-to
       directory.  1 is the immediately preceding directory; the current directory is  remembered
       but  is  not  offered as a destination.  Note that if you have multiple windows open 1 may
       refer to a directory  changed  to  in  another  window;  you  can  avoid  this  by  having
       per-terminal  files  for  storing  directory  as  described for the recent-dirs-file style

       If you set the recent-dirs-default style described below cdr will behave the same as cd if
       given  a  non-numeric  argument,  or more than one argument.  The recent directory list is
       updated just the same however you change directory.

       If the argument is omitted, 1 is  assumed.   This  is  similar  to  pushd's  behaviour  of
       swapping the two most recent directories on the stack.

       Completion  for  the argument to cdr is available if compinit has been run; menu selection
       is recommended, using:

              zstyle ':completion:*:*:cdr:*:*' menu selection

       to allow you to cycle through recent directories; the order is  preserved,  so  the  first
       choice  is  the  most  recent directory before the current one.  The verbose style is also
       recommended to ensure the directory is shown; this style is on by default so no action  is
       required unless you have changed it.

       The behaviour of cdr may be modified by the following options.

       -l     lists  the numbers and the corresponding directories in abbreviated form (i.e. with
              ~ substitution reapplied), one per line.  The directories here are not quoted (this
              would  only  be an issue if a directory name contained a newline).  This is used by
              the completion system.

       -r     sets the variable reply to the current set of directories.  Nothing is printed  and
              the directory is not changed.

       -e     allows  you  to edit the list of directories, one per line.  The list can be edited
              to any extent you like; no sanity checking is performed.  Completion is  available.
              No  quoting  is  necessary  (except  for  newlines,  where  I  have  in any case no
              sympathy); directories are in unabbreviated form and contain an absolute path, i.e.
              they  start  with  /.   Usually  the  first  entry  should  be  left as the current

       -p 'pattern'
              Prunes any items in the directory list that match the given extended glob  pattern;
              the  pattern  needs to be quoted from immediate expansion on the command line.  The
              pattern is matched against each completely expanded file name in the list; the full
              string must match, so wildcards at the end (e.g. '*removeme*') are needed to remove
              entries with a given substring.

              If output is to a terminal, then the function will print the new list after pruning
              and  prompt for confirmation by the user.  This output and confirmation step can be
              skipped by using -P instead of -p.

       Configuration is by means of the styles mechanism that should be familiar from completion;
       if  not,  see the description of the zstyle command in see zshmodules(1).  The context for
       setting styles should be ':chpwd:*' in case the meaning of  the  context  is  extended  in
       future, for example:

              zstyle ':chpwd:*' recent-dirs-max 0

       sets  the value of the recent-dirs-max style to 0.  In practice the style name is specific
       enough that a context of '*' should be fine.

       An exception is recent-dirs-insert, which is used exclusively by the completion system and
       so  has  the  usual completion system context (':completion:*' if nothing more specific is
       needed), though again '*' should be fine in practice.

              If true, and the command is expecting a recent directory index, and either there is
              more  than  one  argument  or  the argument is not an integer, then fall through to
              "cd".  This allows the lazy  to  use  only  one  command  for  directory  changing.
              Completion  recognises  this,  too;  see  recent-dirs-insert  for  how  to  control
              completion when this option is in use.

              The  file  where  the   list   of   directories   is   saved.    The   default   is
              ${ZDOTDIR:-$HOME}/.chpwd-recent-dirs,  i.e.  this  is in your home directory unless
              you have set the variable ZDOTDIR to point somewhere  else.   Directory  names  are
              saved  in  $'...' quoted form, so each line in the file can be supplied directly to
              the shell as an argument.

              The value of this style may be an array.  In this case, the first file in the  list
              will  always  be  used  for  saving  directories  while  any  other  files are left
              untouched.  When reading the recent directory list, if there  are  fewer  than  the
              maximum  number  of  entries  in the first file, the contents of later files in the
              array will be appended with duplicates removed from the list shown.   The  contents
              of  the  two  files are not sorted together, i.e. all the entries in the first file
              are shown first.  The special value + can  appear  in  the  list  to  indicate  the
              default file should be read at that point.  This allows effects like the following:

                     zstyle ':chpwd:*' recent-dirs-file \
                     ~/.chpwd-recent-dirs-${TTY##*/} +

              Recent  directories  are  read  from a file numbered according to the terminal.  If
              there are insufficient entries the list is supplemented from the default file.

              It is possible to use zstyle -e to make the directory configurable at run time:

                     zstyle -e ':chpwd:*' recent-dirs-file pick-recent-dirs-file
                     pick-recent-dirs-file() {
                       if [[ $PWD = ~/text/writing(|/*) ]]; then

              In this example, if the current directory is ~/text/writing or  a  directory  under
              it, then use a special file for saving recent directories, else use the default.

              Used  by  completion.   If  recent-dirs-default  is true, then setting this to true
              causes the actual directory, rather than its index, to be inserted on  the  command
              line;  this  has  the  same  effect as using the corresponding index, but makes the
              history clearer and the line easier to edit.  With this  setting,  if  part  of  an
              argument  was  already  typed,  normal  directory  completion  rather  than  recent
              directory completion is done;  this  is  because  recent  directory  completion  is
              expected to be done by cycling through entries menu fashion.

              If  the  value  of  the  style  is  always,  then  only  recent directories will be
              completed; in that case, use the  cd  command  when  you  want  to  complete  other

              If  the  value  is  fallback,  recent  directories will be tried first, then normal
              directory completion is performed if recent directory completion failed to  find  a

              Finally,  if  the  value  is  both then both sets of completions are presented; the
              usual tag mechanism can be used to distinguish  results,  with  recent  directories
              tagged  as  recent-dirs.  Note that the recent directories inserted are abbreviated
              with directory names where appropriate.

              The maximum number of directories to save to the file.  If this is zero or negative
              there is no maximum.  The default is 20.  Note this includes the current directory,
              which isn't offered, so the highest number of directories you will  be  offered  is
              one less than the maximum.

              This style is an array determining what directories should (or should not) be added
              to the recent list.  Elements of the array can include:

              parent Prune parents  (more  accurately,  ancestors)  from  the  recent  list.   If
                     present,  changing  directly  down  by  any number of directories causes the
                     current directory to be overwritten.  For example,  changing  from  ~pws  to
                     ~pws/some/other/dir  causes  ~pws  not  to  be  left on the recent directory
                     stack.  This only applies  to  direct  changes  to  descendant  directories;
                     earlier  directories on the list are not pruned.  For example, changing from
                     ~pws/yet/another to ~pws/some/other/dir does not cause ~pws to be pruned.

                     Gives a zsh pattern for directories that should not be added to  the  recent
                     list  (if not already there).  This element can be repeated to add different
                     patterns.  For example, 'pattern:/tmp(|/*)' stops /tmp  or  its  descendants
                     from  being  added.   The EXTENDED_GLOB option is always turned on for these

              If set to true, cdr will use pushd instead of cd to change the  directory,  so  the
              directory  is  saved  on the directory stack.  As the directory stack is completely
              separate from the list of files saved by the mechanism used in this file  there  is
              no obvious reason to do this.

   Use with dynamic directory naming
       It  is  possible to refer to recent directories using the dynamic directory name syntax by
       using the supplied function zsh_directory_name_cdr a hook:

              autoload -Uz add-zsh-hook
              add-zsh-hook -Uz zsh_directory_name zsh_directory_name_cdr

       When this is done, ~[1] will refer to the most recent directory other than  $PWD,  and  so
       on.  Completion after ~[...  also works.

   Details of directory handling
       This  section  is  for  the  curious  or  confused;  most users will not need to know this

       Recent directories are saved  to  a  file  immediately  and  hence  are  preserved  across
       sessions.   Note  currently no file locking is applied: the list is updated immediately on
       interactive commands and nowhere else (unlike history), and it is  assumed  you  are  only
       going to change directory in one window at once.  This is not safe on shared accounts, but
       in any case the system has limited utility when someone else is changing  to  a  different
       set of directories behind your back.

       To  make  this  a  little  safer, only directory changes instituted from the command line,
       either directly or indirectly through shell function calls  (but  not  through  subshells,
       evals, traps, completion functions and the like) are saved.  Shell functions should use cd
       -q or pushd -q to avoid side effects if the change to the directory is to be invisible  at
       the command line.  See the contents of the function chpwd_recent_dirs for more details.


       The  dynamic  directory  naming  system  is  described  in  the  subsection  Dynamic named
       directories of the section Filename Expansion in zshexpn(1).   In  this,  a  reference  to
       ~[...] is expanded by a function found by the hooks mechanism.

       The contributed function zsh_directory_name_generic provides a system allowing the user to
       refer to directories with only a limited amount of new code.  It supports all three of the
       standard  interfaces  for  directory  naming:  converting  from  a  name  to  a directory,
       converting in the reverse direction to find a short name, and completion of names.

       The main feature of this function  is  a  path-like  syntax,  combining  abbreviations  at
       multiple levels separated by ":".  As an example, ~[g:p:s] might specify:
       g      The  top  level directory for your git area.  This first component has to match, or
              the function will return indicating another directory name hook function should  be

       p      The name of a project within your git area.

       s      The  source  area  within  that project.  This allows you to collapse references to
              long hierarchies to a very  compact  form,  particularly  if  the  hierarchies  are
              similar across different areas of the disk.

       Name  components  may  be  completed:  if a description is shown at the top of the list of
       completions, it  includes  the  path  to  which  previous  components  expand,  while  the
       description  for  an  individual  completion  shows  the  path  segment  it would add.  No
       additional configuration is needed for this as the  completion  system  is  aware  of  the
       dynamic directory name mechanism.

       To use the function, first define a wrapper function for your specific case.  We'll assume
       it's to be autoloaded.  This can have any name but we'll refer  to  it  as  zdn_mywrapper.
       This  wrapper  function will define various variables and then call this function with the
       same arguments that the wrapper function gets.  This configuration is described below.

       Then arrange for the wrapper to be run as a zsh_directory_name hook:

              autoload -Uz add-zsh-hook zsh_directory_name_generic zdn_mywrapper
              add-zsh-hook -U zsh_directory_name zdn_mywrapper

       The wrapper function should define a local associative array zdn_top.  Alternatively, this
       can  be  set  with a style called mapping.  The context for the style is :zdn:wrapper-name
       where wrapper-name is the function calling zsh_directory_name_generic; for example:

              zstyle :zdn:zdn_mywrapper: mapping zdn_mywrapper_top

       The keys in this associative array correspond to the first component  of  the  name.   The
       values  are  matching directories.  They may have an optional suffix with a slash followed
       by a colon and the name of a variable in the same format to give the next component.  (The
       slash before the colon is to disambiguate the case where a colon is needed in the path for
       a drive.  There is otherwise no syntax for escaping this, so path components  whose  names
       start with a colon are not supported.)  A special component :default: specifies a variable
       in the form /:var (the path section is ignored and so is usually empty) that will be  used
       for the next component if no variable is given for the path.  Variables referred to within
       zdn_top have the same format as zdn_top itself, but contain relative paths.

       For example,

              local -A zdn_top=(
                g   ~/git
                ga  ~/alternate/git
                gs  /scratch/$USER/git/:second2
                :default: /:second1

       This specifies the behaviour of a directory referred  to  as  ~[g:...]   or  ~[ga:...]  or
       ~[gs:...].  Later path components are optional; in that case ~[g] expands to ~/git, and so
       on.  gs expands to /scratch/$USER/git and uses the associative array second2 to match  the
       second  component;  g  and  ga  use  the  associative  array  second1  to match the second

       When expanding a name to a directory, if the first component is not g or ga or gs,  it  is
       not  an  error;  the function simply returns 1 so that a later hook function can be tried.
       However, matching the first component commits the function, so if a later  component  does
       not  match,  an  error  is printed (though this still does not stop later hooks from being

       For components after the first, a relative path is expected, but note that multiple levels
       may still appear.  Here is an example of second1:

              local -A second1=(
                p   myproject
                s   somproject
                os  otherproject/subproject/:third

       The  path as found from zdn_top is extended with the matching directory, so ~[g:p] becomes
       ~/git/myproject.  The slash between is added automatically (it's not possible  to  have  a
       later  component  modify  the  name  of a directory already matched).  Only os specifies a
       variable for a third component, and there's no :default:, so it's an error to use  a  name
       like ~[g:p:x] or ~[ga:s:y] because there's nowhere to look up the x or y.

       The  associative  arrays  need  to  be  visible within this function; the generic function
       therefore uses internal variable names beginning _zdn_ in order to  avoid  clashes.   Note
       that  the  variable  reply needs to be passed back to the shell, so should not be local in
       the calling function.

       The function does not test whether directories assembled by component actually exist; this
       allows  the  system  to  work across automounted file systems.  The error from the command
       trying to use a non-existent directory should be sufficient to indicate the problem.

   Complete example
       Here is a full fictitious but usable  autoloadable  definition  of  the  example  function
       defined      by      the      code      above.       So      ~[gs:p:s]      expands     to
       /scratch/$USER/git/myscratchproject/top/srcdir (with $USER also expanded).

              local -A zdn_top=(
                g   ~/git
                ga  ~/alternate/git
                gs  /scratch/$USER/git/:second2
                :default: /:second1

              local -A second1=(
                p   myproject
                s   somproject
                os  otherproject/subproject/:third

              local -A second2=(
                p   myscratchproject
                s   somescratchproject

              local -A third=(
                s   top/srcdir
                d   top/documentation

              # autoload not needed if you did this at initialisation...
              autoload -Uz zsh_directory_name_generic
              zsh_directory_name_generic "$@

       It is also possible to use global associative arrays, suitably named, and  set  the  style
       for  the  context  of your wrapper function to refer to this.  Then your set up code would
       contain the following:

              typeset -A zdn_mywrapper_top=(...)
              # ... and so on for other associative arrays ...
              zstyle ':zdn:zdn_mywrapper:' mapping zdn_mywrapper_top
              autoload -Uz add-zsh-hook zsh_directory_name_generic zdn_mywrapper
              add-zsh-hook -U zsh_directory_name zdn_mywrapper

       and the function zdn_mywrapper would contain only the following:

              zsh_directory_name_generic "$@"


       In a lot of cases, it is nice to automatically retrieve information from  version  control
       systems  (VCSs),  such  as  subversion,  CVS or git, to be able to provide it to the user;
       possibly in the user's prompt. So that  you  can  instantly  tell  which  branch  you  are
       currently on, for example.

       In order to do that, you may use the vcs_info function.

       The  following VCSs are supported, showing the abbreviated name by which they are referred
       to within the system:
       Bazaar (bzr)
       Codeville (cdv)
       Concurrent Versioning System (cvs)
       Darcs (darcs)
       Fossil (fossil)
       Git (git)
       GNU arch (tla)
       Mercurial (hg)
       Monotone (mtn)
       Perforce (p4)
       Subversion (svn)
       SVK (svk)

       There    is    also    support    for    the     patch     management     system     quilt
       ( See Quilt Support below for details.

       To load vcs_info:

              autoload -Uz vcs_info

       It  can  be  used  in any existing prompt, because it does not require any specific $psvar
       entries to be available.

       To get this  feature  working  quickly  (including  colors),  you  can  do  the  following
       (assuming, you loaded vcs_info properly - see above):

              zstyle ':vcs_info:*' actionformats \
                  '%F{5}(%f%s%F{5})%F{3}-%F{5}[%F{2}%b%F{3}|%F{1}%a%F{5}]%f '
              zstyle ':vcs_info:*' formats       \
                  '%F{5}(%f%s%F{5})%F{3}-%F{5}[%F{2}%b%F{5}]%f '
              zstyle ':vcs_info:(sv[nk]|bzr):*' branchformat '%b%F{1}:%F{3}%r'
              precmd () { vcs_info }
              PS1='%F{5}[%F{2}%n%F{5}] %F{3}%3~ ${vcs_info_msg_0_}%f%# '

       Obviously,  the last two lines are there for demonstration. You need to call vcs_info from
       your precmd function. Once that is done you need a single quoted  '${vcs_info_msg_0_}'  in
       your prompt.

       To be able to use '${vcs_info_msg_0_}' directly in your prompt like this, you will need to
       have the PROMPT_SUBST option enabled.

       Now call the vcs_info_printsys utility from the command line:

              % vcs_info_printsys
              ## list of supported version control backends:
              ## disabled systems are prefixed by a hash sign (#)
              ## flavours (cannot be used in the enable or disable styles; they
              ## are enabled and disabled with their master [git-svn -> git])
              ## they *can* be used in contexts: ':vcs_info:git-svn:*'.

       You may not want all of these because there is no point in  running  the  code  to  detect
       systems you do not use.  So there is a way to disable some backends altogether:

              zstyle ':vcs_info:*' disable bzr cdv darcs mtn svk tla

       You may also pick a few from that list and enable only those:

              zstyle ':vcs_info:*' enable git cvs svn

       If  you  rerun  vcs_info_printsys  after  one of these commands, you will see the backends
       listed in the disable style (or backends not in the enable  style  -  if  you  used  that)
       marked  as  disabled by a hash sign.  That means the detection of these systems is skipped
       completely. No wasted time there.

       The vcs_info feature can be configured via zstyle.

       First, the context in which we are working:

              is one of: git, git-svn, git-p4, hg, hg-git, hg-hgsubversion, hg-hgsvn, darcs, bzr,
              cdv,   mtn,   svn,   cvs,   svk,   tla,   p4   or  fossil.   This  is  followed  by
              `.quilt-quilt-mode'  in  Quilt  mode  (see  Quilt  Support  for  details)  and   by
              `+hook-name' while hooks are active (see Hooks in vcs_info for details).

              Currently, hooks in quilt mode don't add the `.quilt-quilt-mode' information.  This
              may change in the future.

              is a freely configurable string, assignable by the user as the  first  argument  to
              vcs_info (see its description below).

              is  the  name of a repository in which you want a style to match. So, if you want a
              setting specific to /usr/src/zsh, with that being  a  CVS  checkout,  you  can  set
              repo-root-name to zsh to make it so.

