Provided by: libsystemd-dev_251.4-1ubuntu7_amd64 bug


       sd_journal_get_fd, sd_journal_get_events, sd_journal_get_timeout, sd_journal_process,
       sd_journal_wait, sd_journal_reliable_fd, SD_JOURNAL_NOP, SD_JOURNAL_APPEND,
       SD_JOURNAL_INVALIDATE - Journal change notification interface


       #include <systemd/sd-journal.h>

       int sd_journal_get_fd(sd_journal *j);

       int sd_journal_get_events(sd_journal *j);

       int sd_journal_get_timeout(sd_journal *j, uint64_t *timeout_usec);

       int sd_journal_process(sd_journal *j);

       int sd_journal_wait(sd_journal *j, uint64_t timeout_usec);

       int sd_journal_reliable_fd(sd_journal *j);


       sd_journal_get_fd() returns a file descriptor that may be asynchronously polled in an
       external event loop and is signaled as soon as the journal changes, because new entries or
       files were added, rotation took place, or files have been deleted, and similar. The file
       descriptor is suitable for usage in poll(2). Use sd_journal_get_events() for an events
       mask to watch for. The call takes one argument: the journal context object. Note that not
       all file systems are capable of generating the necessary events for wakeups from this file
       descriptor for changes to be noticed immediately. In particular network files systems do
       not generate suitable file change events in all cases. Cases like this can be detected
       with sd_journal_reliable_fd(), below.  sd_journal_get_timeout() will ensure in these cases
       that wake-ups happen frequently enough for changes to be noticed, although with a certain

       sd_journal_get_events() will return the poll() mask to wait for. This function will return
       a combination of POLLIN and POLLOUT and similar to fill into the ".events" field of struct

       sd_journal_get_timeout() will return a timeout value for usage in poll(). This returns a
       value in microseconds since the epoch of CLOCK_MONOTONIC for timing out poll() in
       timeout_usec. See clock_gettime(2) for details about CLOCK_MONOTONIC. If there is no
       timeout to wait for, this will fill in (uint64_t) -1 instead. Note that poll() takes a
       relative timeout in milliseconds rather than an absolute timeout in microseconds. To
       convert the absolute 'us' timeout into relative 'ms', use code like the following:

           uint64_t t;
           int msec;
           sd_journal_get_timeout(m, &t);
           if (t == (uint64_t) -1)
             msec = -1;
           else {
             struct timespec ts;
             uint64_t n;
             clock_gettime(CLOCK_MONOTONIC, &ts);
             n = (uint64_t) ts.tv_sec * 1000000 + ts.tv_nsec / 1000;
             msec = t > n ? (int) ((t - n + 999) / 1000) : 0;

       The code above does not do any error checking for brevity's sake. The calculated msec
       integer can be passed directly as poll()'s timeout parameter.

       After each poll() wake-up sd_journal_process() needs to be called to process events. This
       call will also indicate what kind of change has been detected (see below; note that
       spurious wake-ups are possible).

       A synchronous alternative for using sd_journal_get_fd(), sd_journal_get_events(),
       sd_journal_get_timeout() and sd_journal_process() is sd_journal_wait(). It will
       synchronously wait until the journal gets changed. The maximum time this call sleeps may
       be controlled with the timeout_usec parameter. Pass (uint64_t) -1 to wait indefinitely.
       Internally this call simply combines sd_journal_get_fd(), sd_journal_get_events(),
       sd_journal_get_timeout(), poll() and sd_journal_process() into one.

       sd_journal_reliable_fd() may be used to check whether the wake-up events from the file
       descriptor returned by sd_journal_get_fd() are known to be quickly triggered. On certain
       file systems where file change events from the OS are not available (such as NFS) changes
       need to be polled for repeatedly, and hence are detected only with a considerable latency.
       This call will return a positive value if the journal changes are detected quickly and
       zero when they need to be polled for. Note that there is usually no need to invoke this
       function directly as sd_journal_get_timeout() will request appropriate timeouts anyway.

