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       rsyncd.conf - configuration file for rsync in daemon mode



       The online version of this manpage (that includes cross-linking of topics) is available at


       The rsyncd.conf file is the runtime configuration file for rsync  when  run  as  an  rsync

       The rsyncd.conf file controls authentication, access, logging and available modules.


       The  file  consists of modules and parameters. A module begins with the name of the module
       in square brackets and continues until the next module begins.  Modules contain parameters
       of the form name = value.

       The  file  is  line-based --  that  is,  each  newline-terminated line represents either a
       comment, a module name or a parameter.

       Only the first equals sign in a parameter is significant. Whitespace before or  after  the
       first  equals  sign  is discarded. Leading, trailing and internal whitespace in module and
       parameter names is irrelevant. Leading and trailing whitespace in  a  parameter  value  is
       discarded. Internal whitespace within a parameter value is retained verbatim.

       Any  line  beginning  with a hash (#) is ignored, as are lines containing only whitespace.
       (If a hash occurs after anything other than leading whitespace, it is considered a part of
       the line's content.)

       Any line ending in a \ is "continued" on the next line in the customary UNIX fashion.

       The  values  following  the  equals  sign in parameters are all either a string (no quotes
       needed) or a boolean, which may be given as  yes/no,  0/1  or  true/false.   Case  is  not
       significant in boolean values, but is preserved in string values.


       The rsync daemon is launched by specifying the --daemon option to rsync.

       The  daemon  must  run  with  root privileges if you wish to use chroot, to bind to a port
       numbered under 1024 (as is the default 873), or to set file ownership.  Otherwise, it must
       just have permission to read and write the appropriate data, log, and lock files.

       You can launch it either via inetd, as a stand-alone daemon, or from an rsync client via a
       remote shell.  If run as a stand-alone daemon then just run the  command  "rsync --daemon"
       from a suitable startup script.

       When run via inetd you should add a line like this to /etc/services:

           rsync           873/tcp

       and a single line something like this to /etc/inetd.conf:

           rsync   stream  tcp     nowait  root   /usr/bin/rsync rsyncd --daemon

       Replace  "/usr/bin/rsync"  with the path to where you have rsync installed on your system.
       You will then need to send inetd a HUP signal to tell it to reread its config file.

       Note that you should not send the rsync daemon a HUP signal to  force  it  to  reread  the
       rsyncd.conf file. The file is re-read on each client connection.


       The  first  parameters  in  the file (before a [module] header) are the global parameters.
       Rsync also allows for the use of a "[global]" module name to indicate the start of one  or
       more global-parameter sections (the name must be lower case).

       You  may also include any module parameters in the global part of the config file in which
       case the supplied value will override the default for that parameter.

       You may use references to environment variables  in  the  values  of  parameters.   String
       parameters  will  have  %VAR%  references expanded as late as possible (when the string is
       first used in the program),  allowing  for  the  use  of  variables  that  rsync  sets  at
       connection  time,  such  as  RSYNC_USER_NAME.   Non-string  parameters (such as true/false
       settings) are expanded when read from the config file.  If a variable does  not  exist  in
       the  environment,  or if a sequence of characters is not a valid reference (such as an un-
       paired percent sign), the raw characters are passed through unchanged.   This  helps  with
       backward  compatibility and safety (e.g. expanding a non-existent %VAR% to an empty string
       in a path could result in a very unsafe path).  The safest way to insert a literal %  into
       a value is to use %%.

       motd file
              This  parameter  allows  you to specify a "message of the day" (MOTD) to display to
              clients on each connect. This usually  contains  site  information  and  any  legal
              notices.   The   default   is  no  MOTD  file.   This  can  be  overridden  by  the
              --dparam=motdfile=FILE command-line option when starting the daemon.

       pid file
              This parameter tells the rsync daemon to write its process ID to  that  file.   The
              rsync  keeps  the  file  locked so that it can know when it is safe to overwrite an
              existing file.

              The filename can be overridden by  the  --dparam=pidfile=FILE  command-line  option
              when starting the daemon.

       port   You  can  override  the  default  port the daemon will listen on by specifying this
              value (defaults to 873).  This is ignored if the daemon is being run by inetd,  and
              is superseded by the --port command-line option.

              You  can  override  the  default IP address the daemon will listen on by specifying
              this value.  This is ignored if the daemon is being run by inetd, and is superseded
              by the --address command-line option.

       socket options
              This parameter can provide endless fun for people who like to tune their systems to
              the utmost degree. You can set all sorts of socket options which may make transfers
              faster  (or slower!). Read the manpage for the setsockopt() system call for details
              on some of the options you may be able to set. By default no special socket options
              are  set.   These  settings  can  also be specified via the --sockopts command-line

       listen backlog
              You can override the default backlog value when the daemon listens for connections.
              It defaults to 5.


       After  the  global parameters you should define a number of modules, each module exports a
       directory tree as a symbolic name. Modules are exported by specifying  a  module  name  in
       square  brackets  [module]  followed  by  the parameters for that module.  The module name
       cannot contain a slash or a closing square bracket.  If the name contains whitespace, each
       internal  sequence  of  whitespace  will  be changed into a single space, while leading or
       trailing whitespace will be discarded.  Also, the name cannot be "global"  as  that  exact
       name indicates that global parameters follow (see above).

       As  with  GLOBAL PARAMETERS, you may use references to environment variables in the values
       of parameters.  See the GLOBAL PARAMETERS section for more details.

              This parameter specifies a description string that is displayed next to the  module
              name when clients obtain a list of available modules. The default is no comment.

       path   This parameter specifies the directory in the daemon's filesystem to make available
              in this module.  You must specify this parameter for each module in rsyncd.conf.

              You may base the path's value off of an environment  variable  by  surrounding  the
              variable name with percent signs.  You can even reference a variable that is set by
              rsync when the user connects.  For example, this would use the  authorizing  user's
              name in the path:

                  path = /home/%RSYNC_USER_NAME%

              It  is  fine if the path includes internal spaces -- they will be retained verbatim
              (which means that you shouldn't try to escape them).  If your final directory has a
              trailing  space  (and  this  is  somehow  not  something you wish to fix), append a
              trailing slash to the path to avoid losing the trailing whitespace.

       use chroot
              If "use chroot" is true, the rsync daemon will chroot to the "path" before starting
              the  file  transfer  with  the  client.  This has the advantage of extra protection
              against possible implementation security holes, but it  has  the  disadvantages  of
              requiring  super-user  privileges,  of not being able to follow symbolic links that
              are either absolute or outside of the  new  root  path,  and  of  complicating  the
              preservation of users and groups by name (see below).

