Provided by: booth_1.0-237-gdd88847-4ubuntu3_amd64 bug


       boothd - The Booth Cluster Ticket Manager.


       boothd daemon [-SD] [-c config] [-l lockfile]

       booth list [-s site] [-c config]

       booth grant [-s site] [-c config] [-FCw] ticket

       booth revoke [-s site] [-c config] [-w] ticket

       booth peers [-s site] [-c config]

       booth status [-D] [-c config]


       Booth manages tickets which authorizes one of the cluster sites located in geographically
       dispersed distances to run certain resources. It is designed to be extend Pacemaker to
       support geographically distributed clustering.

       It is based on the RAFT protocol, see eg. for details.


           # boothd daemon -D

           # booth list

           # booth grant ticket-nfs

           # booth revoke ticket-nfs


       -c configfile
           Configuration to use.

           Can be a full path to a configuration file, or a short name; in the latter case, the
           directory /etc/booth and suffix .conf are added. Per default booth is used, which
           results in the path /etc/booth/booth.conf.

           The configuration name also determines the name of the PID file - for the defaults,

           Site address or name.

               The special value 'other' can be used to specify the other
               site. Obviously, in that case, the booth configuration must
               have exactly two sites defined.

           immediate grant: Don’t wait for unreachable sites to relinquish the ticket. See the
           Booth ticket management section below for more details. For manual tickets this option
           allows one to grant a ticket which is currently granted. See the Manual tickets
           section below for more details.

               This option may be DANGEROUS. It makes booth grant the ticket
               even though it cannot ascertain that unreachable sites don't
               hold the same ticket. It is up to the user to make sure that
               unreachable sites don't have this ticket as granted.

           wait for the request outcome: The client waits for the final outcome of grant or
           revoke request.

           wait for ticket commit to CIB: The client waits for the ticket commit to CIB (only for
           grant requests). If one or more sites are unreachable, this takes the ticket expire
           time (plus, if defined, the acquire-after time).

       -h, --help
           Give a short usage output.

           Report version information.

           systemd mode: don’t fork. Disables daemonizing, the process will remain in the

           Increases the debug output level.

       -l lockfile
           Use another lock file. By default, the lock file name is inferred from the
           configuration file name. Normally not needed.


       Whether the binary is called as boothd or booth doesn’t matter; the first argument
       determines the mode of operation.

           Tells boothd to serve a site. The locally configured interfaces are searched for an IP
           address that is defined in the configuration. booth then runs in either /arbitrator/
           or /site/ mode.

           Booth clients can list the ticket information (see also crm_ticket -L), and revoke or
           grant tickets to a site.

           The grant and, under certain circumstances, revoke operations may take a while to
           return a definite operation’s outcome. The client will wait up to the network timeout
           value (by default 5 seconds) for the result. Unless the -w option was set, in which
           case the client waits indefinitely.

           In this mode the configuration file is searched for an IP address that is locally
           reachable, ie. matches a configured subnet. This allows one to run the client commands
           on another node in the same cluster, as long as the config file and the service IP is
           locally reachable.

           For instance, if the booth service IP is, and the local node has
  configured on one of its network interfaces, it knows which site it
           belongs to.

           Use -s to direct client to connect to a different site.

           boothd looks for the (locked) PID file and the UDP socket, prints some output to
           stdout (for use in shell scripts) and returns an OCF-compatible return code. With -D,
           a human-readable message is printed to STDERR as well.

           List the other boothd servers we know about.

           In addition to the type, name (IP address), and the last time the server was heard
           from, network statistics are also printed. The statistics are split into two rows, the
           first one consists of counters for the sent packets and the second one for the
           received packets. The first counter is the total number of packets and descriptions of
           the other counters follows:

           Packets which had to be resent because the recipient didn’t acknowledge a message.
           This usually means that either the message or the acknowledgement got lost. The number
           of resends usually reflect the network reliability.

           Packets which either couldn’t be sent, got truncated, or were badly formed. Should be

           These packets contain either invalid or non-existing ticket name or refer to a
           non-existing ticket leader. Should be zero.

           Packets which couldn’t be authenticated. Should be zero.


       The configuration file must be identical on all sites and arbitrators.

       A minimal file may look like this:


       Comments start with a hash-sign ('#'). Whitespace at the start and end of the line, and
       around the '=', are ignored.

       The following key/value pairs are defined:

           The UDP/TCP port to use. Default is 9929.

           The transport protocol to use for Raft exchanges. Currently only UDP is supported.

           Clients use TCP to communicate with a daemon; Booth will always bind and listen to
           both UDP and TCP ports.

           File containing the authentication key. The key can be either binary or text. If the
           latter, then both leading and trailing white space, including new lines, is ignored.
           This key is a shared secret and used to authenticate both clients and servers. The key
           must be between 8 and 64 characters long and be readable only by the file owner.

           As protection against replay attacks, packets contain generation timestamps. Such a
           timestamp is not allowed to be too old. Just how old can be specified with this
           parameter. The value is in seconds and the default is 600 (10 minutes). If clocks vary
           more than this default between sites and nodes (which is definitely something you
           should fix) then set this parameter to a higher value. The time skew test is performed
           only in concert with authentication.

           Defines a site Raft member with the given IP. Sites can acquire tickets. The sites' IP
           should be managed by the cluster.

           Defines an arbitrator Raft member with the given IP. Arbitrators help reach consensus
           in elections and cannot hold tickets.

       Booth needs at least three members for normal operation. Odd number of members provides
       more redundancy.

       site-user, site-group, arbitrator-user, arbitrator-group
           These define the credentials boothd will be running with.

