Provided by: zsh-common_5.9-1_all bug


       zshzftpsys - zftp function front-end


       This  describes  the  set  of  shell functions supplied with the source distribution as an
       interface to the zftp builtin command, allowing you to perform  FTP  operations  from  the
       shell  command  line  or  within  functions  or  scripts.   The  interface is similar to a
       traditional FTP client (e.g. the ftp command itself, see ftp(1)), but as  it  is  entirely
       done  within  the shell all the familiar completion, editing and globbing features, and so
       on, are present, and macros are particularly simple to write as  they  are  just  ordinary
       shell functions.

       The  prerequisite  is  that  the  zftp  command,  as  described in zshmodules(1) , must be
       available in the version of zsh installed at your site.  If the  shell  is  configured  to
       load  new  commands at run time, it probably is: typing `zmodload zsh/zftp' will make sure
       (if that runs silently, it has worked).  If this is not the case, it is possible zftp  was
       linked into the shell anyway: to test this, type `which zftp' and if zftp is available you
       will get the message `zftp: shell built-in command'.

       Commands given directly with zftp builtin may be interspersed  between  the  functions  in
       this  suite;  in a few cases, using zftp directly may cause some of the status information
       stored in shell parameters to become invalid.  Note in particular the description  of  the
       variables $ZFTP_TMOUT, $ZFTP_PREFS and $ZFTP_VERBOSE for zftp.


       You  should  make  sure  all the functions from the Functions/Zftp directory of the source
       distribution are available; they all begin with the two letters `zf'.   They  may  already
       have  been  installed on your system; otherwise, you will need to find them and copy them.
       The directory should appear as one of the  elements  of  the  $fpath  array  (this  should
       already  be  the  case if they were installed), and at least the function zfinit should be
       autoloaded; it will autoload the rest.  Finally, to initialize the use of the  system  you
       need  to  call  the  zfinit  function.  The following code in your .zshrc will arrange for
       this; assume the functions are stored in the directory ~/myfns:

              fpath=(~/myfns $fpath)
              autoload -U zfinit

       Note that zfinit assumes you are using the zmodload method to load the zftp  command.   If
       it is already built into the shell, change zfinit to zfinit -n.  It is helpful (though not
       essential) if the call to zfinit appears after any code to initialize the  new  completion
       system, else unnecessary compctl commands will be given.


       The  sequence  of operations in performing a file transfer is essentially the same as that
       in a standard FTP client.  Note that, due to a quirk of the shell's getopts  builtin,  for
       those  functions  that  handle  options  you  must  use `--' rather than `-' to ensure the
       remaining arguments are treated literally (a single `-' is treated as an argument).

   Opening a connection
       zfparams [ host [ user [ password ... ] ] ]
              Set or show the parameters for a future zfopen with no arguments.  If no  arguments
              are  given,  the  current parameters are displayed (the password will be shown as a
              line of asterisks).  If a host is given, and either the user or  password  is  not,
              they  will  be prompted for; also, any parameter given as `?' will be prompted for,
              and if the `?' is followed by a string, that will be used as the prompt.  As zfopen
              calls zfparams to store the parameters, this usually need not be called directly.

              A  single argument `-' will delete the stored parameters.  This will also cause the
              memory of the last directory (and so on) on the other host to be deleted.

       zfopen [ -1 ] [ host [ user [ password [ account ] ] ] ]
              If host is present, open a  connection  to  that  host  under  username  user  with
              password  password  (and,  on  the  rare  occasions  when  it is necessary, account
              account).  If a necessary parameter is missing or given as `?' it will be  prompted
              for.  If host is not present, use a previously stored set of parameters.

              If  the  command  was  successful,  and the terminal is compatible with xterm or is
              sun-cmd, a summary will appear in the title bar, giving  the  local  host:directory
              and  the  remote  host:directory;  this  is  handled  by  the  function zftp_chpwd,
              described below.