              As  an  additional safety feature, you can specify a dot-dir in the module's "path"
              to indicate the point where the chroot should occur.  This allows rsync to run in a
              chroot  with  a  non-"/"  path  for  the top of the transfer hierarchy.  Doing this
              guards against unintended library loading (since those absolute paths will  not  be
              inside  the  transfer  hierarchy unless you have used an unwise pathname), and lets
              you setup libraries for the chroot that are outside of the transfer.  For  example,
              specifying "/var/rsync/./module1" will chroot to the "/var/rsync" directory and set
              the inside-chroot path to "/module1".  If you had omitted the dot-dir,  the  chroot
              would have used the whole path, and the inside-chroot path would have been "/".

              When  both "use chroot" and "daemon chroot" are false, OR the inside-chroot path of
              "use chroot" is not "/", rsync will: (1) munge symlinks  by  default  for  security
              reasons  (see  "munge  symlinks"  for a way to turn this off, but only if you trust
              your users), (2) substitute leading slashes in absolute  paths  with  the  module's
              path  (so  that  options  such  as  --backup-dir, --compare-dest, etc. interpret an
              absolute path as rooted in the  module's  "path"  dir),  and  (3)  trim  ".."  path
              elements  from  args if rsync believes they would escape the module hierarchy.  The
              default for "use chroot" is true, and is the safer choice (especially if the module
              is not read-only).

              When  this  parameter is enabled and the "name converter" parameter is not set, the
              "numeric ids" parameter will default to being  enabled  (disabling  name  lookups).
              This means that if you manually setup name-lookup libraries in your chroot (instead
              of using a name converter) that you need to explicitly set numeric ids = false  for
              rsync to do name lookups.

              If  you  copy  library  resources into the module's chroot area, you should protect
              them through your OS's normal user/group or ACL  settings  (to  prevent  the  rsync
              module's  user  from being able to change them), and then hide them from the user's
              view via "exclude" (see how in the discussion of that  parameter).   However,  it's
              easier and safer to setup a name converter.

       daemon chroot
              This  parameter  specifies  a path to which the daemon will chroot before beginning
              communication with clients. Module paths (and any "use chroot" settings) will  then
              be  related  to  this  one. This lets you choose if you want the whole daemon to be
              chrooted (with this  setting),  just  the  transfers  to  be  chrooted  (with  "use
              chroot"),  or  both.   Keep  in mind that the "daemon chroot" area may need various
              OS/lib/etc files installed to allow the daemon to function.  By default the  daemon
              runs without any chrooting.

       proxy protocol
              When this parameter is enabled, all incoming connections must start with a V1 or V2
              proxy protocol header.  If the header is not found, the connection is closed.

              Setting this to true requires a proxy server to forward source  IP  information  to
              rsync,  allowing  you to log proper IP/host info and make use of client-oriented IP
              restrictions.  The default of false means that the IP  information  comes  directly
              from  the  socket's  metadata.   If  rsync  is  not  behind a proxy, this should be

              CAUTION: using this option can be dangerous if you do  not  ensure  that  only  the
              proxy  is allowed to connect to the rsync port.  If any non-proxied connections are
              allowed through, the client will be able to use  a  modified  rsync  to  spoof  any
              remote  IP  address  that they desire.  You can lock this down using something like
              iptables -uid-owner root rules (for  strict  localhost  access),  various  firewall
              rules, or you can require password authorization so that any spoofing by users will
              not grant extra access.

              This setting is global.  If you need some modules to require this and  not  others,
              then you will need to setup multiple rsync daemon processes on different ports.

       name converter
              This  parameter  lets you specify a program that will be run by the rsync daemon to
              do user & group conversions between names & ids.  This script is started  prior  to
              any  chroot  being setup, and runs as the daemon user (not the transfer user).  You
              can specify a fully qualified pathname or a program name that is on the $PATH.

              The program can be used to do normal user & group lookups without having to put any
              extra  files  into  the  chroot  area  of  the  module  or  you  can  do customized

              The nameconvert program has access to all of the  environment  variables  that  are
              described in the section on pre-xfer exec.  This is useful if you want to customize
              the conversion using information about the module and/or the copy request.

              There is a sample python  script  in  the  support  dir  named  "nameconvert"  that
              implements  the normal user & group lookups.  Feel free to customize it or just use
              it as documentation to implement your own.

       numeric ids
              Enabling this parameter disables the mapping of users and groups by  name  for  the
              current  daemon  module.   This  prevents  the  daemon  from  trying  to  load  any
              user/group-related files or libraries.  This enabling makes the transfer behave  as
              if  the  client had passed the --numeric-ids command-line option.  By default, this
              parameter is enabled for chroot modules and disabled for non-chroot modules.   Also
              keep  in  mind  that uid/gid preservation requires the module to be running as root
              (see "uid") or for "fake super" to be configured.

              A chroot-enabled module should not have this parameter set to false  unless  you're
              using  a  "name  converter" program or you've taken steps to ensure that the module
              has the necessary resources it needs to translate names and that it is not possible
              for a user to change those resources.

       munge symlinks
              This  parameter  tells  rsync  to  modify all symlinks in the same way as the (non-
              daemon-affecting) --munge-links  command-line  option  (using  a  method  described
              below).   This  should  help protect your files from user trickery when your daemon
              module is writable.  The default is disabled  when  "use  chroot"  is  on  with  an
              inside-chroot path of "/", OR if "daemon chroot" is on, otherwise it is enabled.

              If  you  disable this parameter on a daemon that is not read-only, there are tricks
              that a user can play with uploaded symlinks to  access  daemon-excluded  items  (if
              your  module  has any), and, if "use chroot" is off, rsync can even be tricked into
              showing or changing data that is outside the module's path  (as  access-permissions

              The  way  rsync  disables the use of symlinks is to prefix each one with the string
              "/rsyncd-munged/".  This prevents the  links  from  being  used  as  long  as  that
              directory does not exist.  When this parameter is enabled, rsync will refuse to run
              if that path is a directory or a symlink to a directory.   When  using  the  "munge
              symlinks"  parameter  in  a  chroot area that has an inside-chroot path of "/", you
              should add "/rsyncd-munged/" to the exclude setting for the module so that  a  user
              can't try to create it.

