Provided by: wordnet-base_3.0-37_all bug


       index.noun,  data.noun,  index.verb, data.verb, index.adj, data.adj, index.adv, data.adv -
       WordNet database files

       noun.exc, verb.exc. adj.exc adv.exc - morphology exception lists

       sentidx.vrb, sents.vrb - files used by search code to display sentences  illustrating  the
       use of some specific verbs


       For each syntactic category, two files are needed to represent the contents of the WordNet
       database - index.pos and data.pos, where pos is  noun,  verb,  adj  and  adv.   The  other
       auxiliary  files  are  used by the WordNet library's searching functions and are needed to
       run the various WordNet browsers.

       Each index file is an alphabetized  list  of  all  the  words  found  in  WordNet  in  the
       corresponding part of speech.  On each line, following the word, is a list of byte offsets
       (synset_offsets) in the corresponding data file, one for each synset containing the  word.
       Words in the index file are in lower case only, regardless of how they were entered in the
       lexicographer files.  This folds various orthographic representations of the word into one
       line  enabling  database searches to be case insensitive.  See wninput(5WN) for a detailed
       description of the lexicographer files

       A data file for a syntactic category contains information  corresponding  to  the  synsets
       that  were  specified  in  the  lexicographer  files, with relational pointers resolved to
       synset_offsets.  Each line corresponds to a synset.  Pointers are followed and hierarchies
       traversed by moving from one synset to another via the synset_offsets.

       The  exception list files, pos.exc, are used to help the morphological processor find base
       forms from irregular inflections.

       The files sentidx.vrb and sents.vrb contain sentences illustrating  the  use  of  specific
       senses  of  some  verbs.   These files are used by the searching software in response to a
       request for  verb  sentence  frames.   Generic  sentence  frames  are  displayed  when  an
       illustrative sentence is not present.

       The  various  database  files are in ASCII formats that are easily read by both humans and
       machines.  All fields, unless otherwise noted, are separated by one space  character,  and
       all  lines  are  terminated  by a newline character.  Fields enclosed in italicized square
       brackets may not be present.

       See wngloss(7WN) for a glossary of WordNet terminology and a discussion of the  database's
       content and logical organization.

   Index File Format
       Each  index  file  begins with several lines containing a copyright notice, version number
       and license agreement.  These lines all begin with two spaces and the line number so  they
       do  not  interfere with the binary search algorithm that is used to look up entries in the
       index files.  All other lines are in the following format.   In  the  field  descriptions,
       number always refers to a decimal integer unless otherwise defined.

       lemma  pos  synset_cnt  p_cnt  [ptr_symbol...]  sense_cnt  tagsense_cnt   synset_offset  [synset_offset...]

       lemma          lower  case  ASCII text of word or collocation.  Collocations are formed by
                      joining individual words with an underscore (_) character.

       pos            Syntactic category: n for noun files, v for verb  files,  a  for  adjective
                      files, r for adverb files.

       All remaining fields are with respect to senses of lemma in pos.

       synset_cnt     Number  of  synsets  that lemma is in.  This is the number of senses of the
                      word in WordNet. See Sense Numbers below for  a  discussion  of  how  sense
                      numbers are assigned and the order of synset_offsets in the index files.

       p_cnt          Number of different pointers that lemma has in all synsets containing it.

       ptr_symbol     A  space separated list of p_cnt different types of pointers that lemma has
                      in  all  synsets  containing  it.  See   wninput(5WN)   for   a   list   of
                      pointer_symbols.   If  all  senses of lemma have no pointers, this field is
                      omitted and p_cnt is 0.

       sense_cnt      Same as sense_cnt above.  This is redundant, but the  field  was  preserved
                      for compatibility reasons.

       tagsense_cnt   Number  of  senses of lemma that are ranked according to their frequency of
                      occurrence in semantic concordance texts.

       synset_offset  Byte  offset  in  data.pos  file  of  a  synset  containing  lemma.    Each
                      synset_offset  in  the  list  corresponds  to a different sense of lemma in
                      WordNet.  synset_offset is an 8 digit, zero-filled decimal integer that can
                      be  used with fseek(3) to read a synset from the data file.  When passed to
                      read_synset(3WN) along  with  the  syntactic  category,  a  data  structure
                      containing the parsed synset is returned.