       There  are  three  special  values  for  vcs-string: The first is named -init-, that is in
       effect as long as there was no decision what VCS backend to use. The second is  -preinit-;
       it  is  used  before  vcs_info is run, when initializing the data exporting variables. The
       third special value is formats and is used by the  vcs_info_lastmsg  for  looking  up  its

       The  initial  value of repo-root-name is -all- and it is replaced with the actual name, as
       soon as it is known. Only  use  this  part  of  the  context  for  defining  the  formats,
       actionformats  or  branchformat  styles, as it is guaranteed that repo-root-name is set up
       correctly for these only. For all other styles, just use '*' instead.

       There are two pre-defined values for user-context:
              the one used if none is specified
              used by vcs_info_lastmsg to lookup its styles

       You can of course use ':vcs_info:*' to match all VCSs in all user-contexts at once.

       This is a description of all styles that are looked up.

              A list of formats, used when actionformats is not used (which is most of the time).

              A list of formats, used if there is a special  action  going  on  in  your  current
              repository; like an interactive rebase or a merge conflict.

              Some backends replace %b in the formats and actionformats styles above, not only by
              a branch name but also by a revision number. This style lets you  modify  how  that
              string should look.

              These  "formats"  are  set  when  we didn't detect a version control system for the
              current directory or vcs_info was disabled. This is useful if you want vcs_info  to
              completely  take  over  the  generation of your prompt. You would do something like
              PS1='${vcs_info_msg_0_}' to accomplish that.

              hg uses both a hash and a revision number to reference a specific  changeset  in  a
              repository.  With  this style you can format the revision string (see branchformat)
              to include either or both. It's only useful when get-revision is  true.  Note,  the
              full  40-character  revision  id is not available (except when using the use-simple
              option) because executing hg more than  once  per  prompt  is  too  slow;  you  may
              customize this behavior using hooks.

              Defines the maximum number of vcs_info_msg_*_ variables vcs_info will set.

       enable A  list  of  backends  you want to use. Checked in the -init- context. If this list
              contains an item called NONE no backend  is  used  at  all  and  vcs_info  will  do
              nothing. If this list contains ALL, vcs_info will use all known backends. Only with
              ALL in enable will the disable style  have  any  effect.  ALL  and  NONE  are  case

              A  list  of  VCSs  you don't want vcs_info to test for repositories (checked in the
              -init- context, too). Only used if enable contains ALL.

              A list of patterns that are checked against $PWD. If a  pattern  matches,  vcs_info
              will be disabled. This style is checked in the :vcs_info:-init-:*:-all- context.

              Say, ~/.zsh is a directory under version control, in which you do not want vcs_info
              to be active, do:
                     zstyle ':vcs_info:*' disable-patterns "${(b)HOME}/.zsh(|/*)"

              If enabled, the quilt support code is active in `addon' mode.   See  Quilt  Support
              for details.

              If enabled, `standalone' mode detection is attempted if no VCS is active in a given
              directory. See Quilt Support for details.

              Overwrite the value of the $QUILT_PATCHES environment variable. See  Quilt  Support
              for details.

              When  quilt  itself  is called in quilt support, the value of this style is used as
              the command name.

              If enabled, this style causes the %c and %u format escapes to show when the working
              directory  has  uncommitted  changes. The strings displayed by these escapes can be
              controlled via the  stagedstr  and  unstagedstr  styles.  The  only  backends  that
              currently  support  this  option  are git, hg, and bzr (the latter two only support

              For this style to be evaluated with the hg backend, the get-revision style needs to
              be  set  and the use-simple style needs to be unset. The latter is the default; the
              former is not.

              With the bzr backend, lightweight checkouts only honor this style if the use-server
              style is set.

              Note,  the  actions taken if this style is enabled are potentially expensive (read:
              they may be slow, depending on how big the current repository is).   Therefore,  it
              is disabled by default.

              This  style is like check-for-changes, but it never checks the worktree files, only
              the metadata in the .${vcs} dir.  Therefore, this style  initializes  only  the  %c
              escape  (with  stagedstr)  but  not  the  %u  escape.   This  style  is faster than

              In the git backend, this style checks for changes in the index.  Other backends  do
              not currently implement this style.

              This style is disabled by default.

              This  string  will  be  used  in  the  %c escape if there are staged changes in the

              This string will be used in the %u escape if there  are  unstaged  changes  in  the

              This  style causes vcs_info to use the supplied string as the command to use as the
              VCS's binary. Note, that setting this in ':vcs_info:*' is not a good idea.

              If the value of this style is empty (which is the default), the used binary name is
              the name of the backend in use (e.g. svn is used in an svn repository).

              The  repo-root-name part in the context is always the default -all- when this style
              is looked up.

              For example, this style can be used to use binaries from  non-default  installation
              directories.  Assume,  git  is  installed in /usr/bin but your sysadmin installed a
              newer version in /usr/local/bin. Instead  of  changing  the  order  of  your  $PATH
              parameter, you can do this:
                     zstyle ':vcs_info:git:*:-all-' command /usr/local/bin/git

              This  is  used  by  the  Perforce  backend  (p4) to decide if it should contact the
              Perforce server to find out if a directory is managed by  Perforce.   This  is  the
              only  reliable  way  of doing this, but runs the risk of a delay if the server name
              cannot be found.  If the server (more specifically, the host:port  pair  describing
              the  server)  cannot  be  contacted,  its  name  is  put into the associative array
              vcs_info_p4_dead_servers and is not contacted again during the session until it  is
              removed  by  hand.   If you do not set this style, the p4 backend is only usable if
              you  have  set  the  environment  variable  P4CONFIG  to  a  file  name  and   have
              corresponding  files in the root directories of each Perforce client.  See comments
              in the function VCS_INFO_detect_p4 for more detail.

              The  Bazaar  backend  (bzr)  uses  this  to  permit  contacting  the  server  about
              lightweight checkouts, see the check-for-changes style.

              If  there  are  two  different  ways  of  gathering information, you can select the
              simpler  one  by  setting  this  style  to  true;  the  default  is  to   use   the
              not-that-simple  code, which is potentially a lot slower but might be more accurate
              in all possible cases. This style is used by the bzr, hg, and git backends. In  the
              case of hg it will invoke the external hexdump program to parse the binary dirstate
              cache file; this method will not return the local revision number.

              If set to true, vcs_info goes the extra mile  to  figure  out  the  revision  of  a
              repository's  work  tree (currently for the git and hg backends, where this kind of
              information is not always vital). For git, the hash value of the currently  checked
              out  commit  is  available via the %i expansion. With hg, the local revision number
              and the corresponding global hash are available via %i.

       get-mq If set to true, the  hg  backend  will  look  for  a  Mercurial  Queue  (mq)  patch
              directory. Information will be available via the `%m' replacement.

              If  set  to  true, the hg backend will try to get a list of current bookmarks. They
              will be available via the `%m' replacement.

              The default is to generate a comma-separated list of all bookmark names that  refer
              to  the  currently  checked  out  revision.   If  a bookmark is active, its name is
              suffixed an asterisk and placed first in the list.

              Determines if we assume that the assembled string  from  vcs_info  includes  prompt
              escapes. (Used by vcs_info_lastmsg.)

       debug  Enable  debugging  output  to track possible problems. Currently this style is only
              used by vcs_info's hooks system.

       hooks  A list style that defines hook-function names. See  Hooks  in  vcs_info  below  for

              This  pair of styles format the patch information used by the %m expando in formats
              and actionformats for the git and hg backends.  The value  is  subject  to  certain
              %-expansions  described  below.  The expanded value is made available in the global
              backend_misc array as ${backend_misc[patches]} (also if a set-patch-format hook  is

              This  boolean  style  controls whether a backend should attempt to gather a list of
              unapplied patches (for example with Mercurial Queue patches).

              Used by the quilt, hg, and git backends.

       The default values for these styles in all contexts are:

              " (%s)-[%b]%u%c-"
              " (%s)-[%b|%a]%u%c-"
              "%b:%r" (for bzr, svn, svk and hg)
       enable ALL
              (empty list)
              (empty list)
              (string: "S")
              (string: "U")
              (empty string)
       get-mq true
       debug  false
       hooks  (empty list)
              empty - use $QUILT_PATCHES
              backend dependent
              backend dependent

       In normal formats and actionformats the following replacements are done:

       %s     The VCS in use (git, hg, svn, etc.).
       %b     Information about the current branch.
       %a     An identifier that describes the action. Only makes sense in actionformats.
       %i     The current revision number or identifier. For hg the hgrevformat style may be used
              to customize the output.
       %c     The string from the stagedstr style if there are staged changes in the repository.
       %u     The  string  from  the  unstagedstr  style  if  there  are  unstaged changes in the
       %R     The base directory of the repository.
       %r     The repository name. If %R is /foo/bar/repoXY, %r is repoXY.
       %S     A subdirectory within a repository. If $PWD is  /foo/bar/repoXY/beer/tasty,  %S  is
       %m     A  "misc"  replacement.  It is at the discretion of the backend to decide what this
              replacement expands to.

              The hg and git backends use this expando to display patch information.  hg  sources
              patch  information  from  the  mq  extensions;  git  from  in-progress  rebase  and
              cherry-pick  operations  and  from  the  stgit  extension.   The  patch-format  and
              nopatch-format  styles  control  the  generated string.  The former is used when at
              least one patch from the patch queue has been applied, and the latter otherwise.

              The hg backend displays bookmark information in this expando  (in  addition  to  mq
              information).   See  the get-mq and get-bookmarks styles.  Both of these styles may
              be enabled at the same time.  If both are enabled, both resulting strings  will  be
              shown separated by a semicolon (that cannot currently be customized).

              The  quilt  `standalone'  backend  sets  this  expando  to the same value as the %Q

       %Q     Quilt series information.  When quilt is used (either  in  `addon'  mode  or  as  a
              `standalone'  backend),  this  expando  is  set  to  the quilt series' patch-format
              string.  The set-patch-format hook and nopatch-format style are honoured.

              See Quilt Support below for details.

       In branchformat these replacements are done:

       %b     The branch name. For hg, the branch name can include a topic name.
       %r     The current revision number or the hgrevformat style for hg.

       In hgrevformat these replacements are done:

       %r     The current local revision number.
       %h     The current global revision identifier.

       In patch-format and nopatch-format these replacements are done:

       %p     The name of the top-most applied patch; may be  overridden  by  the  applied-string
       %u     The number of unapplied patches; may be overridden by the unapplied-string hook.
       %n     The number of applied patches.
       %c     The number of unapplied patches.
       %a     The number of all patches (%a = %n + %c).
       %g     The names of active mq guards (hg backend).
       %G     The number of active mq guards (hg backend).

       Not all VCS backends have to support all replacements. For nvcsformats no replacements are
       performed at all, it is just a string.

       If you want to use the %b (bold off) prompt expansion in formats, which expands %b itself,
       use  %%b.  That  will  cause  the vcs_info expansion to replace %%b with %b, so that zsh's
       prompt expansion mechanism can handle it. Similarly, to hand down  %b  from  branchformat,
       use  %%%%b.  Sorry  for this inconvenience, but it cannot be easily avoided. Luckily we do
       not clash with a lot of prompt expansions and this only needs to be done for those.

       When one of the gen-applied-string, gen-unapplied-string, and  set-patch-format  hooks  is
       defined,  applying %-escaping (`foo=${foo//'%'/%%}') to the interpolated values for use in
       the prompt is the responsibility of those hooks (jointly); when neither of those hooks  is
       defined,  vcs_info  handles  escaping  by  itself.   We  regret  this coupling, but it was
       required for backwards compatibility.

   Quilt Support
       Quilt is not a version control system, therefore this is not implemented as a backend.  It
       can help keeping track of a series of patches. People use it to keep a set of changes they
       want to use on top of software packages (which is  tightly  integrated  into  the  package
       build  process  -  the Debian project does this for a large number of packages). Quilt can
       also help individual developers keep track of their own patches on  top  of  real  version
       control systems.

       The  vcs_info integration tries to support both ways of using quilt by having two slightly
       different modes of operation: `addon' mode and `standalone' mode).

       Quilt integration is off by default; to enable it, set the use-quilt style, and add %Q  to
       your formats or actionformats style:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:*' use-quilt true

       Styles looked up from the Quilt support code include `.quilt-quilt-mode' in the vcs-string
       part  of  the  context,  where  quilt-mode  is  either  addon  or  standalone.    Example:

       For  `addon'  mode  to  become  active  vcs_info must have already detected a real version
       control system controlling the directory. If that is the  case,  a  directory  that  holds
       quilt's  patches needs to be found. That directory is configurable via the `QUILT_PATCHES'
       environment variable. If that variable exists its  value  is  used,  otherwise  the  value
       `patches'  is  assumed.  The  value  from  $QUILT_PATCHES  can  be  overwritten  using the
       `quilt-patch-dir' style. (Note: you can use vcs_info to keep the value  of  $QUILT_PATCHES
       correct all the time via the post-quilt hook).

       When  the  directory  in  question is found, quilt is assumed to be active. To gather more
       information, vcs_info looks for a directory called `.pc'; Quilt  uses  that  directory  to
       track  its current state. If this directory does not exist we know that quilt has not done
       anything to the working directory (read: no patches have been applied yet).

       If patches are applied, vcs_info will try to find out which. If you  want  to  know  which
       patches  of  a series are not yet applied, you need to activate the get-unapplied style in
       the appropriate context.

       vcs_info allows for very detailed control over how the gathered information  is  presented
       (see the Configuration and Hooks in vcs_info sections), all of which are documented below.
       Note there are a number of other patch tracking systems that work  on  top  of  a  certain
       version  control  system (like stgit for git, or mq for hg); the configuration for systems
       like that are generally configured the same way as the quilt support.

       If the quilt support is working in `addon' mode, the produced string  is  available  as  a
       simple  format  replacement  (%Q  to  be  precise),  which  can  be  used  in  formats and
       actionformats; see below for details).

       If, on the other hand, the support code is working in  `standalone'  mode,  vcs_info  will
       pretend  as  if  quilt  were an actual version control system. That means that the version
       control system identifier (which otherwise would be something like `svn' or `cvs') will be
       set to `-quilt-'. This has implications on the used style context where this identifier is
       the second element. vcs_info will have filled in a proper  value  for  the  "repository's"
       root  directory  and  the  string  containing  the information about quilt's state will be
       available as the `misc' replacement (and %Q for compatibility with `addon' mode).

       What is left to discuss is how `standalone' mode is detected. The detection  itself  is  a
       series  of  searches  for directories. You can have this detection enabled all the time in
       every directory that is not otherwise under version control. If you know there is  only  a
       limited  set  of  trees  where  you  would  like  vcs_info  to  try  and look for Quilt in
       `standalone' mode to minimise the amount of searching on every call to vcs_info, there are
       a number of ways to do that:

       Essentially,   `standalone'   mode   detection   is   controlled   by   a   style   called
       `quilt-standalone'. It is a string style and its value can  have  different  effects.  The
       simplest  values are: `always' to run detection every time vcs_info is run, and `never' to
       turn the detection off entirely.

       If the value of quilt-standalone is something else, it is interpreted differently. If  the
       value  is  the  name  of  a scalar variable the value of that variable is checked and that
       value is used in the same `always'/`never' way as described above.

       If the value of quilt-standalone is an array, the elements  of  that  array  are  used  as
       directory names under which you want the detection to be active.

       If  quilt-standalone  is an associative array, the keys are taken as directory names under
       which you want the detection to be active, but only if  the  corresponding  value  is  the
       string `true'.

       Last,  but  not  least,  if  the  value of quilt-standalone is the name of a function, the
       function is called without arguments and the return value decides whether detection should
       be active. A `0' return value is true; a non-zero return value is interpreted as false.

       Note,  if  there  is  both  a function and a variable by the name of quilt-standalone, the
       function will take precedence.

   Function Descriptions (Public API)
       vcs_info [user-context]
              The  main  function,  that  runs  all  backends  and  assembles   all   data   into
              ${vcs_info_msg_*_}.  This  is the function you want to call from precmd if you want
              to include up-to-date information in your prompt (see Variable Description  below).
              If  an  argument  is  given,  that  string  will  be used instead of default in the
              user-context field of the style context.

              Statically registers a number of functions to a given hook. The hook  needs  to  be
              given  as  the  first  argument;  what  follows is a list of hook-function names to
              register to the hook. The `+vi-' prefix needs to be left out  here.  See  Hooks  in
              vcs_info below for details.

              Remove  hook-functions  from  a given hook. The hook needs to be given as the first
              non-option argument; what follows is a list of hook-function names  to  un-register
              from  the  hook.  If  `-a'  is  used  as the first argument, all occurrences of the
              functions are unregistered. Otherwise only the last occurrence  is  removed  (if  a
              function  was  registered  to a hook more than once). The `+vi-' prefix needs to be
              left out here.  See Hooks in vcs_info below for details.

              Outputs the current values of ${vcs_info_msg_*_}.  Takes into account the value  of
              the  use-prompt-escapes  style  in  ':vcs_info:formats:command:-all-'. It also only
              prints max-exports values.

       vcs_info_printsys [user-context]
              Prints a list of all supported version control systems. Useful to find out possible
              contexts (and which of them are enabled) or values for the disable style.

              Initializes vcs_info's internal list of available backends. With this function, you
              can add support for new VCSs without restarting the shell.

       All functions named VCS_INFO_* are for internal use only.

   Variable Description
       ${vcs_info_msg_N_} (Note the trailing underscore)
              Where N is an integer, e.g., vcs_info_msg_0_. These variables are the  storage  for
              the  informational message the last vcs_info call has assembled. These are strongly
              connected to the formats, actionformats and  nvcsformats  styles  described  above.
              Those  styles  are  lists.  The  first  member  of  that  list  gets  expanded into
              ${vcs_info_msg_0_},  the  second  into  ${vcs_info_msg_1_}   and   the   Nth   into
              ${vcs_info_msg_N-1_}. (See the max-exports style above.)

       All variables named VCS_INFO_* are for internal use only.