              Note:   rsync  makes  no  attempt  to  verify that any pre-existing symlinks in the
              module's hierarchy are as safe as you want them to be (unless, of course,  it  just
              copied  in  the  whole  hierarchy).   If you setup an rsync daemon on a new area or
              locally add symlinks, you can manually protect your symlinks from being  abused  by
              prefixing "/rsyncd-munged/" to the start of every symlink's value.  There is a perl
              script in the support directory of the source code named "munge-symlinks" that  can
              be used to add or remove this prefix from your symlinks.

              When  this  parameter  is disabled on a writable module and "use chroot" is off (or
              the inside-chroot path is not "/"), incoming symlinks will be modified  to  drop  a
              leading  slash  and  to  remove ".." path elements that rsync believes will allow a
              symlink to escape the module's hierarchy.  There are tricky  ways  to  work  around
              this,  though, so you had better trust your users if you choose this combination of

              This specifies the name of the character set in which the  module's  filenames  are
              stored.  If the client uses an --iconv option, the daemon will use the value of the
              "charset" parameter regardless of the character set  the  client  actually  passed.
              This  allows  the  daemon  to support charset conversion in a chroot module without
              extra files in the chroot area, and also ensures that name-translation is done in a
              consistent  manner.   If  the "charset" parameter is not set, the --iconv option is
              refused, just as if "iconv" had been specified via "refuse options".

              If you wish to force users to always use --iconv for a particular module, add  "no-
              iconv"  to  the  "refuse  options" parameter.  Keep in mind that this will restrict
              access to your module to very new rsync clients.

       max connections
              This parameter allows you to specify the maximum number of simultaneous connections
              you  will  allow.   Any  clients  connecting when the maximum has been reached will
              receive a message telling them to try later.  The default  is  0,  which  means  no
              limit.  A negative value disables the module.  See also the "lock file" parameter.

       log file
              When  the  "log file" parameter is set to a non-empty string, the rsync daemon will
              log messages to the indicated file rather than using syslog.  This is  particularly
              useful  on systems (such as AIX) where syslog() doesn't work for chrooted programs.
              The file is opened before chroot() is called, allowing it to be placed outside  the
              transfer.   If  this  value  is  set on a per-module basis instead of globally, the
              global log will still contain  any  authorization  failures  or  config-file  error

              If  the  daemon fails to open the specified file, it will fall back to using syslog
              and output an error about  the  failure.   (Note  that  the  failure  to  open  the
              specified log file used to be a fatal error.)

              This    setting    can    be   overridden   by   using   the   --log-file=FILE   or
              --dparam=logfile=FILE command-line options.  The former overrides all the  log-file
              parameters of the daemon and all module settings.  The latter sets the daemon's log
              file and the default for all the modules, which still allows  modules  to  override
              the default setting.

       syslog facility
              This  parameter  allows you to specify the syslog facility name to use when logging
              messages from the rsync daemon. You may use any standard syslog facility name which
              is  defined  on  your  system.  Common names are auth, authpriv, cron, daemon, ftp,
              kern, lpr, mail, news,  security,  syslog,  user,  uucp,  local0,  local1,  local2,
              local3,  local4,  local5,  local6 and local7.  The default is daemon.  This setting
              has no effect if the "log file" setting is a non-empty string (either  set  in  the
              per-modules settings, or inherited from the global settings).

       syslog tag
              This  parameter  allows  you to specify the syslog tag to use when logging messages
              from the rsync daemon. The default is "rsyncd".  This setting has no effect if  the
              "log  file"  setting is a non-empty string (either set in the per-modules settings,
              or inherited from the global settings).

              For example, if you wanted each authenticated user's name to  be  included  in  the
              syslog tag, you could do something like this:

                  syslog tag = rsyncd.%RSYNC_USER_NAME%

       max verbosity
              This parameter allows you to control the maximum amount of verbose information that
              you'll allow the daemon to generate (since the information goes into the log file).
              The default is 1, which allows the client to request one level of verbosity.

              This also affects the user's ability to request higher levels of --info and --debug
              logging.  If the max value is 2, then no info and/or debug  value  that  is  higher
              than what would be set by -vv will be honored by the daemon in its logging.  To see
              how high of a verbosity level you need to accept for a particular info/debug level,
              refer  to  rsync --info=help  and  rsync --debug=help.  For instance, it takes max-
              verbosity 4 to be able to output debug TIME2 and FLIST3.

       lock file
              This parameter  specifies  the  file  to  use  to  support  the  "max  connections"
              parameter. The rsync daemon uses record locking on this file to ensure that the max
              connections limit is not exceeded for the  modules  sharing  the  lock  file.   The
              default is /var/run/rsyncd.lock.

       read only
              This  parameter  determines whether clients will be able to upload files or not. If
              "read only" is true then any attempted uploads will fail. If "read only"  is  false
              then  uploads  will  be possible if file permissions on the daemon side allow them.
              The default is for all modules to be read only.

              Note that "auth users" can override this setting on a per-user basis.

       write only
              This parameter determines whether clients will be able to download files or not. If
              "write  only"  is  true  then any attempted downloads will fail. If "write only" is
              false then downloads will be possible if file permissions on the daemon side  allow
              them.  The default is for this parameter to be disabled.

              Helpful  hint:  you probably want to specify "refuse options = delete" for a write-
              only module.

       open noatime
              When set to True, this parameter tells the rsync daemon  to  open  files  with  the
              O_NOATIME  flag  (on  systems that support it) to avoid changing the access time of
              the files that are being transferred.  If your OS does not  support  the  O_NOATIME
              flag  then rsync will silently ignore this option.  Note also that some filesystems
              are mounted to avoid updating the atime on read access even without  the  O_NOATIME
              flag being set.

              When  set to False, this parameters ensures that files on the server are not opened
              with O_NOATIME.