       Note that all of the above change notification interfaces do not report changes instantly.
       Latencies are introduced for multiple reasons: as mentioned certain storage backends
       require time-based polling, in other cases wake-ups are optimized by coalescing events,
       and the OS introduces additional IO/CPU scheduling latencies.


       sd_journal_get_fd() returns a valid file descriptor on success or a negative errno-style
       error code.

       sd_journal_get_events() returns a combination of POLLIN, POLLOUT and suchlike on success
       or a negative errno-style error code.

       sd_journal_reliable_fd() returns a positive integer if the file descriptor returned by
       sd_journal_get_fd() will generate wake-ups immediately for all journal changes. Returns 0
       if there might be a latency involved.

       sd_journal_process() and sd_journal_wait() return a negative errno-style error code, or

       •   If SD_JOURNAL_NOP is returned, the journal did not change since the last invocation.

       •   If SD_JOURNAL_APPEND is returned, new entries have been appended to the end of the
           journal. In this case it is sufficient to simply continue reading at the previous end
           location of the journal, to read the newly added entries.

       •   If SD_JOURNAL_INVALIDATE, journal files were added to or removed from the set of
           journal files watched (e.g. due to rotation or vacuuming), and thus entries might have
           appeared or disappeared at arbitrary places in the log stream, possibly before or
           after the previous end of the log stream. If SD_JOURNAL_INVALIDATE is returned,
           live-view UIs that want to reflect on screen the precise state of the log data on disk
           should probably refresh their entire display (relative to the cursor of the log entry
           on the top of the screen). Programs only interested in a strictly sequential stream of
           log data may treat SD_JOURNAL_INVALIDATE the same way as SD_JOURNAL_APPEND, thus
           ignoring any changes to the log view earlier than the old end of the log stream.


       In general, sd_journal_get_fd(), sd_journal_get_events(), and sd_journal_get_timeout() are
       not "async signal safe" in the meaning of signal-safety(7). Nevertheless, only the first
       call to any of those three functions performs unsafe operations, so subsequent calls are

       sd_journal_process() and sd_journal_wait() are not safe.  sd_journal_reliable_fd() is


       All functions listed here are thread-agnostic and only a single specific thread may
       operate on a given object during its entire lifetime. It's safe to allocate multiple
       independent objects and use each from a specific thread in parallel. However, it's not
       safe to allocate such an object in one thread, and operate or free it from any other, even
       if locking is used to ensure these threads don't operate on it at the very same time.

       These APIs are implemented as a shared library, which can be compiled and linked to with
       the libsystemd pkg-config(1) file.


       Iterating through the journal, in a live view tracking all changes:

           /* SPDX-License-Identifier: CC0-1.0 */

           #include <stdio.h>
           #include <string.h>
           #include <systemd/sd-journal.h>

           int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {
             int r;
             sd_journal *j;
             r = sd_journal_open(&j, SD_JOURNAL_LOCAL_ONLY);
             if (r < 0) {
               fprintf(stderr, "Failed to open journal: %s\n", strerror(-r));
               return 1;
             for (;;)  {
               const void *d;
               size_t l;
               r = sd_journal_next(j);
               if (r < 0) {
                 fprintf(stderr, "Failed to iterate to next entry: %s\n", strerror(-r));
               if (r == 0) {
                 /* Reached the end, let's wait for changes, and try again */
                 r = sd_journal_wait(j, (uint64_t) -1);
                 if (r < 0) {
                   fprintf(stderr, "Failed to wait for changes: %s\n", strerror(-r));
               r = sd_journal_get_data(j, "MESSAGE", &d, &l);
               if (r < 0) {
                 fprintf(stderr, "Failed to read message field: %s\n", strerror(-r));
               printf("%.*s\n", (int) l, (const char*) d);
             return 0;

       Waiting with poll() (this example lacks all error checking for the sake of simplicity):

           /* SPDX-License-Identifier: CC0-1.0 */

           #include <poll.h>
           #include <time.h>
           #include <systemd/sd-journal.h>

           int wait_for_changes(sd_journal *j) {
             uint64_t t;
             int msec;
             struct pollfd pollfd;

             sd_journal_get_timeout(j, &t);
             if (t == (uint64_t) -1)
               msec = -1;
             else {
               struct timespec ts;
               uint64_t n;
               clock_gettime(CLOCK_MONOTONIC, &ts);
               n = (uint64_t) ts.tv_sec * 1000000 + ts.tv_nsec / 1000;
               msec = t > n ? (int) ((t - n + 999) / 1000) : 0;

             pollfd.fd = sd_journal_get_fd(j);
    = sd_journal_get_events(j);
             poll(&pollfd, 1, msec);
             return sd_journal_process(j);


       systemd(1), sd-journal(3), sd_journal_open(3), sd_journal_next(3), poll(2),