Provided by: makedev_2.3.1-97_all bug


       MAKEDEV - create devices


       cd /dev; ./MAKEDEV [ -n ] [ -v ] [ update ]
       cd /dev; ./MAKEDEV [ -n ] [ -v ] [ generic ] [ local ] [ group-keyword ... device ... ]
       cd /dev; ./MAKEDEV [ -n ] [ -v ] [ -d ] device ...


       MAKEDEV is a script that will create the devices in /dev used to interface with drivers in
       the kernel.

       Note that programs giving the error ``ENOENT: No such file or directory''  normally  means
       that  the  device  file  is missing, whereas ``ENODEV: No such device'' normally means the
       kernel does not have the driver configured or loaded.


       -n     Do not actually update the devices, just print the actions that would be performed.

       -d     Delete the devices.  The main use for this flag is by MAKEDEV itself.

       -v     Be verbose.  Print out the actions as they are performed.  This is the same  output
              as produced by -n.


       Since  there  is  currently no standardisation in what names are used for system users and
       groups, it is possible that you  may  need  to  modify  MAKEDEV  to  reflect  your  site's
       settings.   Near  the  top  of  the  file is a mapping from device type to user, group and
       permissions (e.g. all CD-ROM devices are set from the $cdrom variable).  If  you  wish  to
       change the defaults, this is the section to edit.


       update This  only  works on kernels which have /proc/interrupts (introduced during 1.1.x).
              This file is scanned to see what devices are currently configured into the  kernel,
              and  this is compared with the previous settings stored in the file called DEVICES.
              Devices which are new since then or have a different major number are created,  and
              those which are no longer configured are deleted.

              Create  a generic subset of devices.  This subset consists of the standard devices,
              plus floppy drives, various hard drives, CD-ROM drives,  pseudo-terminals,  console
              devices,  basic serial devices, busmice, audio devices, video framebuffers, printer
              ports, and some specialized devices. The generic subset varies  somewhat  according
              to architecture; see the /dev/MAKEDEV script itself for details.

       local  This  simply  runs  MAKEDEV.local.   This  is  a  script  that can create any local


       MAKEDEV creates groups of devices when passed keywords for the group.  Each listing  below
       shows  the  MAKEDEV keyword and then lists the devices which will be created. Many devices
       can also be specified individually.


       std    Creates this group of standard devices: mem for access to physical memory, kmem for
              access  to  kernel  virtual  memory, null the null device (infinite sink), port for
              access to I/O ports, zero the null byte source (infinite source), core,  a  symlink
              to /proc/kcore (for kernel debugging), full which always returns ENOSPACE on write,
              random and urandom random byte generators, and tty to access the controlling tty of
              a  process.  The  loopback disk devices loop0 through loop7 are also created in the
              std group.  These allow you to use a regular file as a block device.  A  filesystem
              image  can  be  mounted,  and used as though it were a filesystem on a partition or
              other block device.  loop may also be used as a separate keyword to  create  the  8
              loop  devices.  Finally, the ram group of memory devices is also created by the std
              keyword (see below).


       ram    This is the keyword used to generate the ramdisk devices  ram{0..16}  and  the  ram
              symlink. This group does not include initrd.

       initrd Ramdisk  which  has been pre-initialized by a bootloader.  initrd is not created in
              the ram group; it must be specifically included in the command line if you want  it
              to be created.

       cpu or microcode
              Creates  the  CPU  microcode  update  interface  in  the  cpu/ folder, with devices
              microcode, and subfolders {0..3} each containing devices msr and cpuid.

       rom    Creates the rom{0..7} rrom{0..7} flaxh{0..7} and  rflash{0..7}  flash  memory  card
              devices.  rrom and rflash devices are read-only.


              This  keyword  creates  virtual consoles; tty{0..63} devices, the corresponding vcs
              and vcsa devices which are used to generate screen-dumps, and  the  console  device
              itself  plus  appropriate  symlinks.   To  create  the  console  device  alone, use
              consoleonly.  The device tty0 is the currently active virtual console. The  console
              device serves the same function.


       pty    This  keyword  creates  the  Pseudo-TTY  masters  pty{a..e,p..z}  and corresponding
              tty{a..e,p..z} devices, along with ptmx.  Each possible argument will create a bank
              of 16 master and slave pairs.  The master pseudo-terminals are pty{p..s}{0..9a..f},
              and the slaves are tty{p..s}{0..9a..f}.