   Hooks in vcs_info
       Hooks  are  places  in vcs_info where you can run your own code. That code can communicate
       with the code that called it and through that, change the system's behaviour.

       For configuration, hooks change the style context:

       To register functions to a hook, you  need  to  list  them  in  the  hooks  style  in  the
       appropriate context.

              zstyle ':vcs_info:*+foo:*' hooks bar baz

       This  registers  functions to the hook `foo' for all backends. In order to avoid namespace
       problems, all registered function names are prepended by a `+vi-', so the actual functions
       called for the `foo' hook are `+vi-bar' and `+vi-baz'.

       If  you would like to register a function to a hook regardless of the current context, you
       may use the vcs_info_hookadd function. To remove a function that was added like that,  the
       vcs_info_hookdel function can be used.

       If  something  seems weird, you can enable the `debug' boolean style in the proper context
       and the hook-calling code will print what it tried to execute and whether the function  in
       question existed.

       When  you  register more than one function to a hook, all functions are executed one after
       another until one function returns non-zero or  until  all  functions  have  been  called.
       Context-sensitive  hook functions are executed before statically registered ones (the ones
       added by vcs_info_hookadd).

       You may pass data between functions via an associative array, user_data.  For example:
                  # do something with ${user_data[myval]}

       There are a number of variables that are special in hook contexts:

       ret    The return value that the hooks system will return to the caller. The default is an
              integer  `zero'. If and how a changed ret value changes the execution of the caller
              depends on the specific hook. See the hook documentation below for details.

              An associated array which is used for bidirectional communication from  the  caller
              to hook functions. The used keys depend on the specific hook.

              The  active context of the hook. Functions that wish to change this variable should
              make it local scope first.

       vcs    The current VCS after it was detected. The same values  as  in  the  enable/disable
              style are used. Available in all hooks except start-up.

       Finally, the full list of currently available hooks:

              Called  after starting vcs_info but before the VCS in this directory is determined.
              It can be used to deactivate vcs_info temporarily if necessary. When ret is set  to
              1,  vcs_info aborts and does nothing; when set to 2, vcs_info sets up everything as
              if no version control were active and exits.

              Same as start-up but after the VCS was detected.

              Called  in  the  Mercurial  backend  when  a  bookmark  string  is  generated;  the
              get-revision and get-bookmarks styles must be true.

              This  hook  gets  the names of the Mercurial bookmarks that vcs_info collected from

              If a bookmark is active, the key  ${hook_com[hg-active-bookmark]}  is  set  to  its
              name.  The key is otherwise unset.

              When setting ret to non-zero, the string in ${hook_com[hg-bookmark-string]} will be
              used in the %m escape in formats and actionformats and will  be  available  in  the
              global backend_misc array as ${backend_misc[bookmarks]}.

              Called in the git (with stgit or during rebase or merge), and hg (with mq) backends
              and in quilt support when the applied-string is  generated;  the  use-quilt  zstyle
              must be true for quilt (the mq and stgit backends are active by default).

              The  arguments  to  this hook describe applied patches in the opposite order, which
              means that the first argument is the top-most patch and so forth.

              When the patches' log messages can be extracted, those  are  embedded  within  each
              argument  after  a space, so each argument is of the form `patch-name first line of
              the log message', where patch-name contains no whitespace. The  mq  backend  passes
              arguments  of  the  form  `patch  name', with possible embedded spaces, but without
              extracting the patch's log message.

              When setting ret to non-zero, the string  in  ${hook_com[applied-string]}  will  be
              available  as  %p  in the patch-format and nopatch-format styles.  This hook is, in
              concert with set-patch-format, responsible for %-escaping that value for use in the
              prompt.  (See the Oddities section.)

              The  quilt  backend  passes  to this hook the inputs ${hook_com[quilt-patches-dir]}
              and, if it has been determined, ${hook_com[quilt-pc-dir]}.

              Called in the git (with stgit or during rebase), and hg (with mq)  backend  and  in
              quilt  support when the unapplied-string is generated; the get-unapplied style must
              be true.

              This hook gets the names of all unapplied patches which vcs_info  in  order,  which
              means that the first argument is the patch next-in-line to be applied and so forth.

              The format of each argument is as for gen-applied-string, above.

              When  setting  ret to non-zero, the string in ${hook_com[unapplied-string]} will be
              available as %u in the patch-format and nopatch-format styles.  This  hook  is,  in
              concert with set-patch-format, responsible for %-escaping that value for use in the
              prompt.  (See the Oddities section.)

              The quilt backend passes to this  hook  the  inputs  ${hook_com[quilt-patches-dir]}
              and, if it has been determined, ${hook_com[quilt-pc-dir]}.

              Called  in the hg backend when guards-string is generated; the get-mq style must be
              true (default).

              This hook gets the names of any active mq guards.

              When setting ret to non-zero, the string in ${hook_com[guards-string]} will be used
              in the %g escape in the patch-format and nopatch-format styles.

       no-vcs This hooks is called when no version control system was detected.

              The `hook_com' parameter is not used.

              Called as soon as the backend has finished collecting information.

              The `hook_com' keys available are as for the set-message hook.

              Called  after  the  quilt  support  is done. The following information is passed as
              arguments to the hook: 1. the quilt-support mode (`addon' or `standalone'); 2.  the
              directory  that  contains  the  patch  series;  3. the directory that holds quilt's
              status information (the `.pc' directory) or the string "-nopc-" if  that  directory
              wasn't found.

              The `hook_com' parameter is not used.

              Called  before  `branchformat'  is set. The only argument to the hook is the format
              that is configured at this point.

              The `hook_com' keys considered are `branch' and `revision'.  They are  set  to  the
              values figured out so far by vcs_info and any change will be used directly when the
              actual replacement is done.

              If ret is set to non-zero, the string in ${hook_com[branch-replace]} will  be  used
              unchanged as the `%b' replacement in the variables set by vcs_info.

              Called  before  a `hgrevformat' is set. The only argument to the hook is the format
              that is configured at this point.

              The `hook_com' keys considered are `hash' and `localrev'.   They  are  set  to  the
              values figured out so far by vcs_info and any change will be used directly when the
              actual replacement is done.

              If ret is set to non-zero, the string  in  ${hook_com[rev-replace]}  will  be  used
              unchanged as the `%i' replacement in the variables set by vcs_info.

              This  hook  is  used  when vcs_info's quilt functionality is active in "addon" mode
              (quilt used on top of a real version control system). It is activated right  before
              any quilt specific action is taken.

              Setting  the  `ret'  variable  in  this  hook  to a non-zero value avoids any quilt
              specific actions from being run at all.

              This hook is used to control some of the possible expansions  in  patch-format  and
              nopatch-format styles with patch queue systems such as quilt, mqueue and the like.

              This hook is used in the git, hg and quilt backends.

              The   hook   allows   the   control   of   the  %p  (${hook_com[applied]})  and  %u
              (${hook_com[unapplied]}) expansion in all backends that  use  the  hook.  With  the
              mercurial  backend,  the  %g  (${hook_com[guards]})  expansion  is  controllable in
              addition to that.

              If ret is set to non-zero, the string in ${hook_com[patch-replace]}  will  be  used
              unchanged instead of an expanded format from patch-format or nopatch-format.

              This  hook is, in concert with the gen-applied-string or gen-unapplied-string hooks
              if they are defined, responsible for %-escaping the final  patch-format  value  for
              use in the prompt.  (See the Oddities section.)

              The  quilt  backend  passes  to this hook the inputs ${hook_com[quilt-patches-dir]}
              and, if it has been determined, ${hook_com[quilt-pc-dir]}.

              Called each  time  before  a  `vcs_info_msg_N_'  message  is  set.   It  takes  two
              arguments;  the first being the `N' in the message variable name, the second is the
              currently configured formats or actionformats.

              There are a number of `hook_com' keys, that  are  used  here:  `action',  `branch',
              `base',  `base-name', `subdir', `staged', `unstaged', `revision', `misc', `vcs' and
              one `miscN' entry for each backend-specific data field (N starting at  zero).  They
              are  set  to  the values figured out so far by vcs_info and any change will be used
              directly when the actual replacement is done.

              Since this hook is triggered multiple times (once for each  configured  formats  or
              actionformats),  each  of the `hook_com' keys mentioned above (except for the miscN
              entries) has an `_orig' counterpart, so even if you changed a value to your  liking
              you  can  still get the original value in the next run. Changing the `_orig' values
              is probably not a good idea.

              If ret is set  to  non-zero,  the  string  in  ${hook_com[message]}  will  be  used
              unchanged as the message by vcs_info.

       If all of this sounds rather confusing, take a look at the Examples section below and also
       in the Misc/vcs_info-examples file in the Zsh source.  They contain some explanatory code.

       Don't use vcs_info at all (even though it's in your prompt):
              zstyle ':vcs_info:*' enable NONE

       Disable the backends for bzr and svk:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:*' disable bzr svk

       Disable everything but bzr and svk:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:*' enable bzr svk

       Provide a special formats for git:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:git:*' formats       ' GIT, BABY! [%b]'
              zstyle ':vcs_info:git:*' actionformats ' GIT ACTION! [%b|%a]'

       All %x expansion in all sorts of formats (formats, actionformats, branchformat,  you  name
       it)  are  done using the `zformat' builtin from the `zsh/zutil' module. That means you can
       do everything with these %x items what  zformat  supports.  In  particular,  if  you  want
       something  that  is  really  long  to  have  a  fixed  width,  like  a hash in a mercurial
       branchformat, you can do this: %12.12i. That'll shrink the 40 character  hash  to  its  12
       leading  characters.  The form is actually `%min.maxx'. More is possible.  See the section
       `The zsh/zutil Module' in zshmodules(1) for details.

       Use the quicker bzr backend
              zstyle ':vcs_info:bzr:*' use-simple true

       If you do use use-simple, please report if it does `the-right-thing[tm]'.

       Display the revision number in yellow for bzr and svn:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:(svn|bzr):*' \
                     branchformat '%b%%F{yellow}:%r'

       The doubled percent sign is explained in the Oddities section.

       Alternatively, one can use the raw colour codes directly:

              zstyle ':vcs_info:(svn|bzr):*' \
                     branchformat '%b%{'${fg[yellow]}'%}:%r'

       Normally when a variable is interpolated into a format string, the variable  needs  to  be
       %-escaped.  In  this  example we skipped that because we assume the value of ${fg[yellow]}
       doesn't contain any % signs.

       Make sure you enclose the color codes in %{...%} if you want to use the string provided by
       vcs_info in prompts.

       Here is how to print the VCS information as a command (not in a prompt):
              vcsi() { vcs_info interactive; vcs_info_lastmsg }

       This  way,  you  can  even define different formats for output via vcs_info_lastmsg in the
       ':vcs_info:*:interactive:*' namespace.

       Now as promised, some code that uses hooks: say, you'd like to replace the string `svn' by
       `subversion' in vcs_info's %s formats replacement.

       First, we will tell vcs_info to call a function when populating the message variables with
       the gathered information:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:*+set-message:*' hooks svn2subversion

       Nothing happens. Which is reasonable, since we didn't define the actual function  yet.  To
       see what the hooks subsystem is trying to do, enable the `debug' style:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:*+*:*' debug true

       That  should  give  you  an  idea what is going on. Specifically, the function that we are
       looking for is `+vi-svn2subversion'. Note, the `+vi-' prefix. So, everything is in  order,
       just as documented. When you are done checking out the debugging output, disable it again:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:*+*:*' debug false

       Now, let's define the function:
              function +vi-svn2subversion() {
                  [[ ${hook_com[vcs_orig]} == svn ]] && hook_com[vcs]=subversion

       Simple enough. And it could have even been simpler, if only we had registered our function
       in a less generic context. If we do it only in the `svn' backend's context, we don't  need
       to test which the active backend is:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:svn+set-message:*' hooks svn2subversion
              function +vi-svn2subversion() {

       And  finally  a  little  more  elaborate  example, that uses a hook to create a customised
       bookmark string for the hg backend.

       Again, we start off by registering a function:
              zstyle ':vcs_info:hg+gen-hg-bookmark-string:*' hooks hgbookmarks

       And then we define the `+vi-hgbookmarks' function:
              function +vi-hgbookmarks() {
                  # The default is to connect all bookmark names by
                  # commas. This mixes things up a little.
                  # Imagine, there's one type of bookmarks that is
                  # special to you. Say, because it's *your* work.
                  # Those bookmarks look always like this: "sh/*"
                  # (because your initials are sh, for example).
                  # This makes the bookmarks string use only those
                  # bookmarks. If there's more than one, it
                  # concatenates them using commas.
                  # The bookmarks returned by `hg' are available in
                  # the function's positional parameters.
                  local s="${(Mj:,:)@:#sh/*}"
                  # Now, the communication with the code that calls
                  # the hook functions is done via the hook_com[]
                  # hash. The key at which the `gen-hg-bookmark-string'
                  # hook looks is `hg-bookmark-string'. So:
                  # And to signal that we want to use the string we
                  # just generated, set the special variable `ret' to
                  # something other than the default zero:
                  return 0

       Some longer examples and code snippets which might be useful are available in the examples
       file located at Misc/vcs_info-examples in the Zsh source directory.

       This concludes our guided tour through zsh's vcs_info.


       You  should make sure all the functions from the Functions/Prompts directory of the source
       distribution are available; they all begin  with  the  string  `prompt_'  except  for  the
       special  function  `promptinit'.   You also need the `colors' and `add-zsh-hook' functions
       from Functions/Misc.  All these functions may already be installed on your system; if not,
       you  will  need  to  find  them  and copy them.  The directory should appear as one of the
       elements of the fpath array (this should already be the case if they were installed),  and
       at  least  the  function  promptinit  should  be  autoloaded;  it  will autoload the rest.
       Finally, to initialize the use of the system you need to  call  the  promptinit  function.
       The  following  code in your .zshrc will arrange for this; assume the functions are stored
       in the directory ~/myfns:

              fpath=(~/myfns $fpath)
              autoload -U promptinit

   Theme Selection
       Use the prompt command to select your preferred theme.  This command may be added to  your
       .zshrc  following  the  call  to  promptinit  in  order  to start zsh with a theme already

       prompt [ -c | -l ]
       prompt [ -p | -h ] [ theme ... ]
       prompt [ -s ] theme [ arg ... ]
              Set or examine the prompt theme.  With no options and a theme argument,  the  theme
              with that name is set as the current theme.  The available themes are determined at
              run time; use the -l option to see a list.  The special theme `random'  selects  at
              random one of the available themes and sets your prompt to that.

              In  some  cases the theme may be modified by one or more arguments, which should be
              given after the theme name.  See the help for each theme for descriptions of  these

              Options are:

              -c     Show the currently selected theme and its parameters, if any.
              -l     List all available prompt themes.
              -p     Preview the theme named by theme, or all themes if no theme is given.
              -h     Show  help  for  the  theme named by theme, or for the prompt function if no
                     theme is given.
              -s     Set theme as the current theme and save state.

              Each available theme has a setup function which is called by the prompt function to
              install  that  theme.   This  function  may  define other functions as necessary to
              maintain the prompt, including functions used to preview the prompt or provide help
              for its use.  You should not normally call a theme's setup function directly.

   Utility Themes
       prompt off
              The  theme  `off'  sets  all the prompt variables to minimal values with no special

       prompt default
              The theme `default'  sets  all  prompt  variables  to  the  same  state  as  if  an
              interactive zsh was started with no initialization files.

       prompt restore
              The  special theme `restore' erases all theme settings and sets prompt variables to
              their state before the first time the `prompt'  function  was  run,  provided  each
              theme has properly defined its cleanup (see below).

              Note that you can undo `prompt off' and `prompt default' with `prompt restore', but
              a second restore does not undo the first.

   Writing Themes
       The first step for adding your own theme is to choose a name for it,  and  create  a  file
       `prompt_name_setup'  in  a  directory in your fpath, such as ~/myfns in the example above.
       The file should at minimum contain assignments for the prompt variables  that  your  theme
       wishes  to modify.  By convention, themes use PS1, PS2, RPS1, etc., rather than the longer
       PROMPT and RPROMPT.

       The file is autoloaded as a function in the current shell context, so it may  contain  any
       necessary  commands  to customize your theme, including defining additional functions.  To
       make some complex tasks easier, your setup function may also do any of the following:

       Assign prompt_opts
              The array prompt_opts may be assigned any of "bang", "cr", "percent", "sp",  and/or
              "subst" as values.  The corresponding setopts (promptbang, etc.) are turned on, all
              other prompt-related options are  turned  off.   The  prompt_opts  array  preserves
              setopts even beyond the scope of localoptions, should your function need that.

       Modify hooks
              Use  of  add-zsh-hook  and add-zle-hook-widget is recommended (see the Manipulating
              Hook  Functions  section  above).   All  hooks  that  follow  the  naming   pattern
              prompt_theme_hook  are  automatically  removed  when the prompt theme changes or is

       Declare cleanup
              If your function makes any other changes that should be undone when  the  theme  is
              disabled, your setup function may call

                     prompt_cleanup command

              where  command  should  be  suitably  quoted.   If  your  theme is ever disabled or
              replaced by another, command is executed with eval.  You may declare more than  one
              such cleanup hook.

       Define preview
              Define or autoload a function prompt_name_preview to display a simulated version of
              your prompt.  A simple default previewer is defined by promptinit for  themes  that
              do not define their own.  This preview function is called by `prompt -p'.

       Provide help
              Define  or  autoload  a  function prompt_name_help to display documentation or help
              text for your theme.  This help function is called by `prompt -h'.


