Provided by: systemd_251.4-1ubuntu7_amd64 bug

NAME - Network device naming schemes


       Network interfaces names and MAC addresses may be generated based on certain stable
       interface attributes. This is possible when there is enough information about the device
       to generate those attributes and the use of this information is configured. This page
       describes interface naming, i.e. what possible names may be generated. Those names are
       generated by the systemd-udevd.service(8) builtin net_id and exported as udev properties

       Names and MAC addresses are derived from various stable device metadata attributes. Newer
       versions of udev take more of these attributes into account, improving (and thus possibly
       changing) the names and addresses used for the same devices. Different versions of those
       generation rules are called "naming schemes". The default naming scheme is chosen at
       compilation time. Usually this will be the latest implemented version, but it is also
       possible to set one of the older versions to preserve compatibility. This may be useful
       for example for distributions, which may introduce new versions of systemd in stable
       releases without changing the naming scheme. The naming scheme may also be overridden
       using the net.naming-scheme= kernel command line switch, see systemd-udevd.service(8).
       Available naming schemes are described below.

       After the udev properties have been generated, appropriate udev rules may be used to
       actually rename devices based on those properties. See the description of NamePolicy= and
       MACAddressPolicy= in

       Note that while the concept of network interface naming schemes is primarily relevant in
       the context of systemd-udevd.service, the systemd-nspawn(1) container manager also takes
       it into account when naming network interfaces, see below.


       All names start with a two-character prefix that signifies the interface type.

       Table 1. Two character prefixes based on the type of interface
       │PrefixDescription                 │
       │en     │ Ethernet                    │
       │ib     │ InfiniBand                  │
       │sl     │ Serial line IP (slip)       │
       │wl     │ Wireless local area network │
       │       │ (WLAN)                      │
       │ww     │ Wireless wide area network  │
       │       │ (WWAN)                      │

       The udev net_id builtin exports the following udev device properties:

           This name is set based on the numeric ordering information given by the firmware for
           on-board devices. The name consists of the prefix, letter o, and a number specified by
           the firmware. This is only available for PCI devices.

       ID_NET_LABEL_ONBOARD=prefix label
           This property is set based on textual label given by the firmware for on-board
           devices. The name consists of the prefix concatenated with the label. This is only
           available for PCI devices.

           This name consists of the prefix, letter x, and 12 hexadecimal digits of the MAC
           address. It is available if the device has a fixed MAC address. Because this name is
           based on an attribute of the card itself, it remains "stable" when the device is moved
           (even between machines), but will change when the hardware is replaced.

       ID_NET_NAME_SLOT=prefixvslot, ID_NET_NAME_SLOT=prefixxslot,
           This property describes the slot position. Different schemes are used depending on the
           bus type, as described in the table below. In case of USB, BCMA, and SR-VIO devices,
           the full name consists of the prefix, PCI slot identifier, and USB or BCMA or SR-VIO
           slot identifier. The first two parts are denoted as "..." in the table below.

           Table 2. Slot naming schemes
           │FormatDescription                     │
           │prefix [Pdomain] sslot [ffunction] [nport_name | ddev_port] │ PCI slot number                 │
           │prefix vslot                                                │ VIO slot number (IBM PowerVM)   │
           │prefix Xnumber                                              │ VIF interface number (Xen)      │
           │... bnumber                                                 │ Broadcom bus (BCMA) core number │
           │... uport... [cconfig] [iinterface]                         │ USB port number chain           │
           │... vslot                                                   │ SR-VIO slot number              │
           The PCI domain is only prepended when it is not 0. All multi-function PCI devices will
           carry the ffunction number in the device name, including the function 0 device. For
           non-multi-function devices, the number is suppressed if 0. The port name port_name is
           used, or the port number ddev_port if the name is not known.

           For BCMA devices, the core number is suppressed when 0.