              When set to Unset (the default) the user controls the setting via --open-noatime.

       list   This parameter determines whether this module is listed when the client asks for  a
              listing  of  available  modules.   In  addition,  if this is false, the daemon will
              pretend the module does not exist when a client denied by "hosts allow"  or  "hosts
              deny" attempts to access it.  Realize that if "reverse lookup" is disabled globally
              but enabled for the module, the resulting reverse lookup to a  potentially  client-
              controlled  DNS  server  may  still  reveal  to  the client that it hit an existing
              module.  The default is for modules to be listable.

       uid    This parameter specifies the user name or user ID that file transfers to  and  from
              that  module  should take place as when the daemon was run as root.  In combination
              with the "gid" parameter this determines what file permissions are  available.  The
              default  when  run by a super-user is to switch to the system's "nobody" user.  The
              default for a non-super-user is to not try to change the user.  See also the  "gid"

              The  RSYNC_USER_NAME  environment variable may be used to request that rsync run as
              the authorizing user.  For example, if you want a rsync to run  as  the  same  user
              that was received for the rsync authentication, this setup is useful:

                  uid = %RSYNC_USER_NAME%
                  gid = *

       gid    This  parameter  specifies  one  or  more  group  names/IDs  that will be used when
              accessing the module.  The first one will be the default group, and any extra  ones
              be  set as supplemental groups.  You may also specify a "*" as the first gid in the
              list, which will be replaced by all the normal groups for the transfer's user  (see
              "uid").   The  default  when run by a super-user is to switch to your OS's "nobody"
              (or perhaps "nogroup") group with no other supplementary groups.  The default for a
              non-super-user  is  to not change any group attributes (and indeed, your OS may not
              allow a non-super-user to try to change their group settings).

              The specified list is normally split  into  tokens  based  on  spaces  and  commas.
              However,  if  the  list starts with a comma, then the list is only split on commas,
              which allows a group name to contain a space.  In either case  any  leading  and/or
              trailing whitespace is removed from the tokens and empty tokens are ignored.

       daemon uid
              This  parameter specifies a uid under which the daemon will run. The daemon usually
              runs as user root, and when this is left unset the user is left unchanged. See also
              the "uid" parameter.

       daemon gid
              This  parameter specifies a gid under which the daemon will run. The daemon usually
              runs as group root, and when this is left unset, the group is left  unchanged.  See
              also the "gid" parameter.

       fake super
              Setting  "fake super = yes" for a module causes the daemon side to behave as if the
              --fake-super  command-line  option  had  been  specified.   This  allows  the  full
              attributes  of  a  file  to  be  stored  without having to have the daemon actually
              running as root.

       filter The daemon has its own filter chain that determines what  files  it  will  let  the
              client  access.   This  chain  is  not sent to the client and is independent of any
              filters the client may have specified.  Files excluded by the daemon  filter  chain
              (daemon-excluded  files)  are  treated  as non-existent if the client tries to pull
              them, are skipped  with  an  error  message  if  the  client  tries  to  push  them
              (triggering  exit  code  23),  and  are never deleted from the module.  You can use
              daemon filters to prevent  clients  from  downloading  or  tampering  with  private
              administrative   files,  such  as  files  you  may  add  to  support  uid/gid  name

              The daemon filter chain is built from  the  "filter",  "include  from",  "include",
              "exclude  from",  and  "exclude"  parameters,  in that order of priority.  Anchored
              patterns are anchored at the root of the module.  To prevent access  to  an  entire
              subtree,  for  example,  "/secret", you must exclude everything in the subtree; the
              easiest way to do this is with a triple-star pattern like "/secret/***".

              The "filter" parameter takes a space-separated list of daemon filter rules,  though
              it  is  smart  enough  to  know not to split a token at an internal space in a rule
              (e.g. "- /foo  - /bar" is parsed as two rules).  You may specify one or more merge-
              file  rules  using  the  normal syntax.  Only one "filter" parameter can apply to a
              given module in the config file, so  put  all  the  rules  you  want  in  a  single
              parameter.   Note  that  per-directory  merge-file  rules  do  not  provide as much
              protection as global rules, but they can be  used  to  make  --delete  work  better
              during  a  client download operation if the per-dir merge files are included in the
              transfer and the client requests that they be used.

              This parameter takes a space-separated list of daemon exclude  patterns.   As  with
              the  client  --exclude  option,  patterns  can  be  qualified  with "- " or "+ " to
              explicitly indicate exclude/include.  Only one "exclude" parameter can apply  to  a
              given  module.   See the "filter" parameter for a description of how excluded files
              affect the daemon.

              Use an "include" to override the effects of  the  "exclude"  parameter.   Only  one
              "include"  parameter can apply to a given module.  See the "filter" parameter for a
              description of how excluded files affect the daemon.

       exclude from
              This parameter specifies the name of a file on  the  daemon  that  contains  daemon
              exclude  patterns,  one per line.  Only one "exclude from" parameter can apply to a
              given module; if you have multiple exclude-from files, you can specify  them  as  a
              merge file in the "filter" parameter.  See the "filter" parameter for a description
              of how excluded files affect the daemon.

       include from
              Analogue of "exclude from" for  a  file  of  daemon  include  patterns.   Only  one
              "include  from"  parameter can apply to a given module.  See the "filter" parameter
              for a description of how excluded files affect the daemon.

       incoming chmod
              This parameter allows you to specify a set of comma-separated  chmod  strings  that
              will affect the permissions of all incoming files (files that are being received by
              the daemon).  These changes happen after all  other  permission  calculations,  and
              this  will  even  override destination-default and/or existing permissions when the
              client does not specify --perms.  See the description of the --chmod  rsync  option
              and the chmod(1) manpage for information on the format of this string.

       outgoing chmod
              This  parameter  allows  you to specify a set of comma-separated chmod strings that
              will affect the permissions of all outgoing files (files that are  being  sent  out
              from  the  daemon).  These changes happen first, making the sent permissions appear
              to be different than those stored in the  filesystem  itself.   For  instance,  you
              could disable group write permissions on the server while having it appear to be on
              to the clients.  See the description of the --chmod rsync option and  the  chmod(1)
              manpage for information on the format of this string.

       auth users
              This  parameter  specifies  a  comma  and/or  space-separated list of authorization
              rules.  In its simplest form, you list  the  usernames  that  will  be  allowed  to
              connect to this module. The usernames do not need to exist on the local system. The
              rules may contain shell wildcard  characters  that  will  be  matched  against  the
              username provided by the client for authentication. If "auth users" is set then the
              client will be challenged to supply a username  and  password  to  connect  to  the
              module. A challenge response authentication protocol is used for this exchange. The
              plain text usernames and passwords are stored in the file specified by the "secrets
              file"  parameter.  The  default  is  for  all users to be able to connect without a
              password (this is called "anonymous rsync").