              Standard  serial  ports.  There  is  no  group  keyword,  you  must  specify  these
              individually.  However  ttyS{0..3}  are  created  under the generic option for most

       cyclades or ttyC
              Creates Cyclades ports ttyC{0..31}.

       digi or ttyD
              Creates Digiboard serial card ports ttyD{0..15}.

       stallion or ttyE
              Creates Stallion devices ttyE{0..255} and staliomem{0..3}.

       computone or ttyF
              Creates  CompuTone   serial   card   ports   ttyH{0..255}   and   special   devices
              ip2ipl{0,4,8,12} and ip2stat{1,5,9,13}.

       chase or ttyH
              Creates Chase serial card ports ttyH{0..15}.

       isdnmodem or ttyI
              Creates isdn4linux virtual modem ports ttyI{0..63}.

              Also creates isdn4linux virtual modem ports ttyI{0..7}.

              Creates  ISDN  BRI  driver  devices  isdn{0..63}  isdnctrl{0..63}  ippp{0..63}  and

              Also creates ISDN BRI  driver  devices  isdn{0..7}  isdnctrl{0..7}  ippp{0..7}  and
              isdninfo.   The  isdn-ippp  keyword  can  be  used  separately  to  create only the
              ippp{0..7} devices.

       ppp    Creates a device independent PPP interface.

       dcbri  Creates Spellcaster DataComm/BRI ISDN card devices dcbri{0..3}.

       riscom or ttyL
              Creates Riscom serial card ports ttyL{0..15}.

       PAM or ttyM
              Creates PAM multimodem (or ISI serial card) ports ttyM{0..15}.

       ESP or ttyP
              Creates ESP ports ttyP{0..4}.

       rocketport or ttyR
              Creates Rocketport devices ttyR{0..63}.

       ttyV   Creates Comtrol VS-1000 serial controller ports ttyV{0..15}.

       specialixIO8 or ttyW
              Creates Specialix IO8+ ports ttyW{0..15}.

       specialix or ttyX
              Creates Specialix ports ttyX{0..15}.

       i2c    Creates i2c{0..7} devices for the I2C bus interface.

       tlk    Philips SAA5249 Teletext signal decoder {2.6} ports tlk{0..3}.


       lp     Creates the standard parallel ports lp0, lp1, and lp2 normally used  for  printers.
              These  correspond to ports at 0x3bc, 0x378 and 0x278.  Hence, on some machines, the
              first printer port may actually be lp1.

       par    Alternative to lp.  The same ports are created, but are named par{0..2} instead  of

              Creates raw parallel ports parport0, parport1, and parport2.

       slm    Creates the Atari SLM ACSI laser printer (68k/Atari) ports slm{0..3}.

       pg     Parallel port generic ATAPI interface (devices pg{0..3}.

       paride Parallel  port  IDE  disk devices pd{a..d} with 15 partitions on each. Also creates
              pcd{0..3} and pf{0..3}.


       netlink or tap
              Creates NetLink devices route skip fwmonitor and tap{0..15} Ethertap devices.   The
              tapx  virtual ethernet device was designed as low level kernel support for Ethernet
              tunneling. Userland application can write  Ethernet  frame  to  /dev/tapX  and  the
              kernel  will receive this frame from tapX interface.  Every frame the kernel writes
              to a tapX interface can be read by a userland application  from  the  corresponding
              /dev/tapX device.

       enskip ENskip kernel encryption package.

       qng    ComScire Quantum Noise Generator.

       ipsec  The Free S/WAN implementation of IPSEC.

       adb    On  powerpc, creates adb for the Apple Data Bus and adbmouse.  On m68k, adb creates
              the ACSI disk device adb and partitions adb1 through adb15.

              Creates the scc{0..7} and bc{0..3} device groups.

       comx   Creates COMX devices comx{0..4}.

       irda   Creates IrCOMM devices (IrDA serial/parallel emulation) ircomm0 ircomm1 irlpt0  and

       comedi Control and Measurement devices comedi{0..3}.


              This  keyword  creates  the  following  devices: logibm (Logitech bus mouse), psaux
              (PS/2-style mouse), inportbm (Microsoft Inport bus mouse) and  atibm  (ATI  XL  bus
              mouse) and jbm (J-mouse).

              Creates   mouse   devices   for   the  m68k  architecture,  including:  amigamouse,
              amigamouse1, atarimouse and adbmouse.

       input  On powerpc, this keyword creates the input folder which groups input devices  mice,
              mouse{0..3},  event{0..3},  and  js{0..3}  (joystick),  and  creates  these devices


       js     Joystick.  Creates js0 and js1.

       djs    Digital joystick. Creates djs0 and djs1.


       usb    USB is a general purpose I/O bus which can serve many  purposes.  The  usb  keyword
              creates  a usb folder, and devices in the folder: lp{0..15} (printer), mouse{0..15}
              (USB  connected  mice),  ez{0..15}  (firmware  loaders)   scanner{0..15}   (scanner
              interfaces),  ttyACM{0..15}  and  ttyUSB{0..15}  (dialout  devices), and rio500 the
              Diamond Rio 500 device.