       These functions all implement user-defined ZLE widgets (see zshzle(1)) which can be  bound
       to keystrokes in interactive shells.  To use them, your .zshrc should contain lines of the

              autoload function
              zle -N function

       followed by an appropriate bindkey command to associate the function with a key  sequence.
       Suggested bindings are described below.

       bash-style word functions
              If  you are looking for functions to implement moving over and editing words in the
              manner of bash, where only alphanumeric characters are considered word  characters,
              you  can  use  the  functions  described  in  the  next  section.  The following is

                     autoload -U select-word-style
                     select-word-style bash

       forward-word-match, backward-word-match
       kill-word-match, backward-kill-word-match
       transpose-words-match, capitalize-word-match
       up-case-word-match, down-case-word-match
       delete-whole-word-match, select-word-match
       select-word-style, match-word-context, match-words-by-style
              The first eight `-match' functions are drop-in replacements for the builtin widgets
              without  the suffix.  By default they behave in a similar way.  However, by the use
              of styles and the function select-word-style, the way  words  are  matched  can  be
              altered.  select-word-match  is intended to be used as a text object in vi mode but
              with custom word styles. For comparison, the widgets described in  zshzle(1)  under
              Text Objects use fixed definitions of words, compatible with the vim editor.

              The  simplest  way  of configuring the functions is to use select-word-style, which
              can either be called as a normal function with the appropriate argument, or invoked
              as a user-defined widget that will prompt for the first character of the word style
              to be used.  The first time it is invoked, the first eight  -match  functions  will
              automatically  replace  the  builtin  versions,  so  they  do not need to be loaded

              The word styles available are as follows.  Only the first character is examined.

              bash   Word characters are alphanumeric characters only.

              normal As in normal shell operation:  word characters are  alphanumeric  characters
                     plus any characters present in the string given by the parameter $WORDCHARS.

              shell  Words  are  complete  shell  command  arguments, possibly including complete
                     quoted strings, or any tokens special to the shell.

                     Words are any set of characters delimited by whitespace.

                     Restore the default settings; this is usually the same as `normal'.

              All but `default' can be input as an upper  case  character,  which  has  the  same
              effect  but  with  subword matching turned on.  In this case, words with upper case
              characters are treated specially: each separate run of upper case characters, or an
              upper  case  character  followed by any number of other characters, is considered a
              word.  The style subword-range can supply an alternative  character  range  to  the
              default `[:upper:]'; the value of the style is treated as the contents of a `[...]'
              pattern  (note  that  the  outer  brackets  should  not  be  supplied,  only  those
              surrounding named ranges).

              More   control   can  be  obtained  using  the  zstyle  command,  as  described  in
              zshmodules(1).  Each style is looked up in the context :zle:widget where widget  is
              the  name of the user-defined widget, not the name of the function implementing it,
              so in the case of the definitions supplied  by  select-word-style  the  appropriate
              contexts  are  :zle:forward-word, and so on.  The function select-word-style itself
              always defines styles for the context `:zle:*' which  can  be  overridden  by  more
              specific (longer) patterns as well as explicit contexts.

              The  style  word-style  specifies  the  rules  to use.  This may have the following

              normal Use the standard shell rules,  i.e.  alphanumerics  and  $WORDCHARS,  unless
                     overridden by the styles word-chars or word-class.

                     Similar  to  normal,  but  only  the  specified  characters,  and  not  also
                     alphanumerics, are considered word characters.

                     The negation of specified.  The given characters are those which will not be
                     considered part of a word.

              shell  Words are obtained by using the syntactic rules for generating shell command
                     arguments.  In addition, special tokens which are  never  command  arguments
                     such as `()' are also treated as words.

                     Words are whitespace-delimited strings of characters.

              The  first  three  of  those  rules  usually  use  $WORDCHARS, but the value in the
              parameter can be overridden by the style word-chars, which  works  in  exactly  the
              same  way  as  $WORDCHARS.   In addition, the style word-class uses character class
              syntax to group characters and takes precedence over word-chars if  both  are  set.
              The  word-class  style  does  not include the surrounding brackets of the character
              class;  for  example,  `-:[:alnum:]'  is  a  valid  word-class   to   include   all
              alphanumerics  plus  the characters `-' and `:'.  Be careful including `]', `^' and
              `-' as these are special inside character classes.

              word-style may also have `-subword' appended  to  its  value  to  turn  on  subword
              matching, as described above.

              The  style  skip-chars  is mostly useful for transpose-words and similar functions.
              If set, it gives a count of characters starting at the cursor position  which  will
              not  be  considered  part  of the word and are treated as space, regardless of what
              they actually are.  For example, if

                     zstyle ':zle:transpose-words' skip-chars 1

              has been set, and transpose-words-match is called with  the  cursor  on  the  X  of
              fooXbar, where X can be any character, then the resulting expression is barXfoo.

              Finer grained control can be obtained by setting the style word-context to an array
              of pairs of entries.  Each pair of entries consists of a pattern and a  subcontext.
              The  shell  argument the cursor is on is matched against each pattern in turn until
              one matches; if it does, the context is extended by a colon and  the  corresponding
              subcontext.  Note that the test is made against the original word on the line, with
              no stripping of quotes.  Special  handling  is  done  between  words:  the  current
              context  is  examined  and  if  it contains the string between the word is set to a
              single space; else if it is contains the string back, the word before the cursor is
              considered,  else  the  word  after  cursor  is considered. Some examples are given

              The style skip-whitespace-first is only used with the forward-word widget.   If  it
              is  set  to  true, then forward-word skips any non-word-characters, followed by any
              non-word-characters: this is similar to  the  behaviour  of  other  word-orientated
              widgets,  and also that used by other editors, however it differs from the standard
              zsh behaviour.  When using select-word-style the  widget  is  set  in  the  context
              :zle:* to true if the word style is bash and false otherwise.  It may be overridden
              by setting it in the more specific context :zle:forward-word*.

              It is possible to create widgets with specific behaviour by defining a  new  widget
              implemented  by  the  appropriate  generic  function,  then setting a style for the
              context of the specific widget.   For  example,  the  following  defines  a  widget
              backward-kill-space-word   using   backward-kill-word-match,   the  generic  widget
              implementing backward-kill-word behaviour, and ensures that the new  widget  always
              implements space-delimited behaviour.

                     zle -N backward-kill-space-word backward-kill-word-match
                     zstyle :zle:backward-kill-space-word word-style space

              The widget backward-kill-space-word can now be bound to a key.

              Here  are  some  further  examples  of  use  of the styles, actually taken from the
              simplified interface in select-word-style:

                     zstyle ':zle:*' word-style standard
                     zstyle ':zle:*' word-chars ''

              Implements bash-style word handling for all widgets, i.e.  only  alphanumerics  are
              word  characters; equivalent to setting the parameter WORDCHARS empty for the given

                     style ':zle:*kill*' word-style space

              Uses space-delimited words for widgets with the word `kill' in the  name.   Neither
              of the styles word-chars nor word-class is used in this case.

              Here are some examples of use of the word-context style to extend the context.

                     zstyle ':zle:*' word-context \
                            "*/*" filename "[[:space:]]" whitespace
                     zstyle ':zle:transpose-words:whitespace' word-style shell
                     zstyle ':zle:transpose-words:filename' word-style normal
                     zstyle ':zle:transpose-words:filename' word-chars ''

              This  provides two different ways of using transpose-words depending on whether the
              cursor is on whitespace between words or on a filename, here any word containing  a
              /.   On  whitespace,  complete arguments as defined by standard shell rules will be
              transposed.  In a filename, only  alphanumerics  will  be  transposed.   Elsewhere,
              words will be transposed using the default style for :zle:transpose-words.

              The  word  matching and all the handling of zstyle settings is actually implemented
              by the function match-words-by-style.  This can be used to create new  user-defined
              widgets.   The  calling  function  should  set  the  local  parameter curcontext to
              :zle:widget, create the local parameter matched_words and call match-words-by-style
              with  no  arguments.   On  return,  matched_words  will be set to an array with the
              elements: (1) the start of the line (2) the word before the cursor (3) any non-word
              characters  between  that  word  and  the  cursor (4) any non-word character at the
              cursor position plus any  remaining  non-word  characters  before  the  next  word,
              including  all  characters  specified  by  the skip-chars style, (5) the word at or
              following the cursor (6) any  non-word  characters  following  that  word  (7)  the
              remainder  of  the  line.   Any of the elements may be an empty string; the calling
              function should test for this to decide whether it can perform its function.

              If the variable matched_words is defined by the caller to  match-words-by-style  as
              an  associative  array  (local -A matched_words), then the seven values given above
              should  be  retrieved  from  it  as  elements  named   start,   word-before-cursor,
              ws-before-cursor,  ws-after-cursor,  word-after-cursor, ws-after-word, and end.  In
              addition the element is-word-start is 1 if the cursor is on the start of a word  or
              subword, or on white space before it (the cases can be distinguished by testing the
              ws-after-cursor element) and 0 otherwise.  This  form  is  recommended  for  future

              It  is  possible to pass options with arguments to match-words-by-style to override
              the use of styles.  The options are:
              -w     word-style
              -s     skip-chars
              -c     word-class
              -C     word-chars
              -r     subword-range

              For example, match-words-by-style -w shell -c 0 may be used to extract the  command
              argument around the cursor.

              The  word-context  style  is  implemented by the function match-word-context.  This
              should not usually need to be called directly.

              The bracketed-paste  widget  (see  the  subsection  `Miscellaneous'  in  zshzle(1))
              inserts  pasted  text  literally into the editor buffer rather than interpret it as
              keystrokes.  This disables some common  usages  where  the  self-insert  widget  is
              replaced  in  order  to  accomplish  some  extra  processing.   An  example  is the
              contributed url-quote-magic widget described below.

              The bracketed-paste-magic widget is meant to replace bracketed-paste with a wrapper
              that  re-enables  these  self-insert  actions,  and  other  actions  as selected by
              zstyles.  Therefore this widget is installed with

                     autoload -Uz bracketed-paste-magic
                     zle -N bracketed-paste bracketed-paste-magic

              Other than enabling  some  widget  processing,  bracketed-paste-magic  attempts  to
              replicate bracketed-paste as faithfully as possible.

              The  following  zstyles  may  be set to control processing of pasted text.  All are
              looked up in the context `:bracketed-paste-magic'.

                     A list of patterns matching widget names that should be activated during the
                     paste.   All  other  key sequences are processed as self-insert-unmeta.  The
                     default is `self-*' so any user-defined widgets named with that  prefix  are
                     active along with the builtin self-insert.

                     If  this  style is not set (explicitly deleted) or set to an empty value, no
                     widgets are active and the pasted text is inserted literally.  If the  value
                     includes  `undefined-key',  any  unknown  sequences  are  discarded from the
                     pasted text.

                     The inverse of active-widgets, a list  of  key  sequences  that  always  use
                     self-insert-unmeta even when bound to an active widget.  Note that this is a
                     list of literal key sequences, not patterns.

                     A list of function names, called in widget context  (but  not  as  widgets).
                     The  functions  are  called  in  order  until one of them returns a non-zero
                     status.  The parameter `PASTED' contains the initial  state  of  the  pasted
                     text.   All  other  ZLE parameters such as `BUFFER' have their normal values
                     and side-effects, and full history is available, so for  example  paste-init
                     functions may move words from BUFFER into PASTED to make those words visible
                     to the active-widgets.

                     A non-zero return from a paste-init function  does  not  prevent  the  paste
                     itself from proceeding.

                     Loading   bracketed-paste-magic   defines  backward-extend-paste,  a  helper
                     function for use in paste-init.

                            zstyle :bracketed-paste-magic paste-init \

                     When a paste would insert into the middle of a word or append text to a word
                     already  on  the  line,  backward-extend-paste moves the prefix from LBUFFER
                     into PASTED so that the active-widgets see the full word so far.   This  may
                     be useful with url-quote-magic.

                     Another  list  of function names called in order until one returns non-zero.
                     These functions are called after the pasted text has been processed  by  the
                     active-widgets,  but  before  it  is inserted into `BUFFER'.  ZLE parameters
                     have their normal values and side-effects.

                     A non-zero return from a paste-finish function does not  prevent  the  paste
                     itself from proceeding.

                     Loading  bracketed-paste-magic  also  defines quote-paste, a helper function
                     for use in paste-finish.

                            zstyle :bracketed-paste-magic paste-finish \
                            zstyle :bracketed-paste-magic:finish quote-style \

                     When the pasted  text  is  inserted  into  BUFFER,  it  is  quoted  per  the
                     quote-style value.  To forcibly turn off the built-in numeric prefix quoting
                     of bracketed-paste, use:

                            zstyle :bracketed-paste-magic:finish quote-style \

              Important: During active-widgets processing of  the  paste  (after  paste-init  and
              before  paste-finish),  BUFFER  starts  empty  and history is restricted, so cursor
              motions, etc., may not pass outside of the pasted content.  Text assigned to BUFFER
              by the active widgets is copied back into PASTED before paste-finish.

              This  widget works like a combination of insert-last-word and copy-prev-shell-word.
              Repeated invocations of the widget retrieve earlier words on the  relevant  history
              line.   With a numeric argument N, insert the Nth word from the history line; N may
              be negative to count from the end of the line.

              If insert-last-word has been used to retrieve the last word on a  previous  history
              line,  repeated invocations will replace that word with earlier words from the same

              Otherwise, the widget applies to words on the line  currently  being  edited.   The
              widget  style  can  be  set  to the name of another widget that should be called to
              retrieve  words.   This  widget  must  accept   the   same   three   arguments   as

              After inserting an unambiguous string into the command line, the new function based
              completion system may know about multiple places in this  string  where  characters
              are  missing  or  differ  from  at least one of the possible matches.  It will then
              place the cursor on the position it considers to be the most interesting one,  i.e.
              the  one  where  one  can  disambiguate between as many matches as possible with as
              little typing as possible.

              This widget allows the cursor to be easily moved to the  other  interesting  spots.
              It  can  be  invoked  repeatedly  to  cycle  between  all positions reported by the
              completion system.

              This  is  another  function  which  works  like  the  -match  functions   described
              immediately above, i.e. using styles to decide the word boundaries.  However, it is
              not a replacement for any existing function.

              The basic behaviour is to delete the word around the cursor.  There is  no  numeric
              argument  handling;  only  the single word around the cursor is considered.  If the
              widget contains the string kill, the removed text will be placed in  the  cutbuffer
              for  future  yanking.   This  can  be obtained by defining kill-whole-word-match as

                     zle -N kill-whole-word-match delete-whole-word-match

              and then binding the widget kill-whole-word-match.

       up-line-or-beginning-search, down-line-or-beginning-search
              These  widgets  are  similar  to  the  builtin  functions   up-line-or-search   and
              down-line-or-search:   if  in  a  multiline  buffer they move up or down within the
              buffer, otherwise they search for a history line matching the start of the  current
              line.  In this case, however, they search for a line which matches the current line
              up    to    the    current    cursor     position,     in     the     manner     of
              history-beginning-search-backward  and  -forward, rather than the first word on the

              Edit the command line using your visual editor, as in ksh.

                     bindkey -M vicmd v edit-command-line

              The editor to be used can also be specified using the editor style in  the  context
              of the widget. It is specified as an array of command and arguments:

                     zstyle :zle:edit-command-line editor gvim -f

              Expand  the  file  name  under  the  cursor to an absolute path, resolving symbolic
              links.  Where possible, the initial path segment is turned into a  named  directory
              or reference to a user's home directory.

              This  function  implements  the  widgets  history-beginning-search-backward-end and
              history-beginning-search-forward-end.  These commands work  by  first  calling  the
              corresponding  builtin  widget (see `History Control' in zshzle(1)) and then moving
              the cursor to the end of the line.  The original cursor position is remembered  and
              restored  before  calling the builtin widget a second time, so that the same search
              is repeated to look farther through the history.

              Although you autoload only one function,  the  commands  to  use  it  are  slightly
              different because it implements two widgets.

                     zle -N history-beginning-search-backward-end \
                     zle -N history-beginning-search-forward-end \
                     bindkey '\e^P' history-beginning-search-backward-end
                     bindkey '\e^N' history-beginning-search-forward-end

              This  function  implements  yet another form of history searching.  The text before
              the   cursor   is   used   to   select   lines   from   the   history,    as    for
              history-beginning-search-backward  except  that all matches are shown in a numbered
              menu.  Typing the appropriate digits inserts the  full  history  line.   Note  that
              leading  zeroes  must  be  typed  (they  are only shown when necessary for removing
              ambiguity).  The entire history  is  searched;  there  is  no  distinction  between
              forwards and backwards.

              With  a  numeric argument, the search is not anchored to the start of the line; the
              string typed by the use may appear anywhere in the line in the history.

              If the widget name contains `-end' the cursor is moved  to  the  end  of  the  line
              inserted.   If  the  widget  name  contains `-space' any space in the text typed is
              treated as a wildcard and can match anything (hence a leading space  is  equivalent
              to giving a numeric argument).  Both forms can be combined, for example:

                     zle -N history-beginning-search-menu-space-end \

              The  function  history-pattern-search implements widgets which prompt for a pattern
              with which to search the history backwards or forwards.   The  pattern  is  in  the
              usual  zsh format, however the first character may be ^ to anchor the search to the
              start of the line, and the last character may be $ to anchor the search to the  end
              of  the  line.  If the search was not anchored to the end of the line the cursor is
              positioned just after the pattern found.

              The commands to create bindable  widgets  are  similar  to  those  in  the  example
              immediately above:

                     autoload -U history-pattern-search
                     zle -N history-pattern-search-backward history-pattern-search
                     zle -N history-pattern-search-forward history-pattern-search

       incarg Typing  the  keystrokes for this widget with the cursor placed on or to the left of
              an integer causes that integer to be incremented by one.  With a numeric  argument,
              the number is incremented by the amount of the argument (decremented if the numeric
              argument is negative).  The shell parameter incarg may be set to change the default
              increment to something other than one.

                     bindkey '^X+' incarg

              This  allows incremental completion of a word.  After starting this command, a list
              of completion choices can be shown after every character you type,  which  you  can
              delete  with  ^H or DEL.  Pressing return accepts the completion so far and returns
              you to normal editing (that is, the command line is not immediately executed).  You
              can  hit  TAB  to  do  normal  completion,  ^G  to abort back to the state when you
              started, and ^D to list the matches.

