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     wi — Lucent Hermes, and Intersil PRISM IEEE 802.11 driver


     To compile this driver into the kernel, place the following lines in your kernel
     configuration file:

           device wi
           device wlan

     Alternatively, to load the driver as a module at boot time, place the following line in



     This driver is scheduled for removal prior to the release of FreeBSD 13.0


     The wi driver provides support for 802.11b wireless network adapters based around the Lucent
     Hermes, Intersil PRISM-II, Intersil PRISM-2.5, and Intersil Prism-3 chipsets.  All chipsets
     provide a similar interface to the driver.  Only the Intersil chipsets support access point
     operation or WPA.  Very old versions of firmware are not supported at all.  Older versions
     of the firmware that are supported may severely limit the ability to use these cards in
     newer networks.  Only relatively recent versions of Intersil firmware supports WPA.  See
     CAVEATS for details.  All host/device interaction is via programmed I/O, even on those cards
     that support a DMA interface.

     For more information on configuring this device, see ifconfig(8).

     wi supports station, adhoc, adhoc-demo, hostap, and monitor mode operation.  Only one
     virtual interface may be configured at a time.  For more information on configuring this
     device, see ifconfig(8).

     Cards supported by the wi driver come in a variety of packages, though the most common are
     of the PCMCIA type.  In many cases, the PCI version of a wireless card is simply a PCMCIA
     card bundled with a PCI adapter.  The PCI adapters come in two flavors: true PCMCIA bridges
     and dumb PCMCIA bridges.  A true PCMCIA bridge (such as those sold by Lucent) will attach as
     a real PCMCIA controller.  The wireless card will then attach to the PCMCIA bus.  Wireless
     cards in PCMCIA slots may be inserted and ejected on the fly.

     A dumb bridge, on the other hand, does not show up as a true PCMCIA bus.  The wireless card
     will simply appear to the host as a normal PCI device and will not require any PCMCIA
     support.  Cards in this type of adapter should only be removed when the machine is powered

     The following cards are among those supported by the wi driver:

     Card                                  Chip          Bus
     3Com AirConnect 3CRWE777A             Prism-II      PCI
     Accton airDirect WN3301                             PCMCIA
     ACTIONTEC HWC01170                    Prism-2.5     PCMCIA
     Adaptech ANW-8030                     Prism-3       PCMCIA
     Addtron AWP-100                       Prism-II      PCMCIA
     Adtec Adlink/340C                     Prism-II      PCMCIA
     Airvast WN 100                        Prism-3       PCMCIA
     Airway 802.11 Adapter                               PCMCIA
     Agere Orinoco                         Hermes        PCMCIA
     Allied Telesis WR211PCM               Prism-II      PCMCIA
     ArTem OnAir                           Prism?        PCMCIA
     Asus WL100                            Prism-2.5     PCMCIA
     Avaya Wireless                        Prism-II      PCMCIA
     Bay eMobility 11B                     Prism-2.5?    PCMCIA
     Blue Concentric Circle WL-379F        Prism-II      CF
     BreezeNet Wireless                    Prism-II      PCMCIA
     Buffalo WLI-PCM-S11                   Prism-II      PCMCIA
     Buffalo WLI-PCM-L11G                  Hermes        PCMCIA
     Buffalo WLI-CF-S11G                   Prism-II      CF
     Buffalo WLI2-CF-S11G                  Prism 2.5     CF
     Cabletron RoamAbout                   Hermes        PCMCIA
     Compaq Agency NC5004                  Prism-II      PCMCIA
     Compaq WL100                          Prism-II      PCMCIA
     Compaq WL110                          Hermes        PCMCIA
     Compaq WL200                          Prism-II      PCMCIA
     Contec FLEXLAN/FX-DS110-PCC           Prism-II      PCMCIA
     Corega PCC-11                         Prism-II      PCMCIA
     Corega PCCA-11                        Prism-II      PCMCIA
     Corega PCCB-11                        Prism-II      PCMCIA
     Corega CGWLPCIA11                     Prism-II      PCI
     Dell TrueMobile 1150                  Hermes        PCMCIA
     Dlink Air 660                         Prism-II      PCMCIA
     Dlink DWL520                          Prism-2.5     PCI
     Dlink DWL650                          Prism-2.5     PCMCIA
     ELECOM Air@Hawk/LD-WL11/PCC                         PCMCIA
     ELSA MC-11                                          PCMCIA
     ELSA XI300                            Prism-II      PCMCIA
     ELSA XI325                            Prism-2.5     PCMCIA
     ELSA APDL325                          Prism-2.5     PCMCIA
     ELSA XI330                            Prism-3       PCMCIA
     ELSA XI800                            Prism-II      CF
     EMTAC A2424i                          Prism-II      PCMCIA
     Farallon Skyline                      Prism-II      PCMCIA
     Gemtek WL-311                         Prism-2.5     PCMCIA
     Hawking Technology WE110P             Prism-2.5     PCMCIA
     Home Wireless Networks                Prism-II      PCMCIA
     IBM High Rate Wireless                Hermes        PCMCIA
     ICOM SL-1100                          Prism-II      PCMCIA
     I-O DATA WN-B11/PCM                   Prism-II      PCMCIA
     Intersil Prism II                     Prism-II      PCMCIA
     Intersil Mini-PCI                     Prism-2.5     PCI
     Intersil ISL37100P                    Prism-3       PCMCIA
     Intersil ISL37110P                    Prism-3       PCMCIA
     Intersil ISL37300P                    Prism-3       PCMCIA
     Laneed Wireless                                     PCMCIA
     Linksys Instant Wireless WPC11        Prism-II      PCMCIA
     Linksys Instant Wireless WPC11 2.5    Prism-2.5     PCMCIA
     Linksys Instant Wireless WPC11 3.0    Prism-3       PCMCIA
     Linksys WCF11                         Prism-3       PCMCIA
     Linksys WCF12                         Prism-3       CF
     Lucent WaveLAN                        Hermes        PCMCIA
     Melco Airconnect                      Prism-II      PCMCIA
     Microsoft MN-520 WLAN                 Prism-II      PCMCIA
     NANOSPEED ROOT-RZ2000                 Prism-II      PCMCIA
     NCR WaveLAN/IEEE 802.11                             PCMCIA
     NDC/Sohoware NCP130                   Prism-II      PCI
     NEC CMZ-RT-WP                         Prism-II      PCMCIA
     NEC PK-WL001                          Lucent        PCMCIA
     NEC PC-WL/11C                         Prism-II      PCMCIA
     Netgear MA311                         Prism-2.5     PCI
     Netgear MA401                         Prism-II/2.5  PCMCIA
     Netgear MA401RA                       Prism-II      PCMCIA
     Netgear MA701                         Prism-II      CF
     NOKIA C020 WLAN                       Prism-II      PCMCIA
     NOKIA C110 WLAN                       Prism-2.5     PCMCIA
     NTT-ME 11Mbps Wireless LAN            Prism-II      PCMCIA
     Planex GeoWave/GW-NS110               Prism-II      PCMCIA
     Planex GW-NS11H                       Prism-II      PCMCIA
     Proxim Harmony                        Prism-II      PCMCIA
     Proxim RangeLAN-DS                    Prism-II      PCMCIA
     Samsung MagicLAN SWL-2000N            Prism-II      PCMCIA
     SENAO SL-2511CD                       Prism-3       PCMCIA
     Siemens SpeedStream SS1021            Prism-II      PCMCIA
     Siemens SpeedStream SS1021            Prism-3       PCMCIA
     SMC 2532W-B                           Prism-II      PCMCIA
     SMC 2602 EZ Connect (3.3V)            Prism-II      PCI or PCMCIA
     SMC 2632 EZ Connect                   Prism-II      PCMCIA
     Socket Low Power WLAN-CF              Prism-II      CF
     Sony PCWA-C100                        Lucent        PCMCIA
     Sony PEGA-WL110                       Prism-2.5     PCMCIA
     TDK LAK-CD011WL                       Prism-II      PCMCIA
     Toshiba Wireless LAN Card             Prism-II      PCMCIA
     U.S. Robotics Wireless Card 2410      Prism-II      PCMCIA
     YIS YWL-11B                           Prism-II      PCMCIA

     Several vendors sell PCI adapters built around the PLX Technology 9050 or 9052 chip.  The
     following such adapters are supported or expected to work:

     3Com AirConnect 3CRWE777A (3.3V)
     Belkin F5D6000 (a rebadged WL11000P)
     Eumitcom WL11000P
     Global Sun Technology GL24110P (untested)
     Global Sun Technology GL24110P02
     LinkSys WDT11 (a rebadged GL24110P02)
     Netgear MA301
     US Robotics 2415 (rebadged WL11000P)
     Wisecom Wireless LAN PCI Adapter

     The following adapters have the same model numbers as those listed above, but might not work
     if the actual card is after the change away from the Prism family:

     DLink DWL520


     Join an existing BSS network (ie: connect to an access point):

           ifconfig wlan create wlandev wi0 inet \
               netmask 0xffffff00

     Join a specific BSS network with network name “my_net”:

           ifconfig wlan create wlandev wi0 inet \
               netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_net

     Join a specific BSS network with WEP encryption:

           ifconfig wlan create wlandev wi0 inet \
               netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_net \
               wepmode on wepkey 0x8736639624 weptxkey 1

     Join a Lucent legacy demo ad-hoc network with network name “my_net”:

           ifconfig wlan create wlandev wi0 wlanmode ahdemo \
               inet netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_net

     Join/create an IBSS network with network name “my_net”:

           ifconfig wlan create wlandev wi0 wlanmode adhoc wi0 \
               inet netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_net

     Create a host-based access point (Prism only):

           ifconfig wlan create wlandev wi0 wlanmode hostap \
               inet netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_ap

     Create a host-based access point with WEP enabled (Prism only) and plumb it into bridge to

           ifconfig wlan0 create wlandev wi0 wlanmode hostap \
               inet netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_ap \
               wepmode on wepkey 0x1234567890 weptxkey 1
           ifconfig bridge0 create
           ifconfig bridge0 addm wlan0 addm fxp0 up

     This will give you the same functionality as an access point.


     wi%d: init failed  The WaveLAN card failed to become ready after an initialization command
     was issued.

     wi%d: failed to allocate %d bytes on NIC  The driver was unable to allocate memory for
     transmit frames in the NIC's on-board RAM.  This can also be an indication of an incorrectly
     configured interrupt.

     wi%d: device timeout  The WaveLAN card failed to generate an interrupt to acknowledge a
     transmit command.


     intro(4), pccard(4), pccbb(4), pcic(4), wlan(4), wlan_ccmp(4), wlan_tkip(4), wlan_wep(4),
     wlan_xauth(4), hostapd(8), ifconfig(8), wpa_supplicant(8).

     HCF Light programming specification,


     The wi device driver first appeared in FreeBSD 3.0.


     The original wi driver was written by Bill Paul <>.  This man page
     comes from OpenBSD.


     The driver will reject devices with old firmware to avoid dealing with numerous defects.
     Unfortunately the driver does not support downloading new firmware to the card so if new
     firmware is needed users will have to boot a different system to accomplish this.

     Intersil Prism cards must have firmware versions 0.8.0 or later and version 1.7.0 or later
     are required to support functionality such as WPA.  Some users of Prism-II and 2.5 based
     cards report that station firmware version 1.3.4 works better for them in hostap than 1.4.9.
     Older versions of the Prism station firmware have a number of issues with hostap mode.  The
     IBSS/adhoc mode appears to work well on station firmware 1.3.1 and later.  The IBSS/adhoc
     mode appears to have problems for some people with older versions of station firmware.

     Lucent cards prior to firmware version 6.0.6 do not implement IBSS mode and are not

     Prior versions of wi supported Symbol firmware.  That support has been removed due to
     persistent problems with this firmware as well as getting proper documentation on this

     Hermes 2 and Hermes 3 chips are not supported by this driver.

     Here's the above requirements in the form of a table

     Firmware       Minimum    WPA        Host AP    Adhoc/IBSS
     Prism II/2.5   0.8.0      1.7.0      1.3.4      1.3.1
     Prism 3        0.8.0      1.7.0      1.4.9      1.3.1
     Hermes         6.0.6      none       none       6.0.6
     Symbol         none       none       none       none


     Not all the new messages are documented here, and many of them are indications of transient
     errors that are not indications of serious problems.