              Floppy disk devices.  The device fdx is the device which  autodetects  the  format,
              and  the additional devices are fixed format (whose size is indicated in the name).
              The other devices are named as  fdx{dqhu}n.   The  single  letter  (d,  q,  hor  u)
              signifies  the  type  of  drive:  5.25" Double Density (d), 5.25" Quad Density (q),
              5.25" High Density (h) or 3.5" (any model, u). The number n represents the capacity
              of  that  format  in  K.   Thus the standard formats are fdxd360, fdxh1200, fdx720,
              fdx1440, and fdx2880.

              For more information see Alain Knaff's fdutils package.

              Devices fd0* through fd3* are floppy disks on the  first  controller,  and  devices
              fd4* through fd7* are floppy disks on the second controller.

              Creates  just  the  autodetecting floppy device specified, without the fixed format

              AT (ide) hard disks.  The device hdx provides access to the whole  disk,  with  the
              partitions  being  hdx{1..63}.   For  i386,  the  four  primary partitions are hdx1
              through hdx4, with the logical partitions being numbered from  hdx5  though  hdx20.
              (A  primary  partition  can  be  made  into an extended partition, which can hold 4
              logical partitions). Other architectures may not differentiate partition types.  By
              default,  devices  for 20 logical partitions are made. The kernel supports up to 63
              partitions per device.

              Drives hda and hdb are the two on the primary controller hdc and hdd  are  the  two
              drives  on  the secondary controller.  These devices can also be used to access IDE
              CDROMs. Additional devices hd{e..l} can be created.

              XT hard disks.  Partitions are the same as IDE disks, except only 8 partitions  are

              SCSI hard disks.  The partitions are similar to the IDE disks, but there is a limit
              of 11 logical partitions sdx5 through sdx15, to allow there to be 8 SCSI disks on a
              system (addresses 0 through 7).

              and  sd{a..d}{a..z} The kernel (and MAKEDEV) can handle up to 128 SCSI disks (up to
              sddx).  15 partition devices are created for each.

       eda edb
              MCA ESDI hard disk. Partitions are handled the same as hd.

              Direct Access Storage Devices for the s390 architecture. Currently only one  device
              partition is created (for example, dasda1).

              ACSI disk (68k/Atari). 15 partitions are created for each.

              Mylex  DAC960  PCI RAID controller. For this device, an rd directory is created. 32
              logical devices cxd{0..31} are created for each  unit  x  specified,  each  with  7
              partitions cxd{0..31}p{1..7}.  The dac960 keyword will create all 7 units at once.

       dpti   Adaptec  I2O  RAID  and  DPT  SmartRAID  V  I2O  controllers. Creates 7 devices for
              handling up to 7 controllers.

              Obsolete, device not in current devices.txt. For this device, an ataraid  directory
              is created.  dx is created for each unit x specified, and 15 partitions dxp{1..15}.
              The ataraid keyword will create all 7 units at once.

              I2O based harddisk drives. Device nodes are  located  in  the  i2o  directory.  The
              filename  is  followed  by  a number that specifies the partition on each disk. The
              numbers are handled the same as hd.

              Compaq Intelligent Drive Array. For this device, an ida directory  is  created.  16
              logical  devices  cxd{0..15}  are  created  for each unit x specified, each with 15
              partitions cxd{0..15}p{1..15}.  The ida keyword will create the first three units.

              Compaq Next Generation Drive Array. For this device, a cciss directory is  created.
              16  logical  devices cxd{0..15} are created for each unit x specified, each with 15
              partitions cxd{0..15}p{1..15}.  The cciss  keyword  will  create  the  first  three

       md     Creates Metadisk (RAID) disk array with 16 devices.


              SCSI  tape  devices.   This  creates  the  rewinding  tape  device stx and the non-
              rewinding tape device nstx, for each of modes 0 through 3.

       qic    QIC-11, -24, -120, and -150  tapes.   The  devices  created  are  ntpqic11  tpqic11
              ntpqic24 tpqic24 ntpqic120 tpqic120 ntpqic150 and tpqic150 tape devices, along with
              rmt8, rmt16, tape-d, and tape-reset.