              This works only with the new function based completion system.

                     bindkey '^Xi' incremental-complete-word

              This function allows you to compose characters that don't appear on the keyboard to
              be  inserted  into  the  command  line.   The  command  is  followed  by  two  keys
              corresponding to ASCII characters (there is no prompt).  For  accented  characters,
              the  two  keys  are  a  base character followed by a code for the accent, while for
              other special characters the two  characters  together  form  a  mnemonic  for  the
              character  to  be inserted.  The two-character codes are a subset of those given by
              RFC 1345 (see for example

              The function may optionally be followed by up to two characters which  replace  one
              or  both of the characters read from the keyboard; if both characters are supplied,
              no input is read.  For example, insert-composed-char a: can be used within a widget
              to insert an a with umlaut into the command line.  This has the advantages over use
              of a literal character that it is more portable.

              For best results zsh should have been built with support for  multibyte  characters
              (configured  with  --enable-multibyte); however, the function works for the limited
              range of characters available in single-byte character sets such as ISO-8859-1.

              The character is converted into the local  representation  and  inserted  into  the
              command  line  at  the  cursor position.  (The conversion is done within the shell,
              using whatever facilities the C library provides.)  With a  numeric  argument,  the
              character and its code are previewed in the status line

              The function may be run outside zle in which case it prints the character (together
              with a newline) to standard output.  Input is still read from keystrokes.

              See insert-unicode-char for an alternative  way  of  inserting  Unicode  characters
              using their hexadecimal character number.

              The  set  of  accented  characters  is  reasonably complete up to Unicode character
              U+0180, the set of special characters less so.  However, it is very  sporadic  from
              that   point.    Adding   new   characters  is  easy,  however;  see  the  function
              define-composed-chars.  Please send any additions to

              The codes for the second character when used to accent the first  are  as  follows.
              Note that not every character can take every accent.
              !      Grave.
              '      Acute.
              >      Circumflex.
              ?      Tilde.  (This is not ~ as RFC 1345 does not assume that character is present
                     on the keyboard.)
              -      Macron.  (A horizontal bar over the base character.)
              (      Breve.  (A shallow dish shape over the base character.)
              .      Dot above the base character, or in the case of i no dot, or in the case  of
                     L and l a centered dot.
              :      Diaeresis (Umlaut).
              c      Cedilla.
              _      Underline, however there are currently no underlined characters.
              /      Stroke through the base character.
              "      Double acute (only supported on a few letters).
              ;      Ogonek.   (A  little  forward  facing  hook  at  the  bottom  right  of  the
              <      Caron.  (A little v over the letter.)
              0      Circle over the base character.
              2      Hook over the base character.
              9      Horn over the base character.

              The most common characters from the Arabic, Cyrillic, Greek  and  Hebrew  alphabets
              are  available; consult RFC 1345 for the appropriate sequences.  In addition, a set
              of two letter codes not in RFC 1345 are available for the  double-width  characters
              corresponding  to  ASCII  characters  from  !  to ~ (0x21 to 0x7e) by preceding the
              character with ^, for example ^A for a double-width A.

              The following other two-character sequences are understood.

              ASCII characters
                     These are already present on most keyboards:
              <(     Left square bracket
              //     Backslash (solidus)
              )>     Right square bracket
              (!     Left brace (curly bracket)
              !!     Vertical bar (pipe symbol)
              !)     Right brace (curly bracket)
              '?     Tilde

              Special letters
                     Characters found in various variants of the Latin alphabet:
              ss     Eszett (scharfes S)
              D-, d- Eth
              TH, th Thorn
              kk     Kra
              'n     'n
              NG, ng Ng
              OI, oi Oi
              yr     yr
              ED     ezh

              Currency symbols
              Ct     Cent
              Pd     Pound sterling (also lira and others)
              Cu     Currency
              Ye     Yen
              Eu     Euro (N.B. not in RFC 1345)

              Punctuation characters
                     References to "right" quotes indicate the shape (like a  9  rather  than  6)
                     rather than their grammatical use.  (For example, a "right" low double quote
                     is used to open quotations in German.)
              !I     Inverted exclamation mark
              BB     Broken vertical bar
              SE     Section
              Co     Copyright
              -a     Spanish feminine ordinal indicator
              <<     Left guillemet
              --     Soft hyphen
              Rg     Registered trade mark
              PI     Pilcrow (paragraph)
              -o     Spanish masculine ordinal indicator
              >>     Right guillemet
              ?I     Inverted question mark
              -1     Hyphen
              -N     En dash
              -M     Em dash
              -3     Horizontal bar
              :3     Vertical ellipsis
              .3     Horizontal midline ellipsis
              !2     Double vertical line
              =2     Double low line
              '6     Left single quote
              '9     Right single quote
              .9     "Right" low quote
              9'     Reversed "right" quote
              "6     Left double quote
              "9     Right double quote
              :9     "Right" low double quote
              9"     Reversed "right" double quote
              /-     Dagger
              /=     Double dagger

              Mathematical symbols
              DG     Degree
              -2, +-, -+
                     - sign, +/- sign, -/+ sign
              2S     Superscript 2
              3S     Superscript 3
              1S     Superscript 1
              My     Micro
              .M     Middle dot
              14     Quarter
              12     Half
              34     Three quarters
              *X     Multiplication
              -:     Division
              %0     Per mille
              FA, TE, /0
                     For all, there exists, empty set
              dP, DE, NB
                     Partial derivative, delta (increment), del (nabla)
              (-, -) Element of, contains
              *P, +Z Product, sum
              *-, Ob, Sb
                     Asterisk, ring, bullet
              RT, 0(, 00
                     Root sign, proportional to, infinity

              Other symbols
              cS, cH, cD, cC
                     Card suits: spades, hearts, diamonds, clubs
              Md, M8, M2, Mb, Mx, MX
                     Musical notation: crotchet (quarter note), quaver (eighth note), semiquavers
                     (sixteenth notes), flag sign, natural sign, sharp sign
              Fm, Ml Female, male

              Accents on their own
              '>     Circumflex (same as caret, ^)
              '!     Grave (same as backtick, `)
              ',     Cedilla
              ':     Diaeresis (Umlaut)
              'm     Macron
              ''     Acute

              This  function allows you type a file pattern, and see the results of the expansion
              at each step.  When you hit return, all expansions are inserted  into  the  command

                     bindkey '^Xf' insert-files

              When  first  executed,  the  user  inputs  a  set  of  hexadecimal digits.  This is
              terminated with another call to insert-unicode-char.  The digits  are  then  turned
              into  the  corresponding Unicode character.  For example, if the widget is bound to
              ^XU, the character sequence `^XU 4 c ^XU' inserts L (Unicode U+004c).

              See insert-composed-char for a way of inserting characters  using  a  two-character

       narrow-to-region [ -p pre ] [ -P post ]
                        [ -S statepm | -R statepm | [ -l lbufvar ] [ -r rbufvar ] ]
                        [ -n ] [ start end ]
              Narrow  the editable portion of the buffer to the region between the cursor and the
              mark, which may be in either order.  The region may not be empty.

              narrow-to-region may  be  used  as  a  widget  or  called  as  a  function  from  a
              user-defined  widget;  by  default,  the  text  outside  the  editable area remains
              visible.  A recursive-edit is performed and the original widening  status  is  then
              restored.   Various  options  and  arguments  are  available when it is called as a

              The options -p pretext and -P posttext may be used to replace the text  before  and
              after  the display for the duration of the function; either or both may be an empty

              If the option -n is also given, pretext or posttext will only be inserted if  there
              is text before or after the region respectively which will be made invisible.

              Two  numeric  arguments  may  be given which will be used instead of the cursor and
              mark positions.

              The option -S statepm is used to narrow according to the other options while saving
              the  original state in the parameter with name statepm, while the option -R statepm
              is used to restore the state from the parameter; note in both cases the name of the
              parameter  is  required.   In  the  second  case,  other  options and arguments are
              irrelevant.  When this method is used, no recursive-edit is performed; the  calling
              widget should call this function with the option -S, perform its own editing on the
              command line or pass control to the user via `zle recursive-edit', then  call  this
              function  with  the option -R.  The argument statepm must be a suitable name for an
              ordinary parameter, except that parameters beginning  with  the  prefix  _ntr_  are
              reserved for use within narrow-to-region.  Typically the parameter will be local to
              the calling function.

              The options -l lbufvar and -r rbufvar may be used to specify parameters  where  the
              widget  will  store  the  resulting text from the operation.  The parameter lbufvar
              will contain LBUFFER and rbufvar  will  contain  RBUFFER.   Neither  of  these  two
              options may be used with -S or -R.

              narrow-to-region-invisible  is  a  simple  widget which calls narrow-to-region with
              arguments which replace any text outside the region with `...'.  It does  not  take
              any arguments.

              The  display  is restored (and the widget returns) upon any zle command which would
              usually cause the line to be accepted or aborted.  Hence an additional such command
              is required to accept or abort the current line.

              The return status of both widgets is zero if the line was accepted, else non-zero.

              Here is a trivial example of a widget using this feature.
                     local state
                     narrow-to-region -p $'Editing restricted region\n' \
                       -P '' -S state
                     zle recursive-edit
                     narrow-to-region -R state

              This  set  of  functions  implements predictive typing using history search.  After
              predict-on, typing characters causes the editor to look backward in the history for
              the  first  line  beginning  with  what  you have typed so far.  After predict-off,
              editing returns to normal for the line found.  In fact, you often don't  even  need
              to  use  predict-off,  because  if the line doesn't match something in the history,
              adding  a  key  performs  standard  completion,  and  then  inserts  itself  if  no
              completions  were  found.   However,  editing  in the middle of a line is liable to
              confuse prediction; see the toggle style below.

              With the function based completion system (which is needed for this), you should be
              able  to  type  TAB  at  almost  any  point  to  advance  the  cursor  to  the next
              ``interesting'' character position (usually  the  end  of  the  current  word,  but
              sometimes  somewhere  in  the  middle  of  the word).  And of course as soon as the
              entire line is what you want, you can accept with return, without needing  to  move
              the cursor to the end first.

              The first time predict-on is used, it creates several additional widget functions:

                     Replaces  the  backward-delete-char  widget.   You  do not need to bind this
                     Implements predictive typing by replacing the self-insert  widget.   You  do
                     not need to bind this yourself.
                     Turns off predictive typing.

              Although  you  autoload  only  the predict-on function, it is necessary to create a
              keybinding for predict-off as well.

                     zle -N predict-on
                     zle -N predict-off
                     bindkey '^X^Z' predict-on
                     bindkey '^Z' predict-off

              This is most useful when called as a function from inside a widget, but  will  work
              correctly  as  a widget in its own right.  It prompts for a value below the current
              command line; a value may be input using all of the standard  zle  operations  (and
              not   merely   the   restricted   set   available   when  executing,  for  example,
              execute-named-cmd).  The value is then returned to  the  calling  function  in  the
              parameter  $REPLY  and  the  editing buffer restored to its previous state.  If the
              read was aborted by a keyboard break (typically ^G), the function returns status  1
              and $REPLY is not set.

              If one argument is supplied to the function it is taken as a prompt, otherwise `? '
              is used.  If two arguments are supplied, they are the prompt and the initial  value
              of  $LBUFFER, and if a third argument is given it is the initial value of $RBUFFER.
              This provides a default value and  starting  cursor  placement.   Upon  return  the
              entire buffer is the value of $REPLY.

              One  option  is  available:  `-k  num' specifies that num characters are to be read
              instead of a whole line.  The line editor is not invoked recursively in this  case,
              so  depending  on  the terminal settings the input may not be visible, and only the
              input keys are placed in $REPLY, not the entire buffer.  Note that unlike the  read
              builtin num must be given; there is no default.

              The  name  is a slight misnomer, as in fact the shell's own minibuffer is not used.
              Hence it is still possible to call executed-named-cmd and similar  functions  while
              reading a value.

       replace-argument, replace-argument-edit
              The function replace-argument can be used to replace a command line argument in the
              current command line or, if the current command line is empty, in the last  command
              line  executed  (the new command line is not executed).  Arguments are as delimited
              by standard shell syntax,

              If a numeric argument is given, that specifies the  argument  to  be  replaced.   0
              means  the  command  name,  as  in  history expansion.  A negative numeric argument
              counts backward from the last word.

              If no numeric argument is given, the current argument is replaced; this is the last
              argument if the previous history line is being used.

              The function prompts for a replacement argument.

              If the widget contains the string edit, for example is defined as

                     zle -N replace-argument-edit replace-argument

              then the function presents the current value of the argument for editing, otherwise
              the editing buffer for the replacement is initially empty.

       replace-string, replace-pattern
       replace-string-again, replace-pattern-again
              The function replace-string implements three widgets.  If defined  under  the  same
              name as the function, it prompts for two strings; the first (source) string will be
              replaced by the second everywhere it occurs in the line editing buffer.

              If the widget name contains the word `pattern', for example by defining the  widget
              using  the  command  `zle  -N replace-pattern replace-string', then the matching is
              performed using zsh patterns.  All zsh extended globbing patterns can  be  used  in
              the  source  string; note that unlike filename generation the pattern does not need
              to match an entire word, nor do glob qualifiers have any effect.  In addition,  the
              replacement  string can contain parameter or command substitutions.  Furthermore, a
              `&' in the replacement string will be replaced with the matched source string,  and
              a  backquoted  digit  `\N'  will  be  replaced  by the Nth parenthesised expression
              matched.  The form `\{N}' may be used to protect the digit from following digits.

              If the widget instead contains the word `regex' (or `regexp'), then the matching is
              performed   using  regular  expressions,  respecting  the  setting  of  the  option
              RE_MATCH_PCRE (see the description of  the  function  regexp-replace  below).   The
              special replacement facilities described above for pattern matching are available.

              By  default  the  previous  source  or  replacement  string will not be offered for
              editing.  However, this feature can be activated by setting the style edit-previous
              in  the  context  :zle:widget  (for  example,  :zle:replace-string)  to  true.   In
              addition, a positive numeric argument forces the previous values to be  offered,  a
              negative or zero argument forces them not to be.

              The  function  replace-string-again can be used to repeat the previous replacement;
              no prompting is done.  As with replace-string, if the name of the  widget  contains
              the word `pattern' or `regex', pattern or regular expression matching is performed,
              else a literal string replacement.  Note that the previous source  and  replacement
              text are the same whether pattern, regular expression or string matching is used.

              In  addition,  replace-string  shows  the previous replacement above the prompt, so
              long as there was one during the current session; if the source  string  is  empty,
              that  replacement  will  be repeated without the widget prompting for a replacement

              For example, starting from the line:

                     print This line contains fan and fond

              and invoking replace-pattern with the source string  `f(?)n'  and  the  replacement
              string `c\1r' produces the not very useful line:

                     print This line contains car and cord

              The   range   of   the   replacement   string   can   be   limited   by  using  the
              narrow-to-region-invisible widget.  One limitation of the current version  is  that
              undo  will  cycle  through  changes  to  the  replacement and source strings before
              undoing the replacement itself.

              This is similar to read-from-minibuffer in that it may be called as a function from
              a  widget  or  as  a  widget  of  its  own,  and interactively reads input from the
              keyboard.  However, the input being typed is concealed and a  string  of  asterisks
              (`*')  is shown instead.  The value is saved in the parameter $INVISIBLE to which a
              reference is inserted into the editing buffer at the restored cursor position.   If
              the  read  was  aborted  by  a keyboard break (typically ^G) or another escape from
              editing such as push-line, $INVISIBLE is set to empty and the  original  buffer  is
              restored unchanged.

              If  one  argument  is  supplied  to the function it is taken as a prompt, otherwise
              `Non-echoed text: ' is used (as in emacs).  If a  second  and  third  argument  are
              supplied  they  are  used  to  begin  and  end  the reference to $INVISIBLE that is
              inserted into the buffer.  The default is to open  with  ${,  then  INVISIBLE,  and
              close with }, but many other effects are possible.

              This function may replace the insert-last-word widget, like so:

                     zle -N insert-last-word smart-insert-last-word

              With  a  numeric  argument,  or  when  passed command line arguments in a call from
              another widget, it behaves like insert-last-word, except that words in comments are
              ignored when INTERACTIVE_COMMENTS is set.

              Otherwise,  the  rightmost  ``interesting'' word from the previous command is found
              and inserted.  The default definition of ``interesting'' is that the word  contains
              at  least  one  alphabetic  character, slash, or backslash.  This definition may be
              overridden by use of the match style.  The context used to look up the style is the
              widget  name,  so  usually the context is :insert-last-word.  However, you can bind
              this function to different widgets to use different patterns:

                     zle -N insert-last-assignment smart-insert-last-word
                     zstyle :insert-last-assignment match '[[:alpha:]][][[:alnum:]]#=*'
                     bindkey '\e=' insert-last-assignment

              If no interesting word is found and the auto-previous style is set to a true value,
              the  search  continues  upward through the history.  When auto-previous is unset or
              false (the default), the widget must be  invoked  repeatedly  in  order  to  search
              earlier history lines.

              Only  useful  with a multi-line editing buffer; the lines here are lines within the
              current on-screen buffer, not history lines.  The effect is similar to the function
              of the same name in Emacs.

              Transpose  the current line with the previous line and move the cursor to the start
              of the next line.  Repeating this (which  can  be  done  by  providing  a  positive
              numeric  argument)  has  the  effect  of moving the line above the cursor down by a
              number of lines.

              With a negative numeric argument, requires two lines above the cursor.   These  two
              lines are transposed and the cursor moved to the start of the previous line.  Using
              a numeric argument less than -1 has the effect of moving the line above the  cursor
              up by minus that number of lines.

              This  widget  replaces  the  built-in self-insert to make it easier to type URLs as
              command line arguments.  As you type, the input character is analyzed  and,  if  it
              may  need  quoting,  the current word is checked for a URI scheme.  If one is found
              and the current word is not already in quotes, a backslash is inserted  before  the
              input character.

              Styles to control quoting behavior:

                     This  style  is  looked  up  in the context `:url-quote-magic:scheme' (where
                     scheme is that of the current URL, e.g.  "ftp").   The  value  is  a  string
                     listing  the  characters  to  be  treated  as  globbing  metacharacters when
                     appearing in a URL using that scheme.  The  default  is  to  quote  all  zsh
                     extended globbing characters, excluding '<' and '>' but including braces (as
                     in brace expansion).  See also url-seps.

