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       ods-kasp - OpenDNSSEC kasp specification




       The  kasp  file  describes the parameters of the DNSSEC Key and Signing Policy (KASP), the
       policy used to sign zones. Each policy comprises a series of parameters  that  define  the
       way the zone is signed.

       KASP Parameters
              A policy has a set of common parameters to identify the policy.

       Policy Name
              The  name  is  used to link a policy to a zone that needs to be signed. Each policy
              must have a unique name. The policy named "default" is special, as it is associated
              with all zones that do not have a policy explicitly associated with them.

       Policy Description
              A policy can have a description associated with it.

       Signatures Parameters
              This section lists the parameters for the signatures created using the policy.

       Signature Resign Interval
              This is the interval between runs of the signer. For example, a zone that has a Re-
              sign Interval of PT2H (2 hours) is handled by the signer every 2 hours.

       Signature Refresh Interval
              The Refresh Interval is describing  when  a  signature  should  be  refreshed.   As
              signatures  are  typically  valid for much longer than the interval between runs of
              the signer, there is no need to regenerate the signatures each time the  signer  is
              running.  This  means  that  the  Re-sign Interval must be smaller than the Refresh
              Interval.  In order to make refreshing signatures possible,  the  Re-sign  Interval
              should  be  at  least  half  of the Refresh Interval. In the case a signer runs and
              detects that there is no change  to  the  data  being  signed,  signatures  may  be
              refreshed.   A  signature  will  be  refreshed  when  the  time until the signature
              expiration is closer than the Refresh Interval.

       Signature Validity
              The Signature Validity describes how long  the  signatures  are  valid  for.   This
              parameter groups two elements of information. The Default Signature Validity is the
              validity interval for all RRSIG records except  those  related  to  NSEC  or  NSEC3
              records. For these records, the validity period is given by the value of the Denial
              Signature Validity.

       Signature Jitter
              The Signature Jitter (j) is the value added to or subtracted  from  the  expiration
              time  of signatures to ensure that not all signatures expire at the same time.  The
              actual value of the jitter is a  random  value,  uniformly  ranging  between  Minus
              Signature  Jitter  and  Signature Jitter [-j...j]. This value is added to Signature
              Validity to determine the signature expiration time.

       Signature Inception Offset
              This is a duration subtracted from the time at which a record is signed to give the
              inception  time  of  the  RRSIG  record.  This  is required to allow for clock skew
              between the signing system and the  system  on  which  the  signature  is  checked.
              Without  it,  the  possibility  exists  that  the  checking system could retrieve a
              signature whose start time is later than the current time. The relationship between
              these elements is shown below in Figure 1.

               Inception             Signing                             Expiration
                  time                  time                                time
                  |                     |                           |       |       |
                  |                     |                           |       |       |
                                                                    [  +/- Jitter   ]

                  |  Inception offset   |                                   |
                  |<------------------->|        Validity Interval          |
                  |                     |<--------------------------------->|

               Inception             Signing reuse   reuse   new         Expiration
                  time                  time                    signature   time
                  |                     |       |       |       |           |
                  |                     |       |       |       |           |
                                         <-----> <-----> <----->
                                           Re-sign Interval

                                                           |Refresh Interval|
                                                           |                |

                                 Figure 1: Signature Timing Parameters

       Authenticated Denial of Existence Parameters
              Authenticated  denial  of existence - proving that domain names do not exist in the
              zone - is discussed in this section.  Below, the list of the  parameters  is  given
              for creating NSEC or NSEC3 records using the policy.

       NSEC or NSEC3
              If  the  NSEC  scheme is used to implement authenticated denial of existence, there
              are no record elements we can tune. If NSEC3 [RFC5155] is used, there are some more

       NSEC3 Opt-Out
              Whether  to  enable  or  disable "opt-out". This is an optimisation that means that
              NSEC3 records are only created for authoritative data or  for  secure  delegations;
              insecure  delegations  have  no  NSEC3  records.  For zones where a majority of the
              entries are delegations that are not signed - typically  TLDs  during  the  take-up
              phase of DNSSEC - this reduces the number of DNSSEC records in the zone.

       NSEC3 Re-salt Interval
              The is the interval between generating new salt values for the hashing algorithm.

       NSEC3 Hash Parameters
              The NSEC3 Hash Parameters tells parameters related to NSEC3.

       NSEC3 Hash Algorithm
              The  NSEC3 Hash Algorithm tells what hashing algorithm should be used to create the
              NSEC3 records.

       NSEC3 Hash Iterations
              The NSEC3 Hash Iterations shows how many iterations of the hash function should  be
              performed over the original owner name.

       NSEC3 Hash Salt Length
              The NSEC3 Hash Salt Length provides the length of the salt value to be generated.

       Key Parameters
              This  section  covers parameters related to keys.  There are a number of parameters
              relating to both zone-signing keys (ZSK) and key-signing keys (KSK).