              Floppy driver tapes (QIC-117).  There are 4 methods  of  access  depending  on  the
              floppy  tape  drive.   For  each  of access methods 0, 1, 2 and 3, the devices qftx
              zqftx and  rawqftx  (rewinding)  and  nqftx  nzqftx  nrawqdtx  (non-rewinding)  are
              created.   For  compatibility,  devices  ftape  and nftape are symlinks to qft0 and
              nqft0 respectively.

       ht0    Creates IDE tape devices ht0 and nht0.

              Creates parallel port ATAPI tape devices pt{0..3} and npt{0..3}.


       sr or scd or scd-all
              Creates scd{0..16} SCSI CD players and sr{0..16} symlinks for these devices.  cdrom
              is  a  symlink which can be created by the user to the active CD device.  It is not
              created by MAKEDEV.

              Provides packet writing devices pktcdvd{0..3} for CD/DVD.

              Parallel port ATAPI CD-ROM devices

       sonycd Sony CDU-31a CD-ROM

       mcd    Mitsumi CD-ROM

       mcdx   Obsolete, device not in current devices.txt.

       cdu535 Sony CDU-535 CD-ROM

       lmscd  Philips LMS CM-205 CD-ROM. The newer name for this device  is  cm205,  but  MAKEDEV
              creates only lmscd at this time.

              Philips LMS CM-206 CD-ROM

       bpcd   MicroSolutions BackPack parallel port CD-ROM (Obsolete - use pcd)

              Matsushita  (Panasonic/SoundBlaster)  CD-ROM.  Units  {0..3}  are  created with the
              keyword sbpcd.

       aztcd  Aztech/Orchid/Okano/Wearnes CD-ROM

       gscd   GoldStar CD-ROM

       optcd  Optics Storage CD-ROM

       sjcd   Sanyo CD-ROM

       hitcd  Hitachi CD-ROM


              Logitech ScanMan32 & ScanMan 256.

              Mustek M105 Handscanner.

       ac4096 A4Tek Color Handscanner.


       audio  This creates the audio devices used by  the  sound  driver.   These  include  mixer
              mixer{1..3}  (Mixer  controls), sequencer (Audio sequencer), dsp dsp{1..3} (Digital
              audio), sndstat (Sound card status  information),  audioctl  (SPARC  audio  control
              device)  and  audio  audio{1..3}  (Sun-compatible  digital audio). MIDI devices are
              midi00 through midi03, midi{0..3}, rmidi{0..3}, smpte{0..3}.  In addition,  devices
              mpu401data and mpu401stat are created.

              Devices for the PC Speaker sound driver.  These are pcmixer, pxsp, and pcaudio.


       fb     Creates framebuffer devices fb{0..7}, fb{0..7}current, fb{0..7}autodetect.

              If  the  framebuffer  number  x  is  specified, a group of fbxuser{0..7} devices is

       3dfx   is the 3Dfx Voodoo Graphics device.

              AGP Graphics Address Remapping Table

       video video4linux v4l radio
              Each of these keywords produces the  same  result:  Video  capture/overlay  devices
              video{0..63}, Radio devices radio{0..63}, Teletext devices vtx{0..31}, and Vertical
              blank interrupt devices vbi{0..31}.   In  addition,  the  winradio0  and  winradio1
              devices, and vtx and vttuner devices, and symlinks radio video and vbi are created.

       srnd   miroMEDIA Surround board devices srnd0 and srnd1.

       fgrab  Matrox  Meteor  frame  grabber  {2.6}.  Creates mmetfgrab, wvisfgrab, iscc0, iscc1,
              isccctl0, isccctl1, dcxx0, and dcxx1.


       sg or sg-all
              Generic SCSI devices.  The devices created  are  sg0  through  sg16.   These  allow
              arbitrary  commands  to be sent to any SCSI device, to query information or control
              SCSI devices that are not disk, tape or CDROM (for example,  scanner  or  writeable

       fd     To allow an arbitrary program to be fed input from file descriptor x, use /dev/fd/x
              as the file name.  This also  creates  /dev/stdin,  /dev/stdout,  and  /dev/stderr.
              (Note, these are just symlinks into /proc/self/fd).

       ibcs2  Devices socksys spx (and symlinks nfsd XOR) needed by the IBCS2 emulation.

       apm    apm_bios Advanced Power Management BIOS device.

       dcf    Driver for DCF-77 radio clock.

              Kernel modules demonstration device.  See the modules source.

       xfs or arla
              Arla XFS network file system.

       capi   CAPI 2.0 interface ports capi20{01..20}.

       ubd    User-mode block devices ubd{0..255}.