              In addition to username matching, you can specify  groupname  matching  via  a  '@'
              prefix.   When using groupname matching, the authenticating username must be a real
              user on the system, or it will be assumed  to  be  a  member  of  no  groups.   For
              example,  specifying  "@rsync" will match the authenticating user if the named user
              is a member of the rsync group.

              Finally, options may be specified after a colon (:).   The  options  allow  you  to
              "deny"  a user or a group, set the access to "ro" (read-only), or set the access to
              "rw" (read/write).  Setting  an  auth-rule-specific  ro/rw  setting  overrides  the
              module's "read only" setting.

              Be  sure  to  put  the  rules in the order you want them to be matched, because the
              checking stops at the first matching user or group, and that is the only auth  that
              is checked.  For example:

                  auth users = joe:deny @guest:deny admin:rw @rsync:ro susan joe sam

              In the above rule, user joe will be denied access no matter what.  Any user that is
              in the group "guest" is also denied  access.   The  user  "admin"  gets  access  in
              read/write  mode,  but  only if the admin user is not in group "guest" (because the
              admin user-matching rule would never be reached if the user is in  group  "guest").
              Any  other  user who is in group "rsync" will get read-only access.  Finally, users
              susan, joe, and sam get the ro/rw setting of the  module,  but  only  if  the  user
              didn't match an earlier group-matching rule.

              If  you  need  to  specify a user or group name with a space in it, start your list
              with a comma to indicate that the list should  only  be  split  on  commas  (though
              leading  and  trailing  whitespace will also be removed, and empty entries are just
              ignored).  For example:

                  auth users = , joe:deny, @Some Group:deny, admin:rw, @RO Group:ro

              See the description of the secrets file for how you can have per-user passwords  as
              well  as  per-group  passwords.  It also explains how a user can authenticate using
              their user password or (when applicable) a group password, depending on  what  rule
              is being authenticated.

              See  also  the  section  entitled  "USING  RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A REMOTE SHELL
              CONNECTION" in rsync(1) for information on how handle an rsyncd.conf-level username
              that  differs  from  the  remote-shell-level  username when using a remote shell to
              connect to an rsync daemon.

       secrets file
              This parameter specifies the name of a file  that  contains  the  username:password
              and/or  @groupname:password pairs used for authenticating this module. This file is
              only consulted if the "auth users" parameter is specified.  The file is  line-based
              and  contains one name:password pair per line.  Any line has a hash (#) as the very
              first character on the line is considered a comment and is skipped.  The  passwords
              can  contain  any  characters  but  be warned that many operating systems limit the
              length of passwords that can be typed at the client  end,  so  you  may  find  that
              passwords longer than 8 characters don't work.

              The  use  of  group-specific  lines  are  only  relevant  when  the module is being
              authorized using a matching "@groupname" rule.  When that happens, the user can  be
              authorized  via  either their "username:password" line or the "@groupname:password"
              line for the group that triggered the authentication.

              It is up to you what kind of password entries you want to  include,  either  users,
              groups,  or both.  The use of group rules in "auth users" does not require that you
              specify a group password if you do not want to use shared passwords.

              There is no default for the "secrets file" parameter, you must choose a name  (such
              as  /etc/rsyncd.secrets).   The  file must normally not be readable by "other"; see
              "strict modes".  If the file is not found or is rejected, no logins  for  an  "auth
              users" module will be possible.

       strict modes
              This  parameter  determines whether or not the permissions on the secrets file will
              be checked.  If "strict modes" is true, then the secrets file must not be  readable
              by  any  user  ID  other  than  the one that the rsync daemon is running under.  If
              "strict modes" is false, the check is not performed.  The default  is  true.   This
              parameter was added to accommodate rsync running on the Windows operating system.

       hosts allow
              This  parameter  allows you to specify a list of comma- and/or whitespace-separated
              patterns that are matched against a connecting client's hostname  and  IP  address.
              If none of the patterns match, then the connection is rejected.

              Each pattern can be in one of six forms:

              o      a dotted decimal IPv4 address of the form a.b.c.d, or an IPv6 address of the
                     form a:b:c::d:e:f. In this case the incoming machine's IP address must match

              o      an address/mask in the form ipaddr/n where ipaddr is the IP address and n is
                     the number of one bits in the netmask.  All IP  addresses  which  match  the
                     masked IP address will be allowed in.

              o      an  address/mask  in the form ipaddr/maskaddr where ipaddr is the IP address
                     and maskaddr is the netmask in dotted decimal notation for IPv4, or  similar
                     for  IPv6, e.g. ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:: instead of /64. All IP addresses which
                     match the masked IP address will be allowed in.

              o      a hostname pattern using wildcards. If the hostname of the connecting IP (as
                     determined  by a reverse lookup) matches the wildcarded name (using the same
                     rules as normal Unix filename matching), the client  is  allowed  in.   This
                     only works if "reverse lookup" is enabled (the default).

              o      a  hostname.  A  plain  hostname  is  matched against the reverse DNS of the
                     connecting IP (if "reverse lookup" is enabled), and/or the IP of  the  given
                     hostname  is  matched  against  the  connecting  IP  (if "forward lookup" is
                     enabled, as it is by default).  Any match will be allowed in.

              o      an '@' followed by a netgroup name, which will match if the reverse  DNS  of
                     the connecting IP is in the specified netgroup.

              Note IPv6 link-local addresses can have a scope in the address specification:


              You  can also combine "hosts allow" with "hosts deny" as a way to add exceptions to
              your deny list.  When both parameters are specified, the "hosts allow" parameter is
              checked  first  and  a  match  results in the client being able to connect.  A non-
              allowed host is then matched against the "hosts deny" list to see if it  should  be
              rejected.  A host that does not match either list is allowed to connect.