           For USB devices the full chain of port numbers of hubs is composed. If the name gets
           longer than the maximum number of 15 characters, the name is not exported. The usual
           USB configuration number 1 and interface number 0 values are suppressed.

           SR-IOV virtual devices are named based on the name of the parent interface, with a
           suffix of v and the virtual device number, with any leading zeros removed. The bus
           number is ignored.

           In some configurations a parent PCI bridge of a given network controller may be
           associated with a slot. In such case we don't generate this device property to avoid
           possible naming conflicts.

       ID_NET_NAME_PATH=prefixcbus_id, ID_NET_NAME_PATH=prefixavendormodeliinstance,
           This property describes the device installation location. Different schemes are used
           depending on the bus type, as described in the table below. For BCMA and USB devices,
           PCI path information must known, and the full name consists of the prefix, PCI slot
           identifier, and USB or BCMA location. The first two parts are denoted as "..." in the
           table below.

           Table 3. Path naming schemes
           │FormatDescription                     │
           │prefix cbus_id                                                        │ CCW or grouped CCW device       │
           │                                                                      │ identifier                      │
           │prefix avendor model iinstance                                        │ ACPI path names for ARM64       │
           │                                                                      │ platform devices                │
           │prefix iaddress nport_name                                            │ Netdevsim (simulated networking │
           │                                                                      │ device) device number and port  │
           │                                                                      │ name                            │
           │prefix [Pdomain] pbus sslot [ffunction] [nphys_port_name | ddev_port] │ PCI geographical location       │
           │... bnumber                                                           │ Broadcom bus (BCMA) core number │
           │... uport... [cconfig] [iinterface]                                   │ USB port number chain           │
           CCW and grouped CCW devices are found in IBM System Z mainframes. Any leading zeros
           and dots are suppressed.

           For PCI, BCMA, and USB devices, the same rules as described above for slot naming are


       The following "naming schemes" have been defined (which may be chosen at system boot-up
       time via the net.naming-scheme= kernel command line switch, see above):

           This is the naming scheme that was implemented in systemd 238.

           Naming was changed for virtual network interfaces created with SR-IOV and NPAR and for
           devices where the PCI network controller device does not have a slot number

           SR-IOV virtual devices are named based on the name of the parent interface, with a
           suffix of "vport", where port is the virtual device number. Previously those virtual
           devices were named as if completely independent.

           The ninth and later NPAR virtual devices are named following the scheme used for the
           first eight NPAR partitions. Previously those devices were not renamed and the kernel
           default ("ethN") was used.

           Names are also generated for PCI devices where the PCI network controller device does
           not have an associated slot number itself, but one of its parents does. Previously
           those devices were not renamed and the kernel default was used.

           The "ib" prefix and stable names for infiniband devices are introduced. Previously
           those devices were not renamed.

           The ACPI index field (used in ID_NET_NAME_ONBOARD=) is now also used when 0.

           A new naming policy NamePolicy=keep was introduced. With this policy, if the network
           device name was already set by userspace, the device will not be renamed again.
           Previously, this naming policy applied implicitly, and now it must be explicitly
           requested. Effectively, this means that network devices will be renamed according to
           the configuration, even if they have been renamed already, if keep is not specified as
           the naming policy in the .link file. See for a description of

           MACAddressPolicy=persistent was extended to set MAC addresses based on the device
           name. Previously addresses were only based on the ID_NET_NAME_* attributes, which
           meant that interface names would never be generated for virtual devices. Now a
           persistent address will be generated for most devices, including in particular

           Note: when userspace does not set a MAC address for a bridge device, the kernel will
           initially assign a random address, and then change it when the first device is
           enslaved to the bridge. With this naming policy change, bridges get a persistent MAC
           address based on the bridge name instead of the first enslaved device.

           Support for renaming netdevsim (simulated networking) devices was added. Previously
           those devices were not renamed.

           Previously two-letter interface type prefix was prepended to ID_NET_LABEL_ONBOARD=.
           This is not done anymore.