              Normally, the host, user and password are internally recorded for later re-opening,
              either  by  a  zfopen  with  no  arguments, or automatically (see below).  With the
              option `-1', no information is stored.  Also, if an  open  command  with  arguments
              failed,  the parameters will not be retained (and any previous parameters will also
              be deleted).  A zfopen on its  own,  or  a  zfopen  -1,  never  alters  the  stored

              Both   zfopen   and   zfanon  (but  not  zfparams)  understand  URLs  of  the  form
              ftp://host/path... as meaning to connect to the host, then change directory to path
              (which must be a directory, not a file).  The `ftp://' can be omitted; the trailing
              `/' is enough to trigger recognition of the path.  Note prefixes other than  `ftp:'
              are  not  recognized, and that all characters after the first slash beyond host are
              significant in path.

       zfanon [ -1 ] host
              Open a connection host for anonymous FTP.  The username used is  `anonymous'.   The
              password (which will be reported the first time) is generated as user@host; this is
              then stored in the shell parameter  $EMAIL_ADDR  which  can  alternatively  be  set
              manually to a suitable string.

   Directory management
       zfcd [ dir ]
       zfcd -
       zfcd old new
              Change  the  current  directory  on the remote server:  this is implemented to have
              many of the features of the shell builtin cd.

              In the first form with dir present, change to the directory dir.  The command `zfcd
              ..'  is  treated specially, so is guaranteed to work on non-UNIX servers (note this
              is handled internally by zftp).  If dir is omitted, has the effect of `zfcd ~'.

              The second form changes to the directory previously current.

              The third form attempts to change the current  directory  by  replacing  the  first
              occurrence of the string old with the string new in the current directory.

              Note  that  in this command, and indeed anywhere a remote filename is expected, the
              string which on the local host corresponds to `~' is converted back to a `~' before
              being  passed  to  the  remote  machine.   This  is  convenient  because of the way
              expansion is performed on the command line before  zfcd  receives  a  string.   For
              example, suppose the command is `zfcd ~/foo'.  The shell will expand this to a full
              path such as `zfcd  /home/user2/pws/foo'.   At  this  stage,  zfcd  recognises  the
              initial path as corresponding to `~' and will send the directory to the remote host
              as ~/foo, so that the `~' will be expanded by the server to the correct remote host
              directory.   Other  named  directories  of the form `~name' are not treated in this

       zfhere Change directory on the remote server to the one corresponding to the current local
              directory,  with  special  handling of `~' as in zfcd.  For example, if the current
              local directory is ~/foo/bar, then zfhere performs the effect of `zfcd ~/foo/bar'.

       zfdir [ -rfd ] [ - ] [ dir-options ] [ dir ]
              Produce a long directory listing.  The arguments dir-options  and  dir  are  passed
              directly to the server and their effect is implementation dependent, but specifying
              a particular remote directory dir  is  usually  possible.   The  output  is  passed
              through  a pager given by the environment variable $PAGER, or `more' if that is not

              The directory is usually cached for re-use.  In fact, two  caches  are  maintained.
              One  is  for  use  when  there is no dir-options or dir, i.e. a full listing of the
              current remote directory; it is flushed when the current remote directory  changes.
              The  other  is kept for repeated use of zfdir with the same arguments; for example,
              repeated use of `zfdir /pub/gnu' will only require the directory to be retrieved on
              the first call.  Alternatively, this cache can be re-viewed with the -r option.  As
              relative directories will confuse zfdir, the -f option can be  used  to  force  the
              cache to be flushed before the directory is listed.  The option -d will delete both
              caches without showing a directory listing; it will also delete the cache  of  file
              names in the current remote directory, if any.

       zfls [ ls-options ] [ dir ]
              List  files  on  the  remote server.  With no arguments, this will produce a simple
              list of file names for the current remote  directory.   Any  arguments  are  passed
              directly to the server.  No pager and no caching is used.

   Status commands
       zftype [ type ]
              With  no  arguments,  show  the  type  of  data to be transferred, usually ASCII or
              binary.  With an argument, change the type: the types `A' or `ASCII' for ASCII data
              and   `B'   or   `BINARY',   `I'   or   `IMAGE'  for  binary  data  are  understood

       zfstat [ -v ]
              Show the status of the current or last connection, as well as the status of some of
              zftp's status variables.  With the -v option, a more verbose listing is produced by
              querying the server for its version of events, too.