              The default is no "hosts allow" parameter, which means all hosts can connect.

       hosts deny
              This  parameter  allows you to specify a list of comma- and/or whitespace-separated
              patterns that are matched against a connecting clients hostname and IP address.  If
              the  pattern  matches  then  the  connection  is  rejected.  See  the "hosts allow"
              parameter for more information.

              The default is no "hosts deny" parameter, which means all hosts can connect.

       reverse lookup
              Controls whether the daemon performs a reverse lookup on the client's IP address to
              determine  its  hostname, which is used for "hosts allow" & "hosts deny" checks and
              the "%h" log escape.  This is enabled by default, but you may wish to disable it to
              save time if you know the lookup will not return a useful result, in which case the
              daemon will use the name "UNDETERMINED" instead.

              If this parameter is enabled globally (even by default), rsync performs the  lookup
              as  soon  as  a  client  connects,  so disabling it for a module will not avoid the
              lookup.  Thus, you probably want to disable it globally  and  then  enable  it  for
              modules that need the information.

       forward lookup
              Controls  whether the daemon performs a forward lookup on any hostname specified in
              an hosts allow/deny setting.  By default this is enabled, allowing the  use  of  an
              explicit hostname that would not be returned by reverse DNS of the connecting IP.

       ignore errors
              This  parameter  tells  rsyncd  to  ignore  I/O  errors on the daemon when deciding
              whether to run the delete phase of the transfer. Normally rsync skips the  --delete
              step if any I/O errors have occurred in order to prevent disastrous deletion due to
              a temporary resource shortage or other I/O  error.  In  some  cases  this  test  is
              counter productive so you can use this parameter to turn off this behavior.

       ignore nonreadable
              This tells the rsync daemon to completely ignore files that are not readable by the
              user. This is useful for public archives that  may  have  some  non-readable  files
              among the directories, and the sysadmin doesn't want those files to be seen at all.

       transfer logging
              This  parameter  enables  per-file  logging  of  downloads  and uploads in a format
              somewhat similar to that used by ftp daemons.  The daemon always logs the  transfer
              at the end, so if a transfer is aborted, no mention will be made in the log file.

              If you want to customize the log lines, see the "log format" parameter.

       log format
              This  parameter  allows  you  to specify the format used for logging file transfers
              when transfer logging is enabled.  The format is a text string containing  embedded
              single-character  escape  sequences  prefixed  with  a  percent  (%) character.  An
              optional numeric field width may also be specified  between  the  percent  and  the
              escape  letter  (e.g.  "%-50n %8l %07p").  In addition, one or more apostrophes may
              be specified prior to a numerical escape  to  indicate  that  the  numerical  value
              should be made more human-readable.  The 3 supported levels are the same as for the
              --human-readable command-line option, though the default is  for  human-readability
              to be off.  Each added apostrophe increases the level (e.g. "%''l %'b %f").

              The  default  log  format is "%o %h [%a] %m (%u) %f %l", and a "%t [%p] " is always
              prefixed when using the "log file" parameter.  (A perl script that  will  summarize
              this  default  log  format is included in the rsync source code distribution in the
              "support" subdirectory: rsyncstats.)

              The single-character escapes that are understood are as follows:

              o      %a the remote IP address (only available for a daemon)

              o      %b the number of bytes actually transferred

              o      %B the permission bits of the file (e.g. rwxrwxrwt)

              o      %c the total size of the block checksums received for the basis  file  (only
                     when sending)

              o      %C  the  full-file  checksum  if  it  is known for the file. For older rsync
                     protocols/versions, the checksum was salted, and is thus not a useful  value
                     (and is not displayed when that is the case). For the checksum to output for
                     a file, either the --checksum option must be in-effect or the file must have
                     been  transferred without a salted checksum being used.  See the --checksum-
                     choice option for a way to choose the algorithm.

              o      %f the filename (long form on sender; no trailing "/")

              o      %G the gid of the file (decimal) or "DEFAULT"

              o      %h the remote host name (only available for a daemon)

              o      %i an itemized list of what is being updated

              o      %l the length of the file in bytes

              o      %L the  string  " -> SYMLINK",  " => HARDLINK",  or  ""  (where  SYMLINK  or
                     HARDLINK is a filename)

              o      %m the module name

              o      %M the last-modified time of the file

              o      %n the filename (short form; trailing "/" on dir)

              o      %o  the  operation,  which is "send", "recv", or "del." (the latter includes
                     the trailing period)

              o      %p the process ID of this rsync session

              o      %P the module path

              o      %t the current date time

              o      %u the authenticated username or an empty string

              o      %U the uid of the file (decimal)

              For a list of what the characters mean that are output by "%i", see the  --itemize-
              changes option in the rsync manpage.

              Note that some of the logged output changes when talking with older rsync versions.
              For instance, deleted files were only output as verbose  messages  prior  to  rsync

              This  parameter  allows you to override the clients choice for I/O timeout for this
              module. Using this parameter you can ensure that rsync won't wait on a dead  client
              forever.  The timeout is specified in seconds. A value of zero means no timeout and
              is the default. A good choice for anonymous rsync daemons may be 600 (giving  a  10
              minute timeout).

       refuse options
              This  parameter  allows you to specify a space-separated list of rsync command-line
              options that will be refused by your rsync daemon.  You may specify the full option
              name,  its  one-letter  abbreviation,  or  a wild-card string that matches multiple
              options. Beginning in 3.2.0, you can also negate a match term by starting it with a

              When an option is refused, the daemon prints an error message and exits.

              For example, this would refuse --checksum (-c) and all the various delete options:

                  refuse options = c delete

              The reason the above refuses all delete options is that the options imply --delete,
              and implied options are refused just like explicit options.

              The use of a negated match allows you to fine-tune your refusals after a wild-card,
              such as this:

                  refuse options = delete-* !delete-during

              Negated matching can also turn your list of refused options into a list of accepted
              options. To do this, begin the list with a "*" (to refuse  all  options)  and  then
              specify one or more negated matches to accept.  For example:

                  refuse options = * !a !v !compress*

              Don't  worry  that  the  "*"  will  refuse certain vital options such as --dry-run,
              --server, --no-iconv, --protect-args, etc. These important options are not  matched
              by  wild-card,  so  they  must be overridden by their exact name.  For instance, if
              you're forcing iconv transfers you could use something like this:

                  refuse options = * no-iconv !a !v

              As an additional aid (beginning in 3.2.0), refusing (or  "!refusing")  the  "a"  or
              "archive"   option  also  affects all the options that the --archive option implies
              (-rdlptgoD), but only if the option  is matched explicitly (not using a  wildcard).
              If  you  want  to  do  something tricky, you can use "archive*" to avoid this side-
              effect, but keep in mind that no normal rsync client ever sends the actual  archive
              option to the server.