   Data File Format
       Each data file begins with several lines containing a copyright notice, version number and
       license agreement.  These lines all begin with two spaces and the line number.  All  other
       lines  are  in  the  following  format.  Integer fields are of fixed length, and are zero-

       synset_offset  lex_filenum  ss_type  w_cnt  word  lex_id  [word  lex_id...]  p_cnt  [ptr...]  [frames...]  |  gloss

       synset_offset  Current byte offset in the file represented as an 8 digit decimal integer.

       lex_filenum    Two digit decimal integer corresponding  to  the  lexicographer  file  name
                      containing  the  synset.   See  lexnames(5WN) for the list of filenames and
                      their corresponding numbers.

       ss_type        One character code indicating the synset type:

                      n    NOUN
                      v    VERB
                      a    ADJECTIVE
                      s    ADJECTIVE SATELLITE
                      r    ADVERB

       w_cnt          Two digit hexadecimal integer indicating the number of words in the synset.

       word           ASCII form of a word as entered in the synset by  the  lexicographer,  with
                      spaces replaced by underscore characters (_).  The text of the word is case
                      sensitive, in contrast to its form in  the  corresponding  index.pos  file,
                      that  contains only lower-case forms.  In data.adj, a word is followed by a
                      syntactic marker if  one  was  specified  in  the  lexicographer  file.   A
                      syntactic  marker  is  appended,  in  parentheses,  onto  word  without any
                      intervening spaces.  See wninput(5WN) for a list of the  syntactic  markers
                      for adjectives.

       lex_id         One  digit  hexadecimal  integer  that,  when appended onto lemma, uniquely
                      identifies a sense within a lexicographer  file.   lex_id  numbers  usually
                      start  with  0,  and  are  incremented as additional senses of the word are
                      added to the same file, although there is no requirement that  the  numbers
                      be consecutive or begin with 0.  Note that a value of 0 is the default, and
                      therefore is not present in lexicographer files.

       p_cnt          Three digit decimal integer indicating the number  of  pointers  from  this
                      synset to other synsets.  If p_cnt is 000 the synset has no pointers.

       ptr            A pointer from this synset to another.  ptr is of the form:

                      pointer_symbol  synset_offset  pos  source/target

                      where  synset_offset  is  the  byte offset of the target synset in the data
                      file corresponding to pos.

                      The source/target field distinguishes lexical and semantic pointers.  It is
                      a  four  byte  field,  containing  two two-digit hexadecimal integers.  The
                      first two digits indicates the word number in the current (source)  synset,
                      the last two digits indicate the word number in the target synset.  A value
                      of 0000 means that pointer_symbol represents a  semantic  relation  between
                      the   current   (source)   synset   and  the  target  synset  indicated  by

                      A lexical relation between two words in different synsets is represented by
                      non-zero  values in the source and target word numbers.  The first and last
                      two bytes of this field indicate the word numbers in the source and  target
                      synsets,  respectively, between which the relation holds.  Word numbers are
                      assigned to the word fields in a synset, from left to right, beginning with

                      See  wninput(5WN)  for  a list of pointer_symbols, and semantic and lexical
                      pointer classifications.

       frames         In data.verb only, a list of numbers  corresponding  to  the  generic  verb
                      sentence frames for words in the synset.  frames is of the form:

                      f_cnt   +   f_num  w_num  [ +   f_num  w_num...]

                      where  f_cnt  a  two digit decimal integer indicating the number of generic
                      frames listed, f_num is a two digit decimal integer frame number, and w_num
                      is  a  two digit hexadecimal integer indicating the word in the synset that
                      the frame applies to.  As with  pointers,  if  this  number  is  00,  f_num
                      applies  to all words in the synset.  If non-zero, it is applicable only to
                      the word indicated.  Word numbers are assigned as described  for  pointers.
                      Each  f_num  w_num  pair is preceded by a +.  See wninput(5WN) for the text
                      of the generic sentence frames.

       gloss          Each synset contains a gloss.  A gloss is represented  as  a  vertical  bar
                      (|),  followed  by  a text string that continues until the end of the line.
                      The gloss may contain a definition, one or more example sentences, or both.