   Retrieving files
       The commands for retrieving files all take at least  two  options.  -G  suppresses  remote
       filename  expansion  which  would  otherwise  be  performed (see below for a more detailed
       description of that).  -t attempts to set the modification time of the local file to  that
       of  the  remote  file:  see  the  description  of  the  function  zfrtime  below  for more

       zfget [ -Gtc ] file1 ...
              Retrieve all the listed files file1 ... one at a time from the remote server.  If a
              file  contains a `/', the full name is passed to the remote server, but the file is
              stored locally under the name given by the part after the final `/'.  The option -c
              (cat)  forces  all  files to be sent as a single stream to standard output; in this
              case the -t option has no effect.

       zfuget [ -Gvst ] file1 ...
              As zfget, but only retrieve files where the version on the remote server  is  newer
              (has  a  later  modification time), or where the local file does not exist.  If the
              remote file is older but the files have different sizes, or if the  sizes  are  the
              same  but  the  remote  file  is newer, the user will usually be queried.  With the
              option -s, the command runs silently and will always retrieve the file in either of
              those two cases.  With the option -v, the command prints more information about the
              files while it is working out whether or not to transfer them.

       zfcget [ -Gt ] file1 ...
              As zfget, but  if  any  of  the  local  files  exists,  and  is  shorter  than  the
              corresponding remote file, the command assumes that it is the result of a partially
              completed transfer and attempts to transfer the rest of the file.  This  is  useful
              on a poor connection which keeps failing.

              Note  that  this  requires a commonly implemented, but non-standard, version of the
              FTP protocol, so is not guaranteed to work on all servers.

       zfgcp [ -Gt ] remote-file local-file
       zfgcp [ -Gt ] rfile1 ... ldir
              This retrieves files from the remote server with arguments  behaving  similarly  to
              the cp command.

              In the first form, copy remote-file from the server to the local file local-file.

              In  the  second form, copy all the remote files rfile1 ... into the local directory
              ldir retaining the same basenames.  This assumes UNIX directory semantics.

   Sending files
       zfput [ -r ] file1 ...
              Send all the file1 ... given separately  to  the  remote  server.   If  a  filename
              contains  a  `/',  the full filename is used locally to find the file, but only the
              basename is used for the remote file name.

              With the option -r, if any of the files are directories they are  sent  recursively
              with  all  their subdirectories, including files beginning with `.'.  This requires
              that the remote machine understand UNIX file semantics, since  `/'  is  used  as  a
              directory separator.

       zfuput [ -vs ] file1 ...
              As  zfput, but only send files which are newer than their remote equivalents, or if
              the remote file does not exist.  The logic is the same as for zfuget, but  reversed
              between local and remote files.

       zfcput file1 ...
              As  zfput,  but  if  any  remote  file already exists and is shorter than the local
              equivalent, assume it is the result of an incomplete transfer and send the rest  of
              the  file to append to the existing part.  As the FTP append command is part of the
              standard set, this is in principle more likely to work than zfcget.

       zfpcp local-file remote-file
       zfpcp lfile1 ... rdir
              This sends files to the remote server with arguments behaving similarly to  the  cp

              With two arguments, copy local-file to the server as remote-file.

              With more than two arguments, copy all the local files lfile1 ... into the existing
              remote directory rdir retaining the same basenames.  This  assumes  UNIX  directory

              A  problem  arises if you attempt to use zfpcp lfile1 rdir, i.e. the second form of
              copying but with two arguments, as the command has no simple way of knowing if rdir
              corresponds  to  a directory or a filename.  It attempts to resolve this in various
              ways.  First, if the rdir argument is `.' or `..' or ends in a slash, it is assumed
              to  be  a directory.  Secondly, if the operation of copying to a remote file in the
              first form failed, and the remote server sends back the expected failure  code  553
              and  a reply including the string `Is a directory', then zfpcp will retry using the
              second form.

