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     getrlimit, setrlimit — control maximum system resource consumption


     Standard C Library (libc, -lc)


     #include <sys/types.h>
     #include <sys/time.h>
     #include <sys/resource.h>

     getrlimit(int resource, struct rlimit *rlp);

     setrlimit(int resource, const struct rlimit *rlp);


     Limits on the consumption of system resources by the current process and each process it
     creates may be obtained with the getrlimit() system call, and set with the setrlimit()
     system call.

     The resource argument is one of the following:

     RLIMIT_AS       The maximum amount (in bytes) of virtual memory the process is allowed to

     RLIMIT_CORE     The largest size (in bytes) core(5) file that may be created.

     RLIMIT_CPU      The maximum amount of cpu time (in seconds) to be used by each process.

     RLIMIT_DATA     The maximum size (in bytes) of the data segment for a process; this defines
                     how far a program may extend its break with the sbrk(2) function.

     RLIMIT_FSIZE    The largest size (in bytes) file that may be created.

     RLIMIT_KQUEUES  The maximum number of kqueues this user id is allowed to create.

     RLIMIT_MEMLOCK  The maximum size (in bytes) which a process may lock into memory using the
                     mlock(2) system call.

     RLIMIT_NOFILE   The maximum number of open files for this process.

     RLIMIT_NPROC    The maximum number of simultaneous processes for this user id.

     RLIMIT_NPTS     The maximum number of pseudo-terminals this user id is allowed to create.

     RLIMIT_RSS      When there is memory pressure and swap is available, prioritize eviction of
                     a process' resident pages beyond this amount (in bytes).  When memory is not
                     under pressure, this rlimit is effectively ignored.  Even when there is
                     memory pressure, the amount of available swap space and some sysctl settings
                     like vm.swap_enabled and vm.swap_idle_enabled can affect what happens to
                     processes that have exceeded this size.

                     Processes that exceed their set RLIMIT_RSS are not signalled or halted.  The
                     limit is merely a hint to the VM daemon to prefer to deactivate pages from
                     processes that have exceeded their set RLIMIT_RSS.

     RLIMIT_SBSIZE   The maximum size (in bytes) of socket buffer usage for this user.  This
                     limits the amount of network memory, and hence the amount of mbufs, that
                     this user may hold at any time.

     RLIMIT_STACK    The maximum size (in bytes) of the stack segment for a process; this defines
                     how far a program's stack segment may be extended.  Stack extension is
                     performed automatically by the system.

     RLIMIT_SWAP     The maximum size (in bytes) of the swap space that may be reserved or used
                     by all of this user id's processes.  This limit is enforced only if bit 1 of
                     the vm.overcommit sysctl is set.  Please see tuning(7) for a complete
                     description of this sysctl.

     RLIMIT_VMEM     An alias for RLIMIT_AS.

     A resource limit is specified as a soft limit and a hard limit.  When a soft limit is
     exceeded, a process might or might not receive a signal.  For example, signals are generated
     when the cpu time or file size is exceeded, but not if the address space or RSS limit is
     exceeded.  A program that exceeds the soft limit is allowed to continue execution until it
     reaches the hard limit, or modifies its own resource limit.  Even reaching the hard limit
     does not necessarily halt a process.  For example, if the RSS hard limit is exceeded,
     nothing happens.

     The rlimit structure is used to specify the hard and soft limits on a resource.

           struct rlimit {
                   rlim_t  rlim_cur;       /* current (soft) limit */
                   rlim_t  rlim_max;       /* maximum value for rlim_cur */

     Only the super-user may raise the maximum limits.  Other users may only alter rlim_cur
     within the range from 0 to rlim_max or (irreversibly) lower rlim_max.

     An “infinite” value for a limit is defined as RLIM_INFINITY.

     Because this information is stored in the per-process information, this system call must be
     executed directly by the shell if it is to affect all future processes created by the shell;
     limit is thus a built-in command to csh(1).

     The system refuses to extend the data or stack space when the limits would be exceeded in
     the normal way: a brk(2) function fails if the data space limit is reached.  When the stack
     limit is reached, the process receives a segmentation fault (SIGSEGV); if this signal is not
     caught by a handler using the signal stack, this signal will kill the process.

     A file I/O operation that would create a file larger that the process' soft limit will cause
     the write to fail and a signal SIGXFSZ to be generated; this normally terminates the
     process, but may be caught.  When the soft cpu time limit is exceeded, a SIGXCPU signal is
     sent to the offending process.

     When most operations would allocate more virtual memory than allowed by the soft limit of
     RLIMIT_AS, the operation fails with ENOMEM and no signal is raised.  A notable exception is
     stack extension, described above.  If stack extension would allocate more virtual memory
     than allowed by the soft limit of RLIMIT_AS, a SIGSEGV signal will be delivered.  The caller
     is free to raise the soft address space limit up to the hard limit and retry the allocation.


     Upon successful completion, the value 0 is returned; otherwise the value -1 is returned and
     the global variable errno is set to indicate the error.


     The getrlimit() and setrlimit() system calls will fail if:

     [EFAULT]           The address specified for rlp is invalid.

     [EPERM]            The limit specified to setrlimit() would have raised the maximum limit
                        value, and the caller is not the super-user.


     csh(1), quota(1), quotactl(2), sigaction(2), sigaltstack(2), sysctl(3), ulimit(3)


     The getrlimit() system call appeared in 4.2BSD.