              As  an  additional  safety  feature,  the  refusal of "delete" also refuses remove-
              source-files when the daemon is the sender; if you  want  the  latter  without  the
              former,  instead  refuse  "delete-*"  as  that refuses all the delete modes without
              affecting --remove-source-files. (Keep in mind that the  client's  --delete  option
              typically results in --delete-during.)

              When  un-refusing  delete  options, you should either specify "!delete*" (to accept
              all delete options) or specify a limited set that includes "delete", such as:

                  refuse options = * !a !delete !delete-during

              ... whereas this accepts any delete option except --delete-after:

                  refuse options = * !a !delete* delete-after

              A note on refusing "compress": it may be better to set the "dont  compress"  daemon
              parameter to "*" and ensure that RSYNC_COMPRESS_LIST=zlib is set in the environment
              of the daemon in order to disable compression  silently  instead  of  returning  an
              error that forces the client to remove the -z option.

              If  you  are un-refusing the compress option, you may want to match "!compress*" if
              you also want to allow the --compress-level option.

              Note that the "copy-devices" & "write-devices" options are refused by default,  but
              they  can be explicitly accepted with "!copy-devices" and/or "!write-devices".  The
              options "log-file"  and  "log-file-format"  are  forcibly  refused  and  cannot  be

              Here are all the options that are not matched by wild-cards:

              o      --server: Required for rsync to even work.

              o      --rsh, -e: Required to convey compatibility flags to the server.

              o      --out-format:  This  is  required  to  convey  output  behavior  to a remote
                     receiver.  While rsync passes the older alias --log-format for compatibility
                     reasons, this options should not be confused with --log-file-format.

              o      --sender: Use "write only" parameter instead of refusing this.

              o      --dry-run, -n: Who would want to disable this?

              o      --protect-args, -s: This actually makes transfers safer.

              o      --from0, -0: Makes it easier to accept/refuse --files-from without affecting
                     this helpful modifier.

              o      --iconv: This is auto-disabled based on "charset" parameter.

              o      --no-iconv: Most transfers use this option.

              o      --checksum-seed: Is a fairly rare, safe option.

              o      --write-devices: Is non-wild but also auto-disabled.

       dont compress
              NOTE: This parameter currently has no effect except in one instance: if it  is  set
              to  "*"  then  it  minimizes  or disables compression for all files (for those that
              don't want to refuse the --compress option completely).

              This parameter allows you to select  filenames  based  on  wildcard  patterns  that
              should not be compressed when pulling files from the daemon (no analogous parameter
              exists to govern the pushing of files to a daemon).  Compression can  be  expensive
              in  terms  of  CPU  usage,  so it is usually good to not try to compress files that
              won't compress well, such as already compressed files.

              The "dont compress" parameter takes  a  space-separated  list  of  case-insensitive
              wildcard  patterns.  Any  source  filename  matching  one  of  the patterns will be
              compressed as little as possible during the transfer.  If the compression algorithm
              has  an  "off" level, then no compression occurs for those files.  If an algorithms
              has the ability to change the level in mid-stream, it will be minimized  to  reduce
              the CPU usage as much as possible.

              See  the  --skip-compress  parameter  in  the rsync(1) manpage for the list of file
              suffixes that are skipped by default if this parameter is not set.

       early exec, pre-xfer exec, post-xfer exec
              You may specify a command to be run in the early stages of the connection, or right
              before  and/or  after  the  transfer.   If  the early exec or pre-xfer exec command
              returns an error code, the transfer is aborted before it begins.  Any  output  from
              the  pre-xfer exec  command  on  stdout (up to several KB) will be displayed to the
              user when aborting, but is not displayed if the script returns success.  The  other
              programs cannot send any text to the user.  All output except for the pre-xfer exec
              stdout goes  to  the  corresponding  daemon's  stdout/stderr,  which  is  typically
              discarded.  See the --no-detatch option for a way to see the daemon's output, which
              can assist with debugging.

              Note that the early exec command runs before any part of the  transfer  request  is
              known  except  for the module name.  This helper script can be used to setup a disk
              mount or decrypt some data into a module dir, but you may need to use lock file and
              max connections  to  avoid  concurrency  issues.  If the client rsync specified the
              --early-input=FILE option, it can send up to about 5K of data to the stdin  of  the
              early script.  The stdin will otherwise be empty.

              Note  that the post-xfer exec command is still run even if one of the other scripts
              returns an error code. The pre-xfer exec command will not be run, however,  if  the
              early exec command fails.

              The  following  environment  variables will be set, though some are specific to the
              pre-xfer or the post-xfer environment:

              o      RSYNC_MODULE_NAME: The name of the module being accessed.

              o      RSYNC_MODULE_PATH: The path configured for the module.

              o      RSYNC_HOST_ADDR: The accessing host's IP address.

              o      RSYNC_HOST_NAME: The accessing host's name.

              o      RSYNC_USER_NAME: The accessing user's name (empty if no user).

              o      RSYNC_PID: A unique number for this transfer.

              o      RSYNC_REQUEST: (pre-xfer only) The module/path info specified by  the  user.
                     Note  that the user can specify multiple source files, so the request can be
                     something like "mod/path1 mod/path2", etc.

              o      RSYNC_ARG#: (pre-xfer only) The  pre-request  arguments  are  set  in  these
                     numbered values. RSYNC_ARG0 is always "rsyncd", followed by the options that
                     were used in  RSYNC_ARG1,  and  so  on.   There  will  be  a  value  of  "."
                     indicating  that  the  options  are  done and the path args are beginning --
                     these  contain  similar  information  to  RSYNC_REQUEST,  but  with   values
                     separated and the module name stripped off.

              o      RSYNC_EXIT_STATUS: (post-xfer only) the server side's exit value.  This will
                     be 0 for a successful run, a positive value for an  error  that  the  server
                     generated,  or  a  -1  if rsync failed to exit properly.  Note that an error
                     that occurs on the client side does not currently get  sent  to  the  server
                     side, so this is not the final exit status for the whole transfer.

              o      RSYNC_RAW_STATUS: (post-xfer only) the raw exit value from waitpid().