                     Like url-metas, but lists  characters  that  should  be  considered  command
                     separators,  redirections, history references, etc.  The default is to quote
                     the standard set of shell separators, excluding those that overlap with  the
                     extended  globbing  characters,  but  including  '<'  and  '>' and the first
                     character of $histchars.

                     This style is looked up in the context `:url-quote-magic'.  The values  form
                     a  list  of  command names that are expected to do their own globbing on the
                     URL string.  This  implies  that  they  are  aliased  to  use  the  `noglob'
                     modifier.  When the first word on the line matches one of the values and the
                     URL refers to  a  local  file  (see  url-local-schema),  only  the  url-seps
                     characters are quoted; the url-metas are left alone, allowing them to affect
                     command-line parsing, completion, etc.  The default  values  are  a  literal
                     `noglob'  plus  (when  the  zsh/parameter  module is available) any commands
                     aliased to the helper function `urlglobber' or its alias `globurl'.

                     This style is always looked up in the context `:urlglobber', even though  it
                     is  used  by both url-quote-magic and urlglobber.  The values form a list of
                     URI schema that should be treated as referring to local files by their  real
                     local  path  names,  as  opposed  to files which are specified relative to a
                     web-server-defined document root.  The defaults are "ftp" and "file".

                     Like url-local-schema, but lists all other URI schema upon which  urlglobber
                     and  url-quote-magic  should  act.   If the URI on the command line does not
                     have a scheme appearing either in this list or in  url-local-schema,  it  is
                     not  magically  quoted.   The default values are "http", "https", and "ftp".
                     When a scheme appears both  here  and  in  url-local-schema,  it  is  quoted
                     differently depending on whether the command name appears in url-globbers.

              Loading  url-quote-magic  also  defines  a helper function `urlglobber' and aliases
              `globurl' to `noglob urlglobber'.  This function takes a local URL apart,  attempts
              to  pattern-match the local file portion of the URL path, and then puts the results
              back into URL format again.

              This function reads a movement command from the keyboard and then  prompts  for  an
              external  command.  The  part of the buffer covered by the movement is piped to the
              external command and then replaced by the command's output. If the movement command
              is bound to vi-pipe, the current line is used.

              The  function  serves as an example for reading a vi movement command from within a
              user-defined widget.

              This function is a drop-in replacement for the builtin  widget  which-command.   It
              has  enhanced  behaviour,  in  that it correctly detects whether or not the command
              word needs to be expanded as an alias; if so, it continues tracing the command word
              from the expanded alias until it reaches the command that will be executed.

              The  style  whence  is available in the context :zle:$WIDGET; this may be set to an
              array to give the command and options that will be used to investigate the  command
              word found.  The default is whence -c.

              This  function  is useful together with the zcalc function described in the section
              `Mathematical Functions'.  It should be  bound  to  a  key  representing  a  binary
              operator such as `+', `-', `*' or `/'.  When running in zcalc, if the key occurs at
              the start of the line or immediately following an open parenthesis, the text "ans "
              is  inserted  before the representation of the key itself.  This allows easy use of
              the answer from the previous calculation in the  current  line.   The  text  to  be
              inserted  before  the  symbol  typed  can  be  modified  by  setting  the  variable

              Hence, for example, typing `+12' followed by return adds 12 to the previous result.

              If zcalc is in RPN mode (-r option) the effect of  this  binding  is  automatically
              suppressed as operators alone on a line are meaningful.

              When not in zcalc, the key simply inserts the symbol itself.

   Utility Functions
       These  functions are useful in constructing widgets.  They should be loaded with `autoload
       -U function' and called as indicated from user-defined widgets.

              This function splits the line currently  being  edited  into  shell  arguments  and
              whitespace.   The  result is stored in the array reply.  The array contains all the
              parts of the line in order, starting with any whitespace before the first argument,
              and  finishing  with any whitespace after the last argument.  Hence (so long as the
              option KSH_ARRAYS is not set) whitespace is given by odd indices in the  array  and
              arguments  by  even  indices.   Note  that  no stripping of quotes is done; joining
              together all the elements of reply in order is guaranteed to produce  the  original

              The  parameter  REPLY  is  set to the index of the word in reply which contains the
              character after the cursor, where the first element has  index  1.   The  parameter
              REPLY2  is  set  to the index of the character under the cursor in that word, where
              the first character has index 1.

              Hence reply, REPLY and REPLY2 should all be made local to the enclosing function.

              See the function modify-current-argument, described below, for an example of how to
              call this function.

       modify-current-argument [ expr-using-$ARG | func ]
              This  function  provides a simple method of allowing user-defined widgets to modify
              the command line argument under the cursor (or  immediately  to  the  left  of  the
              cursor if the cursor is between arguments).

              The  argument  can  be  an  expression  which  when evaluated operates on the shell
              parameter ARG, which will have been set to the  command  line  argument  under  the
              cursor.  The expression should be suitably quoted to prevent it being evaluated too

              Alternatively, if the argument does not contain the string ARG, it is assumed to be
              a  shell function, to which the current command line argument is passed as the only
              argument.  The function should set the variable REPLY to  the  new  value  for  the
              command  line  argument.   If  the  function  returns  non-zero status, so does the
              calling function.

              For example, a user-defined widget  containing  the  following  code  converts  the
              characters in the argument under the cursor into all upper case:

                     modify-current-argument '${(U)ARG}'

              The  following strips any quoting from the current word (whether backslashes or one
              of the styles of quotes), and replaces it with single quoting throughout:

                     modify-current-argument '${(qq)${(Q)ARG}}'

              The following performs  directory  expansion  on  the  command  line  argument  and
              replaces it by the absolute path:

                     expand-dir() {
                     modify-current-argument expand-dir

              In practice the function expand-dir would probably not be defined within the widget
              where modify-current-argument is called.

       The behavior of several of the above widgets can be controlled by the use  of  the  zstyle
       mechanism.   In  particular,  widgets  that interact with the completion system pass along
       their context to any completions that they invoke.

              This style is used by the incremental-complete-word widget. Its value should  be  a
              pattern,  and  all  keys  matching  this  pattern  will  cause  the  widget to stop
              incremental completion without the key having any further effect. Like  all  styles
              used  directly  by  incremental-complete-word,  this  style  is looked up using the
              context `:incremental'.

              The incremental-complete-word and insert-and-predict widgets set up their top-level
              context  name  before calling completion.  This allows one to define different sets
              of completer functions for normal completion and for these widgets.   For  example,
              to  use  completion, approximation and correction for normal completion, completion
              and correction for incremental completion and only completion  for  prediction  one
              could use:

                     zstyle ':completion:*' completer \
                             _complete _correct _approximate
                     zstyle ':completion:incremental:*' completer \
                             _complete _correct
                     zstyle ':completion:predict:*' completer \

              It  is  a good idea to restrict the completers used in prediction, because they may
              be automatically invoked as you type.  The _list and _menu completers should  never
              be   used  with  prediction.   The  _approximate,  _correct,  _expand,  and  _match
              completers may be used, but be aware that they may change  characters  anywhere  in
              the  word behind the cursor, so you need to watch carefully that the result is what
              you intended.

       cursor The insert-and-predict widget uses this style, in the context `:predict', to decide
              where to place the cursor after completion has been tried.  Values are:

                     The  cursor is left where it was when completion finished, but only if it is
                     after a character equal to the one just inserted by  the  user.   If  it  is
                     after another character, this value is the same as `key'.

              key    The  cursor is left after the nth occurrence of the character just inserted,
                     where n is the number of times that character appeared in  the  word  before
                     completion  was  attempted.   In  short,  this has the effect of leaving the
                     cursor after the character just typed even if the completion code found  out
                     that no other characters need to be inserted at that position.

              Any  other  value  for this style unconditionally leaves the cursor at the position
              where the completion code left it.

       list   When using the incremental-complete-word widget, this style  says  if  the  matches
              should  be  listed on every key press (if they fit on the screen).  Use the context
              prefix `:completion:incremental'.

              The insert-and-predict widget uses this style to decide if the completion should be
              shown  even if there is only one possible completion.  This is done if the value of
              this style is the string always.  In this  case  the  context  is  `:predict'  (not

       match  This  style  is  used  by  smart-insert-last-word  to provide a pattern (using full
              EXTENDED_GLOB syntax) that matches an interesting word.  The context is the name of
              the  widget  to  which  smart-insert-last-word  is  bound (see above).  The default
              behavior of smart-insert-last-word is equivalent to:

                     zstyle :insert-last-word match '*[[:alpha:]/\\]*'

              However, you might want to include words that contain spaces:

                     zstyle :insert-last-word match '*[[:alpha:][:space:]/\\]*'

              Or include numbers as long as the word is at least two characters long:

                     zstyle :insert-last-word match '*([[:digit:]]?|[[:alpha:]/\\])*'

              The above example causes redirections like "2>" to be included.

       prompt The incremental-complete-word widget shows the value of this style  in  the  status
              line  during  incremental  completion.   The  string  value  may contain any of the
              following substrings in the manner of the PS1 and other prompt parameters:

              %c     Replaced by the name of the completer function that  generated  the  matches
                     (without the leading underscore).

              %l     When  the list style is set, replaced by `...' if the list of matches is too
                     long to fit on the screen and with an empty string otherwise.  If  the  list
                     style is `false' or not set, `%l' is always removed.

              %n     Replaced by the number of matches generated.

              %s     Replaced  by  `-no match-', `-no prefix-', or an empty string if there is no
                     completion matching the word on the line, if  the  matches  have  no  common
                     prefix  different  from  the  word on the line, or if there is such a common
                     prefix, respectively.

              %u     Replaced by the unambiguous part of all matches, if there is any, and if  it
                     is different from the word on the line.

              Like `break-keys', this uses the `:incremental' context.

              This  style  is used by the incremental-complete-word widget.  Its value is treated
              similarly to the  one  for  the  break-keys  style  (and  uses  the  same  context:
              `:incremental').   However, in this case all keys matching the pattern given as its
              value will stop incremental completion and will then execute their usual function.

       toggle This boolean style is used by predict-on and its related  widgets  in  the  context
              `:predict'.   If  set  to  one  of the standard `true' values, predictive typing is
              automatically toggled off in situations where it is unlikely to be useful, such  as
              when editing a multi-line buffer or after moving into the middle of a line and then
              deleting a character.  The default is  to  leave  prediction  turned  on  until  an
              explicit call to predict-off.

              This  boolean  style  is  used by predict-on and its related widgets in the context
              `:predict'.  If set to one of the standard `true' values, these widgets  display  a
              message below the prompt when the predictive state is toggled.  This is most useful
              in combination with the toggle style.  The default does not display these messages.

       widget This style is similar to the command style: For widget functions that  use  zle  to
              call  other  widgets, this style can sometimes be used to override the widget which
              is called.  The context for this style is the name of the calling widget  (not  the
              name  of the calling function, because one function may be bound to multiple widget

                     zstyle :copy-earlier-word widget smart-insert-last-word

              Check the documentation for the calling widget or function to determine whether the
              widget style is used.


       Two  functions  are  provided  to  enable zsh to provide exception handling in a form that
       should be familiar from other languages.

       throw exception
              The function throw throws the named exception.  The name is an arbitrary string and
              is  only  used by the throw and catch functions.  An exception is for the most part
              treated the same as a shell error, i.e. an unhandled exception will cause the shell
              to  abort  all processing in a function or script and to return to the top level in
              an interactive shell.

       catch exception-pattern
              The function catch returns status zero if an exception was thrown and  the  pattern
              exception-pattern   matches   its   name.    Otherwise   it   returns   status   1.
              exception-pattern is a standard shell pattern, respecting the  current  setting  of
              the  EXTENDED_GLOB  option.  An alias catch is also defined to prevent the argument
              to the function from matching filenames, so patterns may be  used  unquoted.   Note
              that  as  exceptions  are not fundamentally different from other shell errors it is
              possible to catch shell errors by using an empty string as the exception name.  The
              shell  variable  CAUGHT is set by catch to the name of the exception caught.  It is
              possible to rethrow an exception by  calling  the  throw  function  again  once  an
              exception has been caught.

       The  functions  are  designed  to  be used together with the always construct described in
       zshmisc(1).  This is important as only this construct provides the  required  support  for
       exceptions.  A typical example is as follows.

                # "try" block
                # ... nested code here calls "throw MyExcept"
              } always {
                # "always" block
                if catch MyExcept; then
                  print "Caught exception MyExcept"
                elif catch ''; then
                  print "Caught a shell error.  Propagating..."
                  throw ''
                # Other exceptions are not handled but may be caught further
                # up the call stack.

       If all exceptions should be caught, the following idiom might be preferable.

                # ... nested code here throws an exception
              } always {
                if catch *; then
                  case $CAUGHT in
                    print "Caught my own exception"
                    print "Caught some other exception"

       In  common with exception handling in other languages, the exception may be thrown by code
       deeply nested inside the `try' block.  However, note that it must  be  thrown  inside  the
       current  shell,  not  in  a  subshell  forked  for a pipeline, parenthesised current-shell
       construct, or some form of command or process substitution.

       The system internally uses the  shell  variable  EXCEPTION  to  record  the  name  of  the
       exception  between  throwing  and  catching.   One  drawback of this scheme is that if the
       exception is not handled the  variable  EXCEPTION  remains  set  and  may  be  incorrectly
       recognised as the name of an exception if a shell error subsequently occurs.  Adding unset
       EXCEPTION at the start of the outermost layer of any code  that  uses  exception  handling
       will eliminate this problem.


       Three  functions  are  available to provide handling of files recognised by extension, for
       example to dispatch a file when executed as a command to an appropriate viewer.

       zsh-mime-setup [ -fv ] [ -l [ suffix ... ] ]
       zsh-mime-handler [ -l ] command argument ...
              These  two  functions  use  the  files  ~/.mime.types  and  /etc/mime.types,  which
              associate types and extensions, as well as ~/.mailcap and /etc/mailcap files, which
              associate types and the programs that handle them.   These  are  provided  on  many
              systems with the Multimedia Internet Mail Extensions.

              To  enable  the  system,  the function zsh-mime-setup should be autoloaded and run.
              This allows files with extensions to  be  treated  as  executable;  such  files  be
              completed  by the function completion system.  The function zsh-mime-handler should
              not need to be called by the user.

              The system works by setting up suffix aliases  with  `alias  -s'.   Suffix  aliases
              already installed by the user will not be overwritten.

              For  suffixes defined in lower case, upper case variants will also automatically be
              handled (e.g. PDF is automatically handled  if  handling  for  the  suffix  pdf  is
              defined), but not vice versa.

              Repeated  calls  to  zsh-mime-setup  do  not  override the existing mapping between
              suffixes and executable files unless the option -f is given.  Note,  however,  that
              this  does  not  override  existing  suffix aliases assigned to handlers other than

              Calling zsh-mime-setup with the option  -l  lists  the  existing  mappings  without
              altering  them.  Suffixes to list (which may contain pattern characters that should
              be quoted from immediate interpretation on  the  command  line)  may  be  given  as
              additional arguments, otherwise all suffixes are listed.

              Calling  zsh-mime-setup with the option -v causes verbose output to be shown during
              the setup operation.

              The  system  respects  the  mailcap  flags  needsterminal  and  copiousoutput;  see
              mailcap(4) or mailcap(5) (the man page's name varies across platforms).

              The  functions  use the following styles, which are defined with the zstyle builtin
              command (see zshmodules(1)).  They should be defined before zsh-mime-setup is  run.
              The  contexts used all start with :mime:, with additional components in some cases.
              It is recommended that a trailing * (suitably quoted) be appended to style patterns
              in case the system is extended in future.  Some examples are given below.

              For files that have multiple suffixes, e.g. .pdf.gz, where the context includes the
              suffix it will be looked up starting with the longest possible suffix until a match
              for  the style is found.  For example, if .pdf.gz produces a match for the handler,
              that will be used; otherwise the handler for .gz will be used.  Note that, owing to
              the  way suffix aliases work, it is always required that there be a handler for the
              shortest possible suffix, so in this example .pdf.gz can only be handled if .gz  is
              also  handled  (though  not  necessarily  in  the  same way).  Alternatively, if no
              handling for .gz on its own is needed, simply adding the command

                     alias -s gz=zsh-mime-handler

              to the initialisation code is sufficient; .gz will not be handled on its  own,  but
              may be in combination with other suffixes.

                     If  this  boolean  style  is  true,  the  mailcap handler for the context in
                     question is run using the eval builtin instead  of  by  starting  a  new  sh
                     process.   This  is more efficient, but may not work in the occasional cases
                     where the mailcap handler uses strict POSIX syntax.

              disown If this boolean style is true, mailcap handlers started  in  the  background
                     will  be  disowned, i.e. not subject to job control within the parent shell.
                     Such handlers nearly always produce their own windows, so  the  only  likely
                     harmful  side  effect of setting the style is that it becomes harder to kill
                     jobs from within the shell.

                     This style gives a list of patterns to be matched against files  passed  for
                     execution  with  a  handler  program.   If the file matches the pattern, the
                     entire command line is executed in its current form, with no handler.   This
                     is  useful for files which might have suffixes but nonetheless be executable
                     in their own right.  If the style is not set, the pattern *(*) *(/) is used;
                     hence  executable  files  are executed directly and not passed to a handler,
                     and the option AUTO_CD may be used to change to directories that  happen  to
                     have MIME suffixes.

                     This  style  is  useful  in combination with execute-as-is.  It is set to an
                     array of patterns corresponding to full paths to files that should never  be
                     treated  as  executable, even if the file passed to the MIME handler matches
                     execute-as-is.  This is useful for file systems that  don't  handle  execute
                     permission  or  that contain executables from another operating system.  For
                     example, if /mnt/windows is a Windows mount, then

                            zstyle ':mime:*' execute-never '/mnt/windows/*'

                     will ensure that any files found in that area will be executed as MIME types
                     even  if they are executable.  As this example shows, the complete file name
                     is matched against the pattern, regardless of how the file was passed to the
                     handler.   The  file  is  resolved  to  a  full  path  using the :P modifier
                     described in the subsection  `Modifiers'  in  zshexpn(1);  this  means  that
                     symbolic  links  are  resolved where possible, so that links into other file
                     systems behave in the correct fashion.