              Network block devices.

       raw    Creates  the  raw  block  device  interface  raw  device,  the  rawctl symlink, and

              IEEE 1394 (Firewire).

       misc   This  keyword  creates  all  the  following  devices.  You  may  find  the   device
              explanations  in other categories in this man page, many under OTHER DEVICES below.
              logibm, psaux, inportbm, atibm, jbm, amigamouse, atarimouse, sunmouse, amigamouse1,
              smouse,  pc110pad,  adbmouse,  beep, modreq, watchdog, temperature, hwtrap, exttrp,
              apm_bios, rtc, openprom,  relay8,  relay16,  msr,  pciconf,  nvram,  hfmodem,  led,
              mergemem, pmu.

       Network Devices
              Linux  used to have devices in /dev for controlling network devices, but that is no
              longer the case.  To see what network devices are known  by  the  kernel,  look  at


       Many of these devices are architecture-specific.

       scc    Z8530 HDLC driver (HAM radio)

       bc     Baycom radio modem (HAM radio)

       cfs0 or cfs or coda
              Coda network file system

              Sun mouse

       smouse Simple serial mouse driver

              IBM PC-110 digitizer pad

              Vr41xx embedded touch panel

              Connectix Virtual PC Mouse

       beep   Fancy beep device

       modreq Kernel module load request {2.6}

              Watchdog timer port

              Machine internal temperature

       hwtrap Hardware fault trap

       exttrp External device trap

       rtc    Real Time Clock

       efirtc Real Time Clock

              SPARC OpenBoot PROM

       relay8 Berkshire Products Octal relay card

              Berkshire Products ISO-16 relay card

       msr    x86 model-specific registers {2.6}

              PCI configuration space

       nvram  Non-volatile configuration RAM

              Soundcard shortwave modem control {2.6}

              Linux/SGI graphics device

       opengl Linux/SGI OpenGL pipe

       gfx    Linux/SGI graphics effects device

       lcd    Front panel LCD display

       led    Front panel LEDs

              Memory merge device

       pmu    Macintosh PowerBook power manager

       isictl MultiTech ISICom serial control

       ac     Applicom Intl Profibus card

              Netwinder external button

              Netwinder debug interface

              Netwinder flash memory

              User-space DMA access

       smbus  System Management Bus

       lik    Logitech Internet Keyboard

       ipmo   Intel Intelligent Platform Management

       vmmon  VMWare virtual machine monitor

       tcldrv Technology Concepts serial control

              Specialix serial control

              Specialix RIO serial control

       smapi or thinkpad
              IBM Thinkpad smapi device, and a symlink thinkpad.

       srripc QNX4 API IPC manager

              Semaphore clone device

       ipmi or ipmikcs
              Intelligent Platform Management

       uctrl  SPARCbook 3 microcontroller

       gtrsc  Gorgy Timing radio clock

       cbm    Serial CBM bus

              JavaStation OS flash SIMM

       xsvc   High-speed shared-mem/semaphore service

              Vr41xx button input device

              Toshiba laptop SMM support

              Performance-monitoring counters

              Intel i8x0 random number generator

              Atomic shapshot of process state data

       irnet  IrNET device

              SMBus BIOS

              User space serial port control

       crash  Mission Critical Linux crash dump facility

              NAS xbus LCD/buttons access

       d7s    SPARC 7-segment display

       zkshim Zero-Knowledge network shim control

       sexec  Signed executable interface

       kchuid Inter-process chuid control

       mptctl Message passing technology (MPT) control

              Transmeta GULP-B buttons

              Compaq PCI Hot Plug Controller

              Compaq Remote InsightDriver

              Elographics touchscreen E271-2201

              Fujitsu/Siemens application panel

              I2O configuration manager

              IMPI coprocessor block transfer

              IMPI coprocessor stream interface

              Linux/SGI Irix emulation mouse

              Linux/SGI Irix emulation keyboard

              MWave modem firmware upload

              Montavista PICMG hot swap system driver

              Montavista PICMG high availability

              TAP/TUN network device

              National Instruments Motion

              :CueCat barcode scanner

              UCB 1x00 touchscreen

              MK712 touchscreen

              EM8300 DVD decoder control

              EM8300 DVD decoder video

              EM8300 DVD decoder audio

              EM8300 DVD decoder subpicture

              Watchdog devices 0 through 3


       Linux  Allocated  Devices,  maintained  by  H. Peter  Anvin,  <>, and
       devices.txt in the Linux kernel source.


       Nick Holloway, rewritten and updated by Chris Tillman