   Closing the connection
              Close the connection.

   Session management
       zfsession [ -lvod ] [ sessname ]
              Allows you to manage multiple FTP sessions at once.  By default,  connections  take
              place in a session called `default'; by giving the command `zfsession sessname' you
              can change to a new or existing session with  a  name  of  your  choice.   The  new
              session  remembers  its own connection, as well as associated shell parameters, and
              also the host/user parameters set  by  zfparams.   Hence  you  can  have  different
              sessions  set  up  to  connect to different hosts, each remembering the appropriate
              host, user and password.

              With no arguments, zfsession prints the name  of  the  current  session;  with  the
              option  -l  it  lists all sessions which currently exist, and with the option -v it
              gives a verbose list showing the host and directory for  each  session,  where  the
              current  session  is  marked with an asterisk.  With -o, it will switch to the most
              recent previous session.

              With -d, the given session (or else the current one) is removed; everything  to  do
              with  it is completely forgotten.  If it was the only session, a new session called
              `default' is created and made current.  It is safest not to delete  sessions  while
              background commands using zftp are active.

       zftransfer sess1:file1 sess2:file2
              Transfer  files between two sessions; no local copy is made.  The file is read from
              the session sess1 as file1 and written to session sess2 as file  file2;  file1  and
              file2  may  be relative to the current directories of the session.  Either sess1 or
              sess2 may be omitted (though the colon should be retained if there is a possibility
              of  a  colon appearing in the file name) and defaults to the current session; file2
              may be omitted or may end with a slash, in which case the basename of file1 will be
              added.  The sessions sess1 and sess2 must be distinct.

              The  operation  is  performed  using  pipes, so it is required that the connections
              still be valid in a subshell,  which  is  not  the  case  under  versions  of  some
              operating systems, presumably due to a system bug.

       The  two  functions  zfmark and zfgoto allow you to `bookmark' the present location (host,
       user and directory) of the current FTP connection for later use.  The file to be used  for
       storing  and  retrieving bookmarks is given by the parameter $ZFTP_BMFILE; if not set when
       one of the two functions is called, it will be set to the file .zfbkmarks in the directory
       where your zsh startup files live (usually ~).

       zfmark [ bookmark ]
              If  given  an  argument,  mark  the current host, user and directory under the name
              bookmark for later use by zfgoto.  If there is no connection open, use  the  values
              for  the  last connection immediately before it was closed; it is an error if there
              was none.  Any existing bookmark under the same name will be silently replaced.

              If not given an argument, list the existing bookmarks and the points to which  they
              refer in the form user@host:directory; this is the format in which they are stored,
              and the file may be edited directly.

       zfgoto [ -n ] bookmark
              Return to the location given by bookmark, as previously  set  by  zfmark.   If  the
              location has user `ftp' or `anonymous', open the connection with zfanon, so that no
              password is required.  If the user and host parameters match those stored  for  the
              current  session,  if  any,  those will be used, and again no password is required.
              Otherwise a password will be prompted for.

              With the option -n, the bookmark is taken to be a  nickname  stored  by  the  ncftp
              program  in  its  bookmark  file,  which  is assumed to be ~/.ncftp/bookmarks.  The
              function works identically in other ways.  Note that  there  is  no  mechanism  for
              adding or modifying ncftp bookmarks from the zftp functions.

   Other functions
       Mostly, these functions will not be called directly (apart from zfinit), but are described
       here for completeness.  You may wish to alter zftp_chpwd and zftp_progress, in particular.

       zfinit [ -n ]
              As described above, this is used to initialize the zftp function  system.   The  -n
              option should be used if the zftp command is already built into the shell.

       zfautocheck [ -dn ]
              This function is called to implement automatic reopening behaviour, as described in
              more detail below.  The options must appear in the first argument; -n prevents  the
              command  from  changing to the old directory, while -d prevents it from setting the
              variable do_close, which it otherwise does as a flag for automatically closing  the
              connection  after  a  transfer.   The  host  and directory for the last session are
              stored  in  the  variable  $zflastsession,  but  the  internal   host/user/password
              parameters must also be correctly set.