                     Used if the style find-file-in-path is true for the same context.  Set to an
                     array of directories that are used for searching for the file to be handled;
                     the default is the command path given by the special  parameter  path.   The
                     shell  option  PATH_DIRS  is respected; if that is set, the appropriate path
                     will be searched even if the name of the file to be handled as it appears on
                     the  command  line  contains  a `/'.  The full context is :mime:.suffix:, as
                     described for the style handler.

                     If set, allows files whose  names  do  not  contain  absolute  paths  to  be
                     searched  for  in  the  command  path or the path specified by the file-path
                     style.  If the file is not found in the  path,  it  is  looked  for  locally
                     (whether  or  not  the current directory is in the path); if it is not found
                     locally, the handler will abort unless the handle-nonexistent style is  set.
                     Files found in the path are tested as described for the style execute-as-is.
                     The full context is :mime:.suffix:, as described for the style handler.

              flags  Defines flags to go with a handler; the context is as for the handler style,
                     and the format is as for the flags in mailcap.

                     By  default,  arguments that don't correspond to files are not passed to the
                     MIME handler in order to prevent it from intercepting commands found in  the
                     path  that  happen  to  have suffixes.  This style may be set to an array of
                     extended glob patterns for arguments that will be passed to the handler even
                     if  they  don't  exist.   If  it  is  not  explicitly  set  it  defaults  to
                     [[:alpha:]]#:/* which allows URLs to be passed  to  the  MIME  handler  even
                     though they don't exist in that format in the file system.  The full context
                     is :mime:.suffix:, as described for the style handler.

                     Specifies a handler for a suffix; the suffix is  given  by  the  context  as
                     :mime:.suffix:,  and  the  format of the handler is exactly that in mailcap.
                     Note in particular the `.' and trailing colon to distinguish this use of the
                     context.  This overrides any handler specified by the mailcap files.  If the
                     handler requires a terminal, the flags style should be set  to  include  the
                     word needsterminal, or if the output is to be displayed through a pager (but
                     not if the handler is itself a pager), it should include copiousoutput.

                     A list of files in the format of ~/.mailcap  and  /etc/mailcap  to  be  read
                     during  setup, replacing the default list which consists of those two files.
                     The context is :mime:.  A + in the list will  be  replaced  by  the  default

                     This  style  is  used  to resolve multiple mailcap entries for the same MIME
                     type.  It consists of an array of  the  following  elements,  in  descending
                     order  of priority; later entries will be used if earlier entries are unable
                     to resolve the entries being compared.  If none of  the  tests  resolve  the
                     entries, the first entry encountered is retained.

                     files  The  order  of  files  (entries  in the mailcap style) read.  Earlier
                            files are preferred.  (Note this does not resolve entries in the same

                            The priority flag from the mailcap entry.  The priority is an integer
                            from 0 to 9 with the default value being 5.

                     flags  The test given by the mailcap-prio-flags option is  used  to  resolve

                     place  Later  entries  are  preferred;  as the entries are strictly ordered,
                            this test always succeeds.

                     Note that as this style is handled during  initialisation,  the  context  is
                     always :mime:, with no discrimination by suffix.

                     This  style  is  used  when  the keyword flags is encountered in the list of
                     tests specified by the mailcap-priorities style.  It should be set to a list
                     of  patterns,  each  of  which  is tested against the flags specified in the
                     mailcap entry (in other words, the  sets  of  assignments  found  with  some
                     entries in the mailcap file).  Earlier patterns in the list are preferred to
                     later ones, and matched patterns are preferred to unmatched ones.

                     A list of files in the format of ~/.mime.types  and  /etc/mime.types  to  be
                     read  during  setup,  replacing the default list which consists of those two
                     files.  The context is :mime:.  A + in the list  will  be  replaced  by  the
                     default files.

                     If  this  boolean  style is set, the handler for the given context is always
                     run in the foreground, even if the  flags  provided  in  the  mailcap  entry
                     suggest it need not be (for example, it doesn't require a terminal).

              pager  If  set, will be used instead of $PAGER or more to handle suffixes where the
                     copiousoutput  flag  is  set.   The  context  is  as   for   handler,   i.e.
                     :mime:.suffix: for handling a file with the given suffix.


                     zstyle ':mime:*' mailcap ~/.mailcap /usr/local/etc/mailcap
                     zstyle ':mime:.txt:' handler less %s
                     zstyle ':mime:.txt:' flags needsterminal

              When  zsh-mime-setup  is  subsequently run, it will look for mailcap entries in the
              two files given.  Files of suffix .txt will be handled by running `less  file.txt'.
              The  flag  needsterminal  is  set  to show that this program must run attached to a

              As there are several steps to  dispatching  a  command,  the  following  should  be
              checked  if  attempting  to  execute  a  file  by  extension .ext does not have the
              expected effect.

              The command  `alias  -s  ext'  should  show  `ps=zsh-mime-handler'.   If  it  shows
              something else, another suffix alias was already installed and was not overwritten.
              If it shows nothing, no handler was installed:  this  is  most  likely  because  no
              handler  was  found  in the .mime.types and mailcap combination for .ext files.  In
              that case, appropriate handling should be added to ~/.mime.types and mailcap.

              If the extension is  handled  by  zsh-mime-handler  but  the  file  is  not  opened
              correctly,  either  the  handler  defined  for  the type is incorrect, or the flags
              associated with it are in appropriate.  Running zsh-mime-setup  -l  will  show  the
              handler  and,  if there are any, the flags.  A %s in the handler is replaced by the
              file (suitably quoted if necessary).  Check that the handler program  listed  lists
              and  can  be  run  in  the  way  shown.  Also check that the flags needsterminal or
              copiousoutput are set if the handler needs to be run under a terminal;  the  second
              flag  is  used  if  the output should be sent to a pager.  An example of a suitable
              mailcap entry for such a program is:

                     text/html; /usr/bin/lynx '%s'; needsterminal

              Running `zsh-mime-handler -l command line' prints the command line  that  would  be
              executed,  simplified  to  remove  the  effect of any flags, and quoted so that the
              output can be run as a complete zsh command line.  This is used by  the  completion
              system to decide how to complete after a file handled by zsh-mime-setup.

              This  function  is  separate from the two MIME functions described above and can be
              assigned directly to a suffix:

                     autoload -U pick-web-browser
                     alias -s html=pick-web-browser

              It is provided as an intelligent front end to dispatch a web browser.   It  may  be
              run  as  either  a  function  or  a shell script.  The status 255 is returned if no
              browser could be started.

              Various styles are available to customize the choice of browsers:

                     The value of the style is an array giving preferences  in  decreasing  order
                     for the type of browser to use.  The values of elements may be

                            Use a GUI browser that is already running when an X Window display is
                            available.  The browsers listed in the x-browsers style are tried  in
                            order  until  one  is  found; if it is, the file will be displayed in
                            that browser, so the user may need to check whether it has  appeared.
                            If  no  running browser is found, one is not started.  Browsers other
                            than Firefox, Opera and  Konqueror  are  assumed  to  understand  the
                            Mozilla syntax for opening a URL remotely.

                     x      Start  a  new  GUI  browser  when  an  X Window display is available.
                            Search for the availability of one of  the  browsers  listed  in  the
                            x-browsers  style and start the first one that is found.  No check is
                            made for an already running browser.

                     tty    Start a terminal-based browser.  Search for the availability  of  one
                            of  the browsers listed in the tty-browsers style and start the first
                            one that is found.

                     If the style is not set the default running x tty is used.

                     An array in decreasing order of preference of browsers to use  when  running
                     under  the  X  Window  System.  The array consists of the command name under
                     which to start the browser.  They are looked up in the context :mime: (which
                     may be extended in future, so appending `*' is recommended).  For example,

                            zstyle ':mime:*' x-browsers opera konqueror firefox

                     specifies  that pick-web-browser should first look for a running instance of
                     Opera, Konqueror or Firefox, in that order, and if  it  fails  to  find  any
                     should  attempt  to  start  Opera.   The default is firefox mozilla netscape
                     opera konqueror.

                     An array similar to x-browsers, except that it gives browsers to use when no
                     X Window display is available.  The default is elinks links lynx.

                     If  it is set this style is used to pick the command used to open a page for
                     a browser.  The  context  is  :mime:browser:new:$browser:  to  start  a  new
                     browser  or  :mime:browser:running:$browser:  to  open  a  URL  in a browser
                     already running on the current  X  display,  where  $browser  is  the  value
                     matched  in the x-browsers or tty-browsers style.  The escape sequence %b in
                     the style's value will be replaced by the browser, while %u will be replaced
                     by  the  URL.  If the style is not set, the default for all new instances is
                     equivalent to %b  %u  and  the  defaults  for  using  running  browsers  are
                     equivalent  to  the  values  kfmclient  openURL  %u  for  Konqueror, firefox
                     -new-tab %u for Firefox,  opera  -newpage  %u  for  Opera,  and  %b  -remote
                     "openUrl(%u)" for all others.


       zcalc [ -erf ] [ expression ... ]
              A  reasonably  powerful  calculator  based on zsh's arithmetic evaluation facility.
              The syntax is similar to that of formulae in most programming  languages;  see  the
              section `Arithmetic Evaluation' in zshmisc(1) for details.

              Non-programmers   should  note  that,  as  in  many  other  programming  languages,
              expressions involving only integers (whether constants  without  a  `.',  variables
              containing  such constants as strings, or variables declared to be integers) are by
              default evaluated using integer arithmetic, which  is  not  how  an  ordinary  desk
              calculator  operates.   To  force floating point operation, pass the option -f; see
              further notes below.

              If the file ~/.zcalcrc exists it will be sourced inside the function once it is set
              up  and  about  to process the command line.  This can be used, for example, to set
              shell options; emulate -L zsh and setopt extendedglob are in effect at this  point.
              Any  failure  to  source  the file if it exists is treated as fatal.  As with other
              initialisation files, the directory $ZDOTDIR is used instead of $HOME if it is set.

              The mathematical library zsh/mathfunc will be loaded if it is  available;  see  the
              section  `The  zsh/mathfunc  Module'  in zshmodules(1).  The mathematical functions
              correspond to the raw system libraries, so trigonometric  functions  are  evaluated
              using radians, and so on.

              Each  line  typed  is evaluated as an expression.  The prompt shows a number, which
              corresponds to a positional parameter where  the  result  of  that  calculation  is
              stored.   For  example, the result of the calculation on the line preceded by `4> '
              is available as $4.  The last value calculated is available as ans.   Full  command
              line  editing,  including  the  history of previous calculations, is available; the
              history is saved in the file ~/.zcalc_history.  To exit, enter a blank line or type
              `:q' on its own (`q' is allowed for historical compatibility).

              A  line  ending  with a single backslash is treated in the same fashion as it is in
              command line editing:  the backslash is removed,  the  function  prompts  for  more
              input  (the  prompt  is  preceded  by  `...'  to  indicate this), and the lines are
              combined into one to get the final result.   In  addition,  if  the  input  so  far
              contains more open than close parentheses zcalc will prompt for more input.

              If  arguments  are given to zcalc on start up, they are used to prime the first few
              positional parameters.  A visual indication of this is given  when  the  calculator

              The   constants  PI  (3.14159...)  and  E  (2.71828...)  are  provided.   Parameter
              assignment is possible, but note that all parameters will be put  into  the  global
              namespace  unless  the  :local special command is used.  The function creates local
              variables whose names start with _, so users should avoid doing so.  The  variables
              ans  (the  last  answer)  and  stack  (the  stack  in  RPN mode) may be referred to
              directly; stack is an array but elements of it are numeric.  Various other  special
              variables  are  used  locally with their standard meaning, for example compcontext,
              match, mbegin, mend, psvar.

              The output base can be initialised by passing  the  option  `-#base',  for  example
              `zcalc  -#16'  (the  `#'  may  have to be quoted, depending on the globbing options

              If the option `-e' is set, the function runs non-interactively: the  arguments  are
              treated as expressions to be evaluated as if entered interactively line by line.

              If  the  option  `-f'  is set, all numbers are treated as floating point, hence for
              example the expression `3/4' evaluates to 0.75 rather than 0.  Options must  appear
              in separate words.

              If the option `-r' is set, RPN (Reverse Polish Notation) mode is entered.  This has
              various additional properties:
              Stack  Evaluated values are maintained in a stack; this is contained  in  an  array
                     named stack with the most recent value in ${stack[1]}.

              Operators and functions
                     If  the  line  entered  matches an operator (+, -, *, /, **, ^, | or &) or a
                     function supplied  by  the  zsh/mathfunc  library,  the  bottom  element  or
                     elements  of  the stack are popped to use as the argument or arguments.  The
                     higher elements of stack (least recent) are used as earlier arguments.   The
                     result is then pushed into ${stack[1]}.

                     Other expressions are evaluated normally, printed, and added to the stack as
                     numeric values.  The syntax within expressions on a single  line  is  normal
                     shell arithmetic (not RPN).

              Stack listing
                     If  an integer follows the option -r with no space, then on every evaluation
                     that many elements of the stack, where available,  are  printed  instead  of
                     just  the most recent result.  Hence, for example, zcalc -r4 shows $stack[4]
                     to $stack[1] each time results are printed.

              Duplication: =
                     The pseudo-operator = causes the most recent element  of  the  stack  to  be
                     duplicated onto the stack.

              pop    The  pseudo-function  pop  causes the most recent element of the stack to be
                     popped.  A `>' on its own has the same effect.

              >ident The expression > followed (with no space) by a shell identifier  causes  the
                     most  recent  element of the stack to be popped and assigned to the variable
                     with that name.  The variable is local to the zcalc function.

              <ident The expression < followed (with no space) by a shell identifier  causes  the
                     value of the variable with that name to be pushed onto the stack.  ident may
                     be an integer, in which case the previous result with that number (as  shown
                     before the > in the standard zcalc prompt) is put on the stack.

              Exchange: xy
                     The  pseudo-function  xy causes the most recent two elements of the stack to
                     be exchanged.  `<>' has the same effect.

              The prompt is configurable via the parameter ZCALCPROMPT, which undergoes  standard
              prompt  expansion.   The  index of the current entry is stored locally in the first
              element of the array psvar, which can be referred to in ZCALCPROMPT as `%1v'.   The
              default prompt is `%1v> '.

              The  variable  ZCALC_ACTIVE  is set within the function and can be tested by nested
              functions; it has the value rpn if RPN mode is active, else 1.

              A few special commands are  available;  these  are  introduced  by  a  colon.   For
              backward  compatibility, the colon may be omitted for certain commands.  Completion
              is available if compinit has been run.

              The output precision may be specified within zcalc  by  special  commands  familiar
              from many calculators.
              :norm  The  default  output format.  It corresponds to the printf %g specification.
                     Typically this shows six decimal digits.

              :sci digits
                     Scientific notation, corresponding to the printf %g output format  with  the
                     precision  given by digits.  This produces either fixed point or exponential
                     notation depending on the value output.

              :fix digits
                     Fixed point notation, corresponding to the printf %f output format with  the
                     precision given by digits.

              :eng digits
                     Exponential  notation, corresponding to the printf %E output format with the
                     precision given by digits.

              :raw   Raw output:  this is the default form of the output from a math  evaluation.
                     This may show more precision than the number actually possesses.

              Other special commands:
                     Execute line... as a normal shell command line.  Note that it is executed in
                     the context of the function, i.e. with local variables.  Space  is  optional
                     after :!.

              :local arg ...
                     Declare  variables local to the function.  Other variables may be used, too,
                     but they will be taken from or put into the global scope.

              :function name [ body ]
                     Define a mathematical function or (with no body) delete it.   :function  may
                     be  abbreviated  to  :func  or  simply  :f.   The  name may contain the same
                     characters as  a  shell  function  name.   The  function  is  defined  using
                     zmathfuncdef, see below.

                     Note that zcalc takes care of all quoting.  Hence for example:

                            :f cube $1 * $1 * $1

                     defines  a  function  to  cube  the sole argument.  Functions so defined, or
                     indeed any functions defined directly or indirectly using functions -M,  are
                     available  to  execute by typing only the name on the line in RPN mode; this
                     pops the appropriate number of arguments  off  the  stack  to  pass  to  the
                     function,  i.e.  1  in  the case of the example cube function.  If there are
                     optional arguments only the mandatory arguments are supplied by this means.

                     This is not a special command, rather  part  of  normal  arithmetic  syntax;
                     however, when this form appears on a line by itself the default output radix
                     is set to base.  Use, for example, `[#16]'  to  display  hexadecimal  output
                     preceded  by  an indication of the base, or `[##16]' just to display the raw
                     number in the given base.  Bases themselves are always specified in decimal.
                     `[#]'  restores  the normal output format.  Note that setting an output base
                     suppresses floating point output; use `[#]' to return to normal operation.

              $var   Print out the value of var literally; does not affect the  calculation.   To
                     use the value of var, omit the leading `$'.

              See the comments in the function for a few extra tips.

       min(arg, ...)
       max(arg, ...)
       sum(arg, ...)
              The  function zmathfunc defines the three mathematical functions min, max, and sum.
              The functions min and max take one or more arguments.  The function sum takes  zero
              or more arguments.  Arguments can be of different types (ints and floats).

              Not  to  be  confused  with  the zsh/mathfunc module, described in the section `The
              zsh/mathfunc Module' in zshmodules(1).

       zmathfuncdef [ mathfunc [ body ] ]
              A convenient front end to functions -M.

              With two arguments, define a mathematical function named mathfunc which can be used
              in  any  form  of  arithmetic  evaluation.   body  is  a mathematical expression to
              implement the function.  It may contain references to position parameters  $1,  $2,
              ...   to refer to mandatory parameters and ${1:-defvalue} ...  to refer to optional
              parameters.  Note that the forms must be strictly adhered to for  the  function  to
              calculate  the  correct number of arguments.  The implementation is held in a shell
              function named zsh_math_func_mathfunc; usually the user will not need to  refer  to
              the  shell  function  directly.  Any existing function of the same name is silently

              With one argument, remove the mathematical function mathfunc as well as  the  shell
              function implementation.