           When systemd-nspawn(1) derives the name for the host side of the network interface
           created with --network-veth from the container name it previously simply truncated the
           result at 15 characters if longer (since that's the maximum length for network
           interface names). From now on, for any interface name that would be longer than 15
           characters the last 4 characters are set to a 24bit hash value of the full interface
           name. This way network interface name collisions between multiple similarly named
           containers (who only differ in container name suffix) should be less likely (but still
           possible, since the 24bit hash value is very small).

           When a PCI slot is associated with a PCI bridge that has multiple child network
           controllers, the same value of the ID_NET_NAME_SLOT property might be derived for
           those controllers. This would cause a naming conflict if the property is selected as
           the device name. Now, we detect this situation and don't produce the ID_NET_NAME_SLOT

           PCI hotplug slot names for the s390 PCI driver are a hexadecimal representation of the
           function_id device attribute. This attribute is now used to build the
           ID_NET_NAME_SLOT. Before that, all slot names were parsed as decimal numbers, which
           could either result in an incorrect value of the ID_NET_NAME_SLOT property or none at

           Some firmware and hypervisor implementations report unreasonably high numbers for the
           onboard index. To prevent the generation of bogus onbard interface names, index
           numbers greater than 16381 (2¹⁴-1) were ignored. For s390 PCI devices index values up
           to 65535 (2¹⁶-1) are valid. To account for that, the limit was increased to 65535.

           The udev rule NAME= replaces ":", "/", and "%" with an underscore ("_"), and refuses
           strings which contain only numerics.

           Added naming scheme for Xen netfront "vif" interfaces based on the guest side VIF
           number set from the Xen config (or the interface index in AWS EC2).

           Since version v247 we no longer set ID_NET_NAME_SLOT if we detect that a PCI device
           associated with a slot is a PCI bridge as that would create naming conflict when there
           are more child devices on that bridge. Now, this is relaxed and we will use slot
           information to generate the name based on it but only if the PCI device has multiple
           functions. This is safe because distinct function number is a part of the device name
           for multifunction devices.

       Note that latest may be used to denote the latest scheme known (to this particular version
       of systemd).


       Example 1. Using udevadm test-builtin to display device properties

           $ udevadm test-builtin net_id /sys/class/net/enp0s31f6
           Using default interface naming scheme 'v243'.
           ID_OUI_FROM_DATABASE=Wistron InfoComm(Kunshan)Co.,Ltd.

       Example 2. PCI Ethernet card with firmware index "1"

           ID_NET_NAME_ONBOARD_LABEL=Ethernet Port 1

       Example 3. PCI Ethernet card in hotplug slot with firmware index number

           # /sys/devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:1c.3/0000:05:00.0/net/ens1

       Example 4. PCI Ethernet multi-function card with 2 ports

           # /sys/devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:1c.0/0000:02:00.0/net/enp2s0f0

           # /sys/devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:1c.0/0000:02:00.1/net/enp2s0f1

       Example 5. PCI WLAN card

           # /sys/devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:1c.1/0000:03:00.0/net/wlp3s0

       Example 6. PCI IB host adapter with 2 ports

           # /sys/devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:03.0/0000:15:00.0/net/ibp21s0f0

           # /sys/devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:03.0/0000:15:00.1/net/ibp21s0f1

       Example 7. USB built-in 3G modem

           # /sys/devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:1d.0/usb2/2-1/2-1.4/2-1.4:1.6/net/wwp0s29u1u4i6

       Example 8. USB Android phone

           # /sys/devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:1d.0/usb2/2-1/2-1.2/2-1.2:1.0/net/enp0s29u1u2

       Example 9. s390 grouped CCW interface

           # /sys/devices/css0/0.0.0007/0.0.f5f0/group_device/net/encf5f0


       udev(7), udevadm(8), Predictable Network Interface Names[1], systemd-nspawn(1)


        1. Predictable Network Interface Names