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     keyboard — pc keyboard interface


     The PC keyboard is used as the console character input device.  The keyboard is owned by the
     current virtual console.  To switch between the virtual consoles use the sequence ALT+Fn,
     which means hold down ALT and press one of the function keys.  The virtual console with the
     same number as the function key is then selected as the current virtual console and given
     exclusive use of the keyboard and display.

     The console allows entering values that are not physically present on the keyboard via a
     special keysequence.  To use this facility press and hold down ALT, then enter a decimal
     number from 0-255 via the numerical keypad, then release ALT.  The entered value is then
     used as the ASCII value for one character.  This way it is possible to enter any ASCII
     value, not present on the keyboard.  The console driver also includes a history function.
     It is activated by pressing the scroll-lock key.  This holds the display, and enables the
     cursor arrows for scrolling up and down through the last scrolled out lines.

     The keyboard is configurable to suit the individual user and the different national layout.

     The keys on the keyboard can have any of the following functions:

     Normal key    Enter the ASCII value associated with the key.
     Function key  Enter a string of ASCII values.
     Switch Key    Switch virtual console.
     Modifier Key  Change the meaning of another key.

     The keyboard is seen as a number of keys numbered from 1 to n.  This number is often
     referred to as the "scancode" for a given key.  The number of the key is transmitted as an 8
     bit char with bit 7 as 0 when a key is pressed, and the number with bit 7 as 1 when
     released.  This makes it possible to make the mapping of the keys fully configurable.

     The meaning of every key is programmable via the PIO_KEYMAP ioctl call, that takes a
     structure keymap_t as argument.  The layout of this structure is as follows:

                           struct keymap {
                                   u_short n_keys;
                                   struct key_t {
                                           u_char map[NUM_STATES];
                                           u_char spcl;
                                           u_char flgs;
                                   } key[NUM_KEYS];

     The field n_keys tells the system how many keydefinitions (scancodes) follows.  Each
     scancode is then specified in the key_t substructure.

     Each scancode can be translated to any of 8 different values, depending on the shift,
     control, and alt state.  These eight possibilities are represented by the map array, as
     shown below:

      scan                          cntrl          alt    alt   cntrl
      code     base   shift  cntrl  shift   alt   shift  cntrl  shift
      map[n]      0       1      2      3     4       5      6      7
      ----     ------------------------------------------------------
      0x1E      'a'     'A'   0x01   0x01    'a'    'A'   0x01   0x01

     This is the default mapping for the key labelled 'A' which normally has scancode 0x1E.  The
     eight states are as shown, giving the 'A' key its normal behavior.  The spcl field is used
     to give the key "special" treatment, and is interpreted as follows.  Each bit corresponds to
     one of the states above.  If the bit is 0 the key emits the number defined in the
     corresponding map[] entry.  If the bit is 1 the key is "special".  This means it does not
     emit anything; instead it changes the "state".  That means it is a shift, control, alt,
     lock, switch-screen, function-key or no-op key.  The bitmap is backwards i.e., 7 for base, 6
     for shift etc.

     The flgs field defines if the key should react on caps-lock (1), num-lock (2), both (3) or
     ignore both (0).

     The kbdcontrol(1) utility is used to load such a description into/outof the kernel at
     runtime.  This makes it possible to change the key assignments at runtime, or more important
     to get (GIO_KEYMAP ioctl) the exact key meanings from the kernel (e.g. used by the X

     The function keys can be programmed using the SETFKEY ioctl call.

     This ioctl takes an argument of the type fkeyarg_t:

                           struct fkeyarg {
                                   u_short keynum;
                                   char    keydef[MAXFK];
                                   char    flen;

     The field keynum defines which function key that is programmed.  The array keydef should
     contain the new string to be used (MAXFK long), and the length should be entered in flen.

     The GETFKEY ioctl call works in a similar manner, except it returns the current setting of

     The function keys are numbered like this:

                   F1-F12                  key 1 - 12
                   Shift F1-F12            key 13 - 24
                   Ctrl F1-F12             key 25 - 36
                   Ctrl+shift F1-F12       key 37 - 48

                   Home                    key 49
                   Up arrow                key 50
                   Page Up                 key 51
                   (keypad) -              key 52
                   Left arrow              key 53
                   (keypad) 5              key 54
                   Right arrow             key 55
                   (keypad) +              key 56
                   End                     key 57
                   Down arrow              key 58
                   Page down               key 59
                   Insert                  key 60
                   Delete                  key 61

                   Left window             key 62
                   Right window            key 63
                   Menu                    key 64

     The kbdcontrol(1) utility also allows changing these values at runtime.


     Søren Schmidt <>