       zfcd_match prefix suffix
              This  performs  matching  for  completion of remote directory names.  If the remote
              server is UNIX, it will attempt to persuade the server to list the remote directory
              with  subdirectories  marked,  which usually works but is not guaranteed.  On other
              hosts it  simply  calls  zfget_match  and  hence  completes  all  files,  not  just
              directories.  On some systems, directories may not even look like filenames.

       zfget_match prefix suffix
              This performs matching for completion of remote filenames.  It caches files for the
              current directory (only) in the shell parameter $zftp_fcache.  It is in the form to
              be  called  by  the  -K  option  of  compctl,  but  also  works  when called from a
              widget-style completion function with prefix and suffix set appropriately.

       zfrglob varname
              Perform remote globbing, as describes in more detail below.  varname is the name of
              a  variable  containing  the pattern to be expanded; if there were any matches, the
              same variable will be set to the expanded set of filenames on return.

       zfrtime lfile rfile [ time ]
              Set the local file lfile to have the same modification  time  as  the  remote  file
              rfile, or the explicit time time in FTP format CCYYMMDDhhmmSS for the GMT timezone.
              This uses the shell's zsh/datetime module to perform the  conversion  from  GMT  to
              local time.

              This function is called every time a connection is opened, or closed, or the remote
              directory changes.  This version alters the title bar  of  an  xterm-compatible  or
              sun-cmd  terminal  emulator  to  reflect the local and remote hostnames and current
              directories.  It works best when combined with the function chpwd.  In  particular,
              a function of the form

                     chpwd() {
                       if [[ -n $ZFTP_USER ]]; then
                         # usual chpwd e.g put host:directory in title bar

              fits in well.

              This  function shows the status of the transfer.  It will not write anything unless
              the output is  going  to  a  terminal;  however,  if  you  transfer  files  in  the
              background,  you  should  turn off progress reports by hand using `zstyle ':zftp:*'
              progress none'.  Note also that if you alter it, any output  must  be  to  standard
              error,  as  standard output may be a file being received.  The form of the progress
              meter, or whether it is used  at  all,  can  be  configured  without  altering  the
              function, as described in the next section.

              This  is  used  to  implement  caching  of  files in the current directory for each
              session separately.  It is used by zfget_match and zfrglob.


       Various styles are available using  the  standard  shell  style  mechanism,  described  in
       zshmodules(1). Briefly, the command `zstyle ':zftp:*' style value ...'.  defines the style
       to have value value; more than one value may be given, although that is not useful in  the
       cases described here.  These values will then be used throughout the zftp function system.
       For more precise control, the first argument, which gives a pattern that matches  contexts
       in  which  the  style  applies,  can  be modified to include a particular function, as for
       example `:zftp:zfget': the style will  then  have  the  given  value  only  in  the  zfget
       function,  and  will  override  styles  set under `:zftp:*'.  Note that only the top level
       function name, as called by the user,  is  used;  calling  of  lower  level  functions  is
       transparent  to  the  user.   Hence  modifications  to the title bar in zftp_chpwd use the
       contexts :zftp:zfopen,  :zftp:zfcd,  etc.,  depending  where  it  was  called  from.   The
       following styles are understood:

              Controls  the  way  that  zftp_progress  reports on the progress of a transfer.  If
              empty, unset, or `none', no progress report is made; if  `bar'  a  growing  bar  of
              inverse  video  is shown; if `percent' (or any other string, though this may change
              in future), the percentage of  the  file  transferred  is  shown.   The  bar  meter
              requires  that  the  width  of the terminal be available via the $COLUMNS parameter
              (normally this is set automatically).  If the size of the file being transferred is
              not  available,  bar  and  percent  meters  will  simply  show  the number of bytes
              transferred so far.

              When zfinit is run, if this style is not defined for the context :zftp:*,  it  will
              be set to `bar'.

       update Specifies  the  minimum  time  interval  between  updates  of the progress meter in
              seconds.  No update is made unless new data has been received, so the  actual  time
              interval is limited only by $ZFTP_TIMEOUT.