              Even  though  the commands can be associated with a particular module, they are run
              using the permissions of the user that started the daemon (not the module's uid/gid
              setting) without any chroot restrictions.

              These settings honor 2 environment variables: use RSYNC_SHELL to set a shell to use
              when running the command (which otherwise uses your system() call's default shell),
              and use RSYNC_NO_XFER_EXEC to disable both options completely.


       There  are  currently  two  config  directives  available  that  allow  a  config  file to
       incorporate the contents of other files:  &include and &merge.  Both allow a reference  to
       either  a  file  or  a  directory.   They differ in how segregated the file's contents are
       considered to be.

       The &include directive treats each file as more distinct, with  each  one  inheriting  the
       defaults  of  the  parent  file,  starting  the parameter parsing as globals/defaults, and
       leaving the defaults unchanged for the parsing of the rest of the parent file.

       The &merge directive, on the other hand, treats the file's contents as if it  were  simply
       inserted  in place of the directive, and thus it can set parameters in a module started in
       another file, can affect the defaults for other files, etc.

       When an &include or &merge directive refers to a directory, it will read in all the *.conf
       or  *.inc  files  (respectively)  that  are  contained  inside that directory (without any
       recursive scanning), with the files sorted into alpha order.  So, if you have a  directory
       named  "rsyncd.d"  with  the  files "foo.conf", "bar.conf", and "baz.conf" inside it, this

           &include /path/rsyncd.d

       would be the same as this set of directives:

           &include /path/rsyncd.d/bar.conf
           &include /path/rsyncd.d/baz.conf
           &include /path/rsyncd.d/foo.conf

       except that it adjusts as files are added and removed from the directory.

       The advantage of the &include directive is that you can define one or more  modules  in  a
       separate  file  without  worrying about unintended side-effects between the self-contained
       module files.

       The advantage of the &merge directive is that you can load config  snippets  that  can  be
       included  into  multiple  module definitions, and you can also set global values that will
       affect connections (such as motd file), or globals that will affect other include files.

       For example, this is a useful /etc/rsyncd.conf file:

           port = 873
           log file = /var/log/rsync.log
           pid file = /var/lock/rsync.lock

           &merge /etc/rsyncd.d
           &include /etc/rsyncd.d

       This would merge any /etc/rsyncd.d/*.inc files (for global  values  that  should  stay  in
       effect),  and  then  include  any /etc/rsyncd.d/*.conf files (defining modules without any
       global-value cross-talk).


       The authentication protocol used in rsync is  a  128  bit  MD4  based  challenge  response
       system. This is fairly weak protection, though (with at least one brute-force hash-finding
       algorithm publicly available),  so  if  you  want  really  top-quality  security,  then  I
       recommend  that  you run rsync over ssh.  (Yes, a future version of rsync will switch over
       to a stronger hashing method.)

       Also note that the rsync daemon protocol does not currently provide any encryption of  the
       data  that is transferred over the connection. Only authentication is provided. Use ssh as
       the transport if you want encryption.

       You can also make use of SSL/TLS encryption if you put rsync behind an SSL proxy.

SSL/TLS Daemon Setup

       When setting up an rsync daemon for access via SSL/TLS, you will need to configure  a  TCP
       proxy (such as haproxy or nginx) as the front-end that handles the encryption.

       o      You  should  limit the access to the backend-rsyncd port to only allow the proxy to
              connect.  If it is on the same host as the  proxy,  then  configuring  it  to  only
              listen on localhost is a good idea.

       o      You  should  consider  turning on the proxy protocol rsync-daemon parameter if your
              proxy supports sending that information.  The examples below assume  that  this  is

       An example haproxy setup is as follows:

           frontend fe_rsync-ssl
              bind :::874 ssl crt /etc/letsencrypt/
              mode tcp
              use_backend be_rsync

           backend be_rsync
              mode tcp
              server local-rsync check send-proxy

       An example nginx proxy setup is as follows:

           stream {
              server {
                  listen 874 ssl;
                  listen [::]:874 ssl;

                  ssl_certificate /etc/letsencrypt/;
                  ssl_certificate_key /etc/letsencrypt/;

                  proxy_pass localhost:873;
                  proxy_protocol on; # Requires rsyncd.conf "proxy protocol = true"
                  proxy_timeout 1m;
                  proxy_connect_timeout 5s;


       A simple rsyncd.conf file that allow anonymous rsync to a ftp area at /home/ftp would be:

                   path = /home/ftp
                   comment = ftp export area

       A more sophisticated example would be:

           uid = nobody
           gid = nobody
           use chroot = yes
           max connections = 4
           syslog facility = local5
           pid file = /var/run/

                   path = /var/ftp/./pub
                   comment = whole ftp area (approx 6.1 GB)

                   path = /var/ftp/./pub/samba
                   comment = Samba ftp area (approx 300 MB)

                   path = /var/ftp/./pub/rsync
                   comment = rsync ftp area (approx 6 MB)

                   path = /public_html/samba
                   comment = Samba WWW pages (approx 240 MB)

                   path = /data/cvs
                   comment = CVS repository (requires authentication)
                   auth users = tridge, susan
                   secrets file = /etc/rsyncd.secrets

       The /etc/rsyncd.secrets file would look something like this:



       /etc/rsyncd.conf or rsyncd.conf


       rsync(1), rsync-ssl(1)


       Please report bugs! The rsync bug tracking system is online at


       This manpage is current for version 3.2.5 of rsync.


       Rsync  is  distributed  under  the  GNU  General Public License.  See the file COPYING for

       An rsync web site is available at  and  its  github  project  is


       Thanks  to Warren Stanley for his original idea and patch for the rsync daemon.  Thanks to
       Karsten Thygesen for his many suggestions and documentation!


       Rsync was originally written by Andrew Tridgell and  Paul  Mackerras.   Many  people  have
       later contributed to it. It is currently maintained by Wayne Davison.

       Mailing lists for support and development are available at