   Sense Numbers
       Senses in WordNet are generally ordered from most to least frequently used, with the  most
       common sense numbered 1.  Frequency of use is determined by the number of times a sense is
       tagged in the various semantic concordance texts.  Senses that are not semantically tagged
       follow  the  ordered senses.  The tagsense_cnt field for each entry in the index.pos files
       indicates how many of the senses in the list have been tagged.

       The cntlist(5WN) file provided with the database lists the number of times each  sense  is
       tagged in the semantic concordances.  The data from cntlist is used by grind(1WN) to order
       the senses of each word.  When the index.pos files are generated, the  synset_offsets  are
       output in sense number order, with sense 1 first in the list.  Senses with the same number
       of semantic tags are assigned unique but consecutive sense numbers.  The WordNet  OVERVIEW
       search  displays  all  senses  of  the  specified  word,  in all syntactic categories, and
       indicates which of the senses are represented in the semantically tagged texts.

   Exception List File Format
       Exception lists are alphabetized lists of inflected forms of words and their  base  forms.
       The  first  field of each line is an inflected form, followed by a space separated list of
       one or more base forms of the word.  There is one exception list file for  each  syntactic

       Note  that  the noun and verb exception lists were automatically generated from a machine-
       readable dictionary, and contain many words that are not in WordNet.  Also,  for  many  of
       the  inflected  forms,  base  forms  could  be  easily derived using the standard rules of
       detachment programmed into Morphy (See morph(7WN)).  These anomalies are allowed to remain
       in the exception list files, as they do no harm.

   Verb Example Sentences
       For  some  verb  senses,  example  sentences illustrating the use of the verb sense can be
       displayed.  Each line of the file sentidx.vrb contains a sense_key followed by a space and
       a  comma  separated  list  of  example  sentence  template  numbers, in decimal.  The file
       sents.vrb lists all of the example sentence templates.  Each line begins with the template
       number  followed  by  a  space.   The  rest  of the line is the text of a template example
       sentence, with %s used as a placeholder in the text for the verb.  Both files  are  sorted
       alphabetically  so that the sense_key and template sentence number can be used as indices,
       via binsrch(3WN), into the appropriate file.

       When a request for FRAMES is made,  the  WordNet  search  code  looks  for  the  sense  in
       sentidx.vrb.   If  found, the sentence template(s) listed is retrieved from sents.vrb, and
       the %s is replaced with the verb.  If the sense  is  not  found,  the  applicable  generic
       sentence frame(s) listed in frames is displayed.


       Information  in  the  data.pos  and  index.pos files represents all of the word senses and
       synsets in the WordNet database.   The  word,  lex_id,  and  lex_filenum  fields  together
       uniquely  identify  each  word  sense  in WordNet.  These can be encoded in a sense_key as
       described in senseidx(5WN).  Each synset in the database can  be  uniquely  identified  by
       combining  the  synset_offset for the synset with a code for the syntactic category (since
       it is possible for synsets in different data.pos files to have the same synset_offset).

       The WordNet system provide both command line and window-based browser  interfaces  to  the
       database.   Both  interfaces  utilize a common library of search and morphology code.  The
       source code for the library and interfaces  is  included  in  the  WordNet  package.   See
       wnintro(3WN) for an overview of the WordNet source code.


       WNHOME              Base directory for WordNet.  Default is /usr/local/WordNet-3.0.

       WNSEARCHDIR         Directory  in  which the WordNet database has been installed.  Default
                           is WNHOME/dict.


                           Base directory for WordNet.  Default is C:\Program Files\WordNet\3.0.


       index.pos           database index files

       data.pos            database data files

       *.vrb               files of sentences illustrating the use of verbs

       pos.exc             morphology exception lists


       grind(1WN), wn(1WN), wnb(1WN),  wnintro(3WN),  binsrch(3WN),  wnintro(5WN),  cntlist(5WN),
       lexnames(5WN),  senseidx(5WN),  wninput(5WN),  morphy(7WN),  wngloss(7WN),  wngroups(7WN),