              With no arguments, list all mathfunc functions in a form suitable for restoring the
              definition.  The functions have not necessarily been defined by zmathfuncdef.


       The zsh/newuser module comes with a function to aid in configuring shell options  for  new
       users.   If  the  module  is  installed,  this  function  can  also be run by hand.  It is
       available even if the module's default behaviour, namely running the function  for  a  new
       user logging in without startup files, is inhibited.

       zsh-newuser-install [ -f ]
              The  function  presents  the  user  with  various  options  for  customizing  their
              initialization scripts.  Currently only ~/.zshrc is  handled.   $ZDOTDIR/.zshrc  is
              used  instead  if the parameter ZDOTDIR is set; this provides a way for the user to
              configure a file without altering an existing .zshrc.

              By default the function exits immediately if it finds any  of  the  files  .zshenv,
              .zprofile,  .zshrc,  or  .zlogin  in  the  appropriate directory.  The option -f is
              required in order to force the function to continue.  Note this may happen even  if
              .zshrc itself does not exist.

              As  currently  configured,  the function will exit immediately if the user has root
              privileges; this behaviour cannot be overridden.

              Once activated, the function's behaviour is supposed to be self-explanatory.  Menus
              are  present  allowing  the  user  to  alter  the  value of options and parameters.
              Suggestions for improvements are always welcome.

              When the script exits, the user is given the opportunity to save the  new  file  or
              not; changes are not irreversible until this point.  However, the script is careful
              to restrict changes to the file only to a  group  marked  by  the  lines  `#  Lines
              configured   by   zsh-newuser-install'   and   `#   End   of  lines  configured  by
              zsh-newuser-install'.  In addition, the old version of .zshrc is saved  to  a  file
              with the suffix .zni appended.

              If  the  function edits an existing .zshrc, it is up to the user to ensure that the
              changes made will take effect.  For example, if control usually returns early  from
              the  existing .zshrc the lines will not be executed; or a later initialization file
              may override options or parameters, and  so  on.   The  function  itself  does  not
              attempt to detect any such conflicts.


       There  are  a large number of helpful functions in the Functions/Misc directory of the zsh
       distribution.  Most are very simple and do not require documentation here, but a  few  are
       worthy of special mention.

       colors This  function  initializes  several  associative arrays to map color names to (and
              from) the ANSI standard eight-color terminal codes.  These are used by  the  prompt
              theme system (see above).  You seldom should need to run colors more than once.

              The  eight  base  colors  are:  black, red, green, yellow, blue, magenta, cyan, and
              white.  Each of these has codes for foreground and background.  In  addition  there
              are  seven  intensity attributes: bold, faint, standout, underline, blink, reverse,
              and conceal.  Finally, there are seven codes used to negate attributes: none (reset
              all  attributes  to  the  defaults),  normal (neither bold nor faint), no-standout,
              no-underline, no-blink, no-reverse, and no-conceal.

              Some terminals do not support all combinations of colors and intensities.

              The associative arrays are:

              colour Map all the color names to their integer codes, and  integer  codes  to  the
                     color  names.  The eight base names map to the foreground color codes, as do
                     names prefixed with `fg-', such as `fg-red'.   Names  prefixed  with  `bg-',
                     such  as `bg-blue', refer to the background codes.  The reverse mapping from
                     code to color yields base name for foreground codes and  the  bg-  form  for

                     Although  it  is a misnomer to call them `colors', these arrays also map the
                     other fourteen attributes from names to codes and codes to names.

                     Map the eight basic color names to ANSI terminal escape sequences  that  set
                     the  corresponding  foreground text properties.  The fg sequences change the
                     color without changing the eight intensity attributes.

                     Map the eight basic color names to ANSI terminal escape sequences  that  set
                     the  corresponding background properties.  The bg sequences change the color
                     without changing the eight intensity attributes.

              In addition, the scalar parameters reset_color and bold_color are set to  the  ANSI
              terminal  escapes  that  turn  off  all  attributes  and  turn  on  bold intensity,

       fned [ -x num ] name
              Same as zed -f.  This function does not appear in the zsh distribution, but can  be
              created by linking zed to the name fned in some directory in your fpath.

       histed [ [ name ] size ]
              Same  as zed -h.  This function does not appear in the zsh distribution, but can be
              created by linking zed to the name histed in some directory in your fpath.

       is-at-least needed [ present ]
              Perform a greater-than-or-equal-to comparison of two strings having the format of a
              zsh  version  number; that is, a string of numbers and text with segments separated
              by dots or dashes.  If the present string is not provided,  $ZSH_VERSION  is  used.
              Segments  are paired left-to-right in the two strings with leading non-number parts
              ignored.  If one string has fewer segments than the other, the missing segments are
              considered zero.

              This  is  useful  in  startup  files  to  set  options and other state that are not
              available in all versions of zsh.

                     is-at-least 3.1.6-15 && setopt NO_GLOBAL_RCS
                     is-at-least 3.1.0 && setopt HIST_REDUCE_BLANKS
                     is-at-least 2.6-17 || print "You can't use is-at-least here."

       nslookup [ arg ... ]
              This wrapper function for the nslookup command requires the  zsh/zpty  module  (see
              zshmodules(1)).   It  behaves  exactly  like  the  standard nslookup except that it
              provides customizable prompts (including a right-side  prompt)  and  completion  of
              nslookup  commands,  host  names,  etc.  (if  you use the function-based completion
              system).    Completion   styles   may   be   set   with    the    context    prefix

              See also the pager, prompt and rprompt styles below.

       regexp-replace var regexp replace
              Use  regular  expressions  to  perform  a  global search and replace operation on a
              variable.  POSIX extended regular expressions (ERE) are  used,  unless  the  option
              RE_MATCH_PCRE  has  been set, in which case Perl-compatible regular expressions are
              used (this requires the shell to be linked against the pcre library).

              var is the name of the variable containing the string to be matched.  The  variable
              will  be  modified  directly  by  the function.  The variables MATCH, MBEGIN, MEND,
              match, mbegin, mend should be avoided as these are used by the  regular  expression

              regexp is the regular expression to match against the string.

              replace  is  the  replacement  text.   This  can  contain  parameter,  command  and
              arithmetic expressions which will be  replaced:   in  particular,  a  reference  to
              $MATCH will be replaced by the text matched by the pattern.

              The return status is 0 if at least one match was performed, else 1.

              Note  that  if using POSIX EREs, the ^ or word boundary operators (where available)
              may not work properly.

       run-help cmd
              This function is designed to be invoked by the run-help ZLE widget, in place of the
              default alias.  See `Accessing On-Line Help' above for setup instructions.

              In  the discussion which follows, if cmd is a file system path, it is first reduced
              to its rightmost component (the file name).

              Help is first sought by looking for a file named cmd in the directory named by  the
              HELPDIR  parameter.   If no file is found, an assistant function, alias, or command
              named run-help-cmd is sought.  If found, the assistant is executed with the rest of
              the  current command line (everything after the command name cmd) as its arguments.
              When neither file nor assistant is found, the external command `man cmd' is run.

              An example assistant for the "ssh" command:

                     run-help-ssh() {
                         emulate -LR zsh
                         local -a args
                         # Delete the "-l username" option
                         zparseopts -D -E -a args l:
                         # Delete other options, leaving: host command
                         if [[ ${#args} -lt 2 ]]; then
                             man ssh
                             run-help $args[2]

              Several of these assistants are provided in the  Functions/Misc  directory.   These
              must  be  autoloaded, or placed as executable scripts in your search path, in order
              to be found and used by run-help.

                     Assistant functions for the btrfs, git, ip, openssl, p4, sudo, svk, and svn,

       tetris Zsh  was once accused of not being as complete as Emacs, because it lacked a Tetris
              game.  This function was written to refute this vicious slander.

              This function must be used as a ZLE widget:

                     autoload -U tetris
                     zle -N tetris
                     bindkey keys tetris

              To start a game, execute the widget by typing the keys.  Whatever command line  you
              were  editing  disappears temporarily, and your keymap is also temporarily replaced
              by the Tetris control keys.  The previous editor state is restored  when  you  quit
              the game (by pressing `q') or when you lose.

              If  you quit in the middle of a game, the next invocation of the tetris widget will
              continue where you left off.  If you lost, it will start a new game.

              This is a port of the above to zcurses.  The input handling is improved  a  bit  so
              that  moving  a  block  sideways  doesn't automatically advance a timestep, and the
              graphics use unicode block graphics.

              This version does not save the game state between invocations, and is  not  invoked
              as a widget, but rather as:

                     autoload -U tetriscurses

       zargs [ option ... -- ] [ input ... ] [ -- command [ arg ... ] ]
              This  function  has  a  similar  purpose to GNU xargs.  Instead of reading lines of
              arguments from the standard input, it takes them from the command  line.   This  is
              useful because zsh, especially with recursive glob operators, often can construct a
              command line for a shell function that  is  longer  than  can  be  accepted  by  an
              external command.

              The  option list represents options of the zargs command itself, which are the same
              as those of xargs.  The input list is the collection of strings (often file  names)
              that become the arguments of the command, analogous to the standard input of xargs.
              Finally, the arg list consists of those arguments (usually options) that are passed
              to  the  command  each  time  it runs.  The arg list precedes the elements from the
              input list in each run.  If no command  is  provided,  then  no  arg  list  may  be
              provided, and in that event the default command is `print' with arguments `-r --'.

              For  example, to get a long ls listing of all non-hidden plain files in the current
              directory or its subdirectories:

                     autoload -U zargs
                     zargs -- **/*(.) -- ls -ld --

              The first and third occurrences of `--' are used to mark the  end  of  options  for
              zargs  and  ls respectively to guard against filenames starting with `-', while the
              second is used to separate the list of files from the command to run (`ls -ld --').

              The first `--' would also be needed if there was a chance the list might  be  empty
              as in:

                     zargs -r -- ./*.back(#qN) -- rm -f

              In  the event that the string `--' is or may be an input, the -e option may be used
              to  change  the  end-of-inputs  marker.   Note  that  this  does  not  change   the
              end-of-options marker.  For example, to use `..' as the marker:

                     zargs -e.. -- **/*(.) .. ls -ld --

              This  is a good choice in that example because no plain file can be named `..', but
              the best end-marker depends on the circumstances.

              The options -i, -I, -l, -L, and -n differ  slightly  from  their  usage  in  xargs.
              There  are  no input lines for zargs to count, so -l and -L count through the input
              list, and -n counts the number of arguments passed to each  execution  of  command,
              including  any  arg list.  Also, any time -i or -I is used, each input is processed
              separately as if by `-L 1'.

              For details of the other zargs options, see the xargs(1) man  page  (but  note  the
              difference  in  function  between  zargs  and  xargs)  or run zargs with the --help

       zed [ -f [ -x num ] ] name
       zed [ -h [ name ] size ]
       zed -b This function uses the ZLE editor to edit a file or function.

              Only one name argument is allowed.  If the -f option is given, the name is taken to
              be  that of a function; if the function is marked for autoloading, zed searches for
              it in the fpath and loads it.  Note that functions edited this  way  are  installed
              into  the  current  shell, but not written back to the autoload file.  In this case
              the -x option specifies that leading  tabs  indenting  the  function  according  to
              syntax  should  be  converted into the given number of spaces; `-x 2' is consistent
              with the layout of functions distributed with the shell.

              Without -f, name is the path name of the file to edit, which need not exist; it  is
              created  on  write, if necessary.  With -h, the file is presumed to contain history

              When no file name is provided for -h the current shell history is edited in  place.
              The history is renumbered when zed exits successfully.

              When  editing  history,  multi-line  events must have a trailing backslash on every
              line before the last.

              While editing, the function sets the main keymap to zed and the vi  command  keymap
              to  zed-vicmd.   These  will  be copied from the existing main and vicmd keymaps if
              they do not exist the first time zed is run.  They can be used to  provide  special
              key bindings used only in zed.

              If  it  creates  the  keymap, zed rebinds the return key to insert a line break and
              `^X^W' to accept the edit in the zed keymap, and binds `ZZ' to accept the  edit  in
              the zed-vicmd keymap.

              The  bindings  alone  can  be  installed by running `zed -b'.  This is suitable for
              putting into a startup file.  Note that, if rerun, this will overwrite the existing
              zed and zed-vicmd keymaps.

              Completion   is   available,  and  styles  may  be  set  with  the  context  prefix

              A zle widget zed-set-file-name is available.  This  can  be  called  by  name  from
              within  zed using `\ex zed-set-file-name' or can be bound to a key in either of the
              zed or zed-vicmd keymaps after `zed -b' has been run.  When the widget  is  called,
              it  prompts for a new name for the file being edited.  When zed exits the file will
              be written under that name and the original file will be left  alone.   The  widget
              has  no  effect  when  invoked from `zed -f'.  The completion context is changed to
              `:completion:zed-set-file-name:'.  When editing the current history with `zed  -h',
              the  history  is first updated and then the file is written, but the global setting
              of HISTFILE is not altered.

              While zed-set-file-name is running, zed uses the keymap zed-normal-keymap, which is
              linked  from  the  main  keymap in effect at the time zed initialised its bindings.
              (This is to make the return key operate normally.)  The result is that if the  main
              keymap  has  been changed, the widget won't notice.  This is not a concern for most

       zcp [ -finqQvwW ] srcpat dest
       zln [ -finqQsvwW ] srcpat dest
              Same as zmv -C and zmv -L, respectively.  These functions do not appear in the  zsh
              distribution,  but  can  be created by linking zmv to the names zcp and zln in some
              directory in your fpath.

       zkbd   See `Keyboard Definition' above.

       zmv [ -finqQsvwW ] [ -C | -L | -M | -{p|P} program ] [ -o optstring ]
           srcpat dest
              Move (usually, rename) files matching the pattern  srcpat  to  corresponding  files
              having  names  of  the  form  given  by  dest,  where  srcpat  contains parentheses
              surrounding patterns which will be replaced in turn by $1, $2, ...  in  dest.   For

                     zmv '(*).lis' '$1.txt'

              renames  `foo.lis'  to  `foo.txt', `my.old.stuff.lis' to `my.old.stuff.txt', and so

              The pattern is always treated as an EXTENDED_GLOB pattern.  Any file whose name  is
              not  changed  by  the  substitution  is  simply ignored.  Any error (a substitution
              resulted  in  an  empty  string,  two  substitutions  gave  the  same  result,  the
              destination  was  an  existing regular file and -f was not given) causes the entire
              function to abort without doing anything.

              In addition to pattern replacement, the variable $f  can  be  referred  to  in  the
              second (replacement) argument.  This makes it possible to use variable substitution
              to alter the argument; see examples below.


              -f     Force overwriting of destination files.  Not currently passed  down  to  the
                     mv/cp/ln command due to vagaries of implementations (but you can use -o-f to
                     do that).
              -i     Interactive: show each line to be executed  and  ask  the  user  whether  to
                     execute  it.   `Y' or `y' will execute it, anything else will skip it.  Note
                     that you just need to type one character.
              -n     No execution: print what would happen, but don't do it.
              -q     Turn bare glob qualifiers off: now  assumed  by  default,  so  this  has  no
              -Q     Force  bare  glob qualifiers on.  Don't turn this on unless you are actually
                     using glob qualifiers in a pattern.
              -s     Symbolic, passed down to ln; only works with -L.
              -v     Verbose: print each command as it's being executed.
              -w     Pick out wildcard parts of the pattern, as described above,  and  implicitly
                     add parentheses for referring to them.
              -W     Just  like  -w,  with  the  addition of turning wildcards in the replacement
                     pattern into sequential ${1} .. ${N} references.
              -M     Force cp, ln or mv, respectively, regardless of the name of the function.
              -p program
                     Call program instead of cp, ln or mv.  Whatever it does, it should at  least
                     understand  the  form `program -- oldname newname' where oldname and newname
                     are filenames generated by zmv.  program will be split into words, so  might
                     be e.g. the name of an archive tool plus a copy or rename subcommand.
              -P program
                     As  -p  program,  except  that  program  does  not  accept a following -- to
                     indicate the end of options.  In this case filenames must already  be  in  a
                     sane form for the program in question.
              -o optstring
                     The  optstring is split into words and passed down verbatim to the cp, ln or
                     mv command called to perform the work.  It should probably begin with a `-'.

              Further examples:

                     zmv -v '(* *)' '${1// /_}'

              For any file in the current directory with at least one space in the name,  replace
              every space by an underscore and display the commands executed.

                     zmv -v '* *' '${f// /_}'

              This does exactly the same by referring to the file name stored in $f.

              For  more  complete  examples  and other implementation details, see the zmv source
              file, usually located in one  of  the  directories  named  in  your  fpath,  or  in
              Functions/Misc/zmv in the zsh distribution.

              See `Recompiling Functions' above.

       zstyle+ context style value [ + subcontext style value ... ]
              This  makes  defining styles a bit simpler by using a single `+' as a special token
              that allows you to append a context name to the previously used context name.  Like

                     zstyle+ ':foo:bar' style1 value1 \
                            +':baz'     style2 value2 \
                            +':frob'    style3 value3

              This  defines  style1  with  value1  for the context :foo:bar as usual, but it also
              defines style2 with value2 for the context :foo:bar:baz and style3 with value3  for
              :foo:bar:frob.   Any subcontext may be the empty string to re-use the first context

              The zed function sets  this  style  in  context  `:completion:zed:*'  to  turn  off
              completion  when TAB is typed at the beginning of a line.  You may override this by
              setting your own value for this context and style.

       pager  The nslookup function looks up this style in the context `:nslookup'  to  determine
              the program used to display output that does not fit on a single screen.

              The  nslookup  function  looks  up this style in the context `:nslookup' to set the
              prompt and the right-side prompt, respectively.  The usual expansions for  the  PS1
              and RPS1 parameters may be used (see EXPANSION OF PROMPT SEQUENCES in zshmisc(1)).