              This is the time-to-live value for the DNSKEY resource records.

       Key Retire Safety
              The Key Retire Safety is the retire safety margin for the keys. This interval is  a
              safety  margin  added  to  calculated timing values to ensure that keys are retired
              without there being a chance of signatures created with the keys  being  considered

       Key Publish Safety
              The  Key  Publish  is the publish safety margins for the keys. This interval is the
              safety margin added to calculated timing values to ensure that keys  are  published
              and  without  there  being  a  chance  of  signatures  created  with the keys being
              considered invalid.

       Key Sharing
              If multiple zones are associated with a policy, a key may be shared between  zones.
              For  example,  if you have 100 zones then you will only use one set of keys instead
              of 100 sets.  This will safe space in your HSM.

       Key Purging Interval
              Key Purging is the event where keys marked as dead (as defined by draft-ietf-dnsop-
              dnssec-  key-timing  [key-timing])  will  be  automatically  purged  from  the  key
              database. The Key Purging Interval is the interval of when Key Purging is done.

       KSK Parameters
              There are parameters specific for the KSK.

       KSK Algorithm
              The KSK Algorithm determines the algorithm used for KSKs.

       KSK Lifetime
              The KSK Lifetime determines how long the KSK is used  for  before  it  is  must  be

       KSK Repository
              The KSK Repository determines the location of the KSKs.

       Manual KSK Rollover
              It  may  be  desirable  to  force that a key rollover will only be initiated on the
              command by the operator. Note that if KSK rollover is done automatically, there  is
              currently  still  a  step  for  the  KSK  that needs manual intervention, where the
              corresponding DS record for the key needs to be published to the parent before  the
              rollover is completed.

       ZSK Parameters
              The  same  parameters  for the KSK are available for the ZSK. The split between the
              series of parameters is that with a ZSK/KSK Split Signing Scheme,  the  values  for
              the parameters may be different.

       ZSK Algorithm
              The ZSK Algorithm determines the algorithm used for ZSKs.

       ZSK Lifetime
              The  ZSK  Lifetime  determines  how  long  the ZSK is used for before it is must be

       ZSK Repository
              The ZSK Repository determines the location of the ZSKs.

       Manual ZSK Rollover
              The ZSK rollover will be fully automatic if Manual ZSK Rollover is disabled.

       Zone Parameters
              General information concerning the zones is described here.

       Propagation Delay
              The Propagation Delay is the amount of time needed for information changes  at  the
              master  server  for  the  zone  to  work  its  way  through  to  all  the secondary

       SOA Parameters
              These parameters are necessary for maintaining the SOA record in the  signed  zone.
              These values will override values set for the SOA record in the input zone.

       SOA TTL
              This is the time-to-live of the SOA record.

              This is value for the MINIMUM RDATA element in the SOA record.

       SOA Serial
              This represents the format of the serial number in the signed zone.  This is one of
              the following:
                counter:   Use an increasing counter (but use the serial from the  unsigned zone
                         if possible).

                datecounter:   Use increasing counter in YYYYMMDDxx format (xx is the number of
                               increments within each day, starting at 00).

                unixtime:   The serial number is set to the "Unix time" (seconds since 00:00 on
                            1 January 1970 (UTC)) at which the signer is run.

                keep:   Keep the serial from the unsigned zone (do not re-sign unless it has been
                        incremented).  This way, no  signed  zone  is  created  unless  the  zone
                        explicitly initiated a zone update.

       Parent Zone Parameters
              If  a DNSSEC zone is in a chain of trust, digest information about the KSKs used in
              the zone will be stored in DS records in the parent zone. To  properly  roll  keys,
              timing information about the parent zone must be configured.

       Propagation Delay
              The  Propagation Delay parameter related to the parent zone is the interval between
              the time a new KSK is published in the zone and the time that the DS record appears
              in  the  parent  zone.  In  reality,  this  is  a variable value. The value for the
              Propagation Delay in the policy should be a estimate.

       DS TTL This represents the DS time-to-live. The DS TTL should be set to the TTL of the  DS
              record in the parent zone.

       SOA Parameters
              The  SOA Parameters related to the parent zone gives information about the parent's
              SOA record.  These are necessary to calculate the timings  in  particular  rollover

       SOA TTL
              This should be set to the time-to-live of the parent zone SOA record.

              This should be set to the value of the MINIMUM RDATA element in the parent zone SOA


       ods-control(8),   ods-enforcerd(8),   ods-enforcer(8),   ods-signerd(8),    pds-signer(8),
       ods-ksmutil(1),    ods-kaspcheck(1),   ods-timing(5),   ods-hsmutil(1),   ods-hsmspeed(1),
       opendnssec(7), ISO 8601,


       OpenDNSSEC  was  written  by   NLnet   Labs   as   part   of   the   OpenDNSSEC   project.