              As described for progress, zfinit will force this to default to 1.

              If  set to `1', `yes' or `true', filename generation (globbing) is performed on the
              remote machine instead of by zsh itself; see below.

              If set to `1', `yes' or `true', zftp_chpwd will put  the  remote  host  and  remote
              directory  into  the  titlebar  of terminal emulators such as xterm or sun-cmd that
              allow this.

              As described for progress, zfinit will force this to default to 1.

       chpwd  If set to `1' `yes' or `true', zftp_chpwd will  call  the  function  chpwd  when  a
              connection  is closed.  This is useful if the remote host details were put into the
              terminal title bar by zftp_chpwd and your usual chpwd also modifies the title bar.

              When zfinit is run, it will determine whether chpwd exists and if so  it  will  set
              the default value for the style to 1 if none exists already.

       Note  that  there  is also an associative array zfconfig which contains values used by the
       function system.  This should not be modified or overwritten.

   Remote globbing
       The commands for retrieving files usually perform filename generation (globbing) on  their
       arguments;  this  can  be  turned  off  by  passing the option -G to each of the commands.
       Normally this operates by retrieving a  complete  list  of  files  for  the  directory  in
       question,  then  matching  these  locally  against  the  pattern  supplied.   This has the
       advantage that the full range of zsh  patterns  (respecting  the  setting  of  the  option
       EXTENDED_GLOB)  can be used.  However, it means that the directory part of a filename will
       not be expanded and must be given exactly.  If the remote server does not support the UNIX
       directory semantics, directory handling is problematic and it is recommended that globbing
       only be used within the current directory.  The list of files in the current directory, if
       retrieved,  will  be  cached,  so  that  subsequent globs in the same directory without an
       intervening zfcd are much faster.

       If the remote-glob style (see above) is set, globbing is instead performed on  the  remote
       host:  the  server is asked for a list of matching files.  This is highly dependent on how
       the server is implemented, though typically UNIX servers will provide  support  for  basic
       glob  patterns.  This may in some cases be faster, as it avoids retrieving the entire list
       of directory contents.

   Automatic and temporary reopening
       As described for the zfopen command, a subsequent zfopen with no  parameters  will  reopen
       the  connection to the last host (this includes connections made with the zfanon command).
       Opened in this fashion, the connection starts in the default  remote  directory  and  will
       remain open until explicitly closed.

       Automatic  re-opening  is  also  available.   If  a connection is not currently open and a
       command requiring a connection is given, the last connection is implicitly  reopened.   In
       this case the directory which was current when the connection was closed again becomes the
       current directory (unless, of course, the command given changes it).  Automatic  reopening
       will  also take place if the connection was close by the remote server for whatever reason
       (e.g. a timeout).  It is not available if the -1 option to zfopen or zfanon was used.

       Furthermore, if the command issued is a file transfer, the connection will be closed after
       the  transfer  is  finished, hence providing a one-shot mode for transfers.  This does not
       apply to directory changing or  listing  commands;  for  example  a  zfdir  may  reopen  a
       connection  but  will leave it open.  Also, automatic closure will only ever happen in the
       same command as automatic opening, i.e a zfdir directly followed by  a  zfget  will  never
       close the connection automatically.

       Information  about  the  previous  connection  is  given  by the zfstat function.  So, for
       example, if that reports:

              Session:        default
              Not connected.
              Last session:

       then the command zfget file.txt will  attempt  to  reopen  a  connection  to,
       retrieve the file /pub/textfiles/file.txt, and immediately close the connection again.  On
       the other hand, zfcd ..  will open the connection in the directory /pub and leave it open.

       Note that all the above is local to each session; if you return to a previous session, the
       connection for that session is the one which will be reopened.

       Completion  of  local  and remote files, directories, sessions and bookmarks is supported.
       The older, compctl-style completion is defined when zfinit is called; support for the  new
       widget-based  completion  system is provided in the function Completion/Zsh/Command/_zftp,
       which should be installed with the other functions of  the  completion  system  and  hence
       should automatically be available.