Provided by: zfsutils-linux_2.1.5-1ubuntu6_amd64 bug


     spl — parameters of the SPL kernel module


     spl_kmem_cache_kmem_threads=4 (uint)
             The number of threads created for the spl_kmem_cache task queue.  This task queue is
             responsible for allocating new slabs for use by the kmem caches.  For the majority
             of systems and workloads only a small number of threads are required.

     spl_kmem_cache_reclaim=0 (uint)
             When this is set it prevents Linux from being able to rapidly reclaim all the memory
             held by the kmem caches.  This may be useful in circumstances where it's preferable
             that Linux reclaim memory from some other subsystem first.  Setting this will
             increase the likelihood out of memory events on a memory constrained system.

     spl_kmem_cache_obj_per_slab=8 (uint)
             The preferred number of objects per slab in the cache.  In general, a larger value
             will increase the caches memory footprint while decreasing the time required to
             perform an allocation.  Conversely, a smaller value will minimize the footprint and
             improve cache reclaim time but individual allocations may take longer.

     spl_kmem_cache_max_size=32 (64-bit) or 4 (32-bit) (uint)
             The maximum size of a kmem cache slab in MiB.  This effectively limits the maximum
             cache object size to spl_kmem_cache_max_size/spl_kmem_cache_obj_per_slab.

             Caches may not be created with object sized larger than this limit.

     spl_kmem_cache_slab_limit=16384 (uint)
             For small objects the Linux slab allocator should be used to make the most efficient
             use of the memory.  However, large objects are not supported by the Linux slab and
             therefore the SPL implementation is preferred.  This value is used to determine the
             cutoff between a small and large object.

             Objects of size spl_kmem_cache_slab_limit or smaller will be allocated using the
             Linux slab allocator, large objects use the SPL allocator.  A cutoff of 16K was
             determined to be optimal for architectures using 4K pages.

     spl_kmem_alloc_warn=32768 (uint)
             As a general rule kmem_alloc() allocations should be small, preferably just a few
             pages, since they must by physically contiguous.  Therefore, a rate limited warning
             will be printed to the console for any kmem_alloc() which exceeds a reasonable

             The default warning threshold is set to eight pages but capped at 32K to accommodate
             systems using large pages.  This value was selected to be small enough to ensure the
             largest allocations are quickly noticed and fixed.  But large enough to avoid
             logging any warnings when a allocation size is larger than optimal but not a serious
             concern.  Since this value is tunable, developers are encouraged to set it lower
             when testing so any new largish allocations are quickly caught.  These warnings may
             be disabled by setting the threshold to zero.

     spl_kmem_alloc_max=KMALLOC_MAX_SIZE/4 (uint)
             Large kmem_alloc() allocations will fail if they exceed KMALLOC_MAX_SIZE.
             Allocations which are marginally smaller than this limit may succeed but should
             still be avoided due to the expense of locating a contiguous range of free pages.
             Therefore, a maximum kmem size with reasonable safely margin of 4x is set.
             kmem_alloc() allocations larger than this maximum will quickly fail.  vmem_alloc()
             allocations less than or equal to this value will use kmalloc(), but shift to
             vmalloc() when exceeding this value.

     spl_kmem_cache_magazine_size=0 (uint)
             Cache magazines are an optimization designed to minimize the cost of allocating
             memory.  They do this by keeping a per-cpu cache of recently freed objects, which
             can then be reallocated without taking a lock.  This can improve performance on
             highly contended caches.  However, because objects in magazines will prevent
             otherwise empty slabs from being immediately released this may not be ideal for low
             memory machines.

             For this reason, spl_kmem_cache_magazine_size can be used to set a maximum magazine
             size.  When this value is set to 0 the magazine size will be automatically
             determined based on the object size.  Otherwise magazines will be limited to 2-256
             objects per magazine (i.e per cpu).  Magazines may never be entirely disabled in
             this implementation.

     spl_hostid=0 (ulong)
             The system hostid, when set this can be used to uniquely identify a system.  By
             default this value is set to zero which indicates the hostid is disabled.  It can be
             explicitly enabled by placing a unique non-zero value in /etc/hostid.

     spl_hostid_path=/etc/hostid (charp)
             The expected path to locate the system hostid when specified.  This value may be
             overridden for non-standard configurations.

     spl_panic_halt=0 (uint)
             Cause a kernel panic on assertion failures.  When not enabled, the thread is halted
             to facilitate further debugging.

             Set to a non-zero value to enable.

     spl_taskq_kick=0 (uint)
             Kick stuck taskq to spawn threads.  When writing a non-zero value to it, it will
             scan all the taskqs.  If any of them have a pending task more than 5 seconds old, it
             will kick it to spawn more threads.  This can be used if you find a rare deadlock
             occurs because one or more taskqs didn't spawn a thread when it should.

     spl_taskq_thread_bind=0 (int)
             Bind taskq threads to specific CPUs.  When enabled all taskq threads will be
             distributed evenly across the available CPUs.  By default, this behavior is disabled
             to allow the Linux scheduler the maximum flexibility to determine where a thread
             should run.

     spl_taskq_thread_dynamic=1 (int)
             Allow dynamic taskqs.  When enabled taskqs which set the TASKQ_DYNAMIC flag will by
             default create only a single thread.  New threads will be created on demand up to a
             maximum allowed number to facilitate the completion of outstanding tasks.  Threads
             which are no longer needed will be promptly destroyed.  By default this behavior is
             enabled but it can be disabled to aid performance analysis or troubleshooting.

     spl_taskq_thread_priority=1 (int)
             Allow newly created taskq threads to set a non-default scheduler priority.  When
             enabled, the priority specified when a taskq is created will be applied to all
             threads created by that taskq.  When disabled all threads will use the default Linux
             kernel thread priority.  By default, this behavior is enabled.

     spl_taskq_thread_sequential=4 (int)
             The number of items a taskq worker thread must handle without interruption before
             requesting a new worker thread be spawned.  This is used to control how quickly
             taskqs ramp up the number of threads processing the queue.  Because Linux thread
             creation and destruction are relatively inexpensive a small default value has been
             selected.  This means that normally threads will be created aggressively which is
             desirable.  Increasing this value will result in a slower thread creation rate which
             may be preferable for some configurations.

     spl_max_show_tasks=512 (uint)
             The maximum number of tasks per pending list in each taskq shown in
             /proc/spl/taskq{,-all}.  Write 0 to turn off the limit.  The proc file will walk the
             lists with lock held, reading it could cause a lock-up if the list grow too large
             without limiting the output.  "(truncated)" will be shown if the list is larger than
             the limit.