           On a (Pacemaker) site the booth process will have to call crm_ticket, so the default
           is to use hacluster:'haclient'; for an arbitrator this user and group might not
           exists, so there we default to nobody:'nobody'.

           Registers a ticket. Multiple tickets can be handled by single Booth instance.

           Use the special ticket name defaults to modify the defaults. The defaults stanza must
           precede all the other ticket specifications.

       All times are in seconds.

           The lease time for a ticket. After that time the ticket can be acquired by another
           site if the ticket holder is not reachable.

           The default is 600.

           Once a ticket is lost, wait this time in addition before acquiring the ticket.

           This is to allow for the site that lost the ticket to relinquish the resources, by
           either stopping them or fencing a node.

           A typical delay might be 60 seconds, but ultimately it depends on the protected
           resources and the fencing configuration.

           The default is 0.

           Set the ticket renewal frequency period.

           If the network reliability is often reduced over prolonged periods, it is advisable to
           try to renew more often.

           Before every renewal, if defined, the command or commands specified in
           before-acquire-handler is run. In that case the renewal-freq parameter is effectively
           also the local cluster monitoring interval.

           After that time booth will re-send packets if there was an insufficient number of
           replies. This should be long enough to allow packets to reach other members.

           The default is 5.

           Defines how many times to retry sending packets before giving up waiting for acks from
           other members.

           Default is 10. Values lower than 3 are illegal.

           Ticket renewals should allow for this number of retries. Hence, the total retry time
           must be shorter than the renewal time (either half the expire time or renewal-freq):

               timeout*(retries+1) < renewal

           A comma-separated list of integers that define the weight of individual Raft members,
           in the same order as the site and arbitrator lines.

           Default is 0 for all; this means that the order in the configuration file defines
           priority for conflicting requests.

           If set, this parameter specifies either a file containing a program to be run or a
           directory where a number of programs can reside. They are invoked before boothd tries
           to acquire or renew a ticket. If any of them exits with a code other than 0, boothd
           relinquishes the ticket.

           Thus it is possible to ensure whether the services and its dependencies protected by
           the ticket are in good shape at this site. For instance, if a service in the
           dependency-chain has a failcount of INFINITY on all available nodes, the service will
           be unable to run. In that case, it is of no use to claim the ticket.

           One or more arguments may follow the program or directory location. Typically, there
           is at least the name of one of the resources which depend on this ticket.

           See below for details about booth specific environment variables. The distributed
           service-runnable script is an example which may be used to test whether a pacemaker
           resource can be started.

           Sites can have GEO attributes managed with the geostore(8) program. Attributes are
           within ticket’s scope and may be tested by boothd for additional control of ticket
           failover (automatic) or ticket acquire (manual).

           Attributes are typically used to convey extra information about resources, for
           instance database replication status. The attributes are commonly updated by resource

           Attribute values are referenced in expressions and may be tested for equality with the
           eq binary operator or inequality with the ne operator. The usage is as follows:

               attr-prereq = <grant_type> <name> <op> <value>

               <grant_type>: "auto" | "manual"
               <name>:       attribute name
               <op>:         "eq" | "ne"
               <value>:      attribute value

           The two grant types are auto for ticket failover and manual for grants using the booth
           client. Only in case the expression evaluates to true can the ticket be granted.

           It is not clear whether the manual grant type has any practical use because,
           obviously, this operation is anyway controlled by a human.

           Note that there can be no guarantee on whether an attribute value is up to date, i.e.
           if it actually reflects the current state.

           Specifies if the ticket is manual or automatic.

           By default all tickets are automatic (that is, they are fully controlled by Raft
           algorithm). Assign the strings "manual" or "MANUAL" to define the ticket as manually

       One example of a booth configuration file:

           transport = udp
           port = 9930

           # D-85774
           # D-90409
           # A-1120

               expire        = 600
               acquire-after = 60
               timeout       = 10
               retries       = 5
               renewal-freq  = 60
               before-acquire-handler = /usr/share/booth/service-runnable db8
               attr-prereq = auto repl_state eq ACTIVE


       The booth cluster guarantees that every ticket is owned by only one site at the time.

       Tickets must be initially granted with the booth client grant command. Once it gets
       granted, the ticket is managed by the booth cluster. Hence, only granted tickets are
       managed by booth.

       If the ticket gets lost, i.e. that the other members of the booth cluster do not hear from
       the ticket owner in a sufficiently long time, one of the remaining sites will acquire the
       ticket. This is what is called ticket failover.

       If the remaining members cannot form a majority, then the ticket cannot fail over.

       A ticket may be revoked at any time with the booth client revoke command. For revoke to
       succeed, the site holding the ticket must be reachable.

       Once the ticket is administratively revoked, it is not managed by the booth cluster
       anymore. For the booth cluster to start managing the ticket again, it must be again
       granted to a site.

       The grant operation, in case not all sites are reachable, may get delayed for the ticket
       expire time (and, if defined, the acquire-after time). The reason is that the other booth
       members may not know if the ticket is currently granted at the unreachable site.

       This delay may be disabled with the -F option. In that case, it is up to the administrator
       to make sure that the unreachable site is not holding the ticket.

       When the ticket is managed by booth, it is dangerous to modify it manually using either
       crm_ticket command or crm site ticket. Neither of these tools is aware of booth and,
       consequently, booth itself may not be aware of any ticket status changes. A notable
       exception is setting the ticket to standby which is typically done before a planned


       Tickets are not meant to be moved around quickly, the default expire time is 600 seconds
       (10 minutes).

       booth works with both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses.

       booth renews a ticket before it expires, to account for possible transmission delays. The
       renewal time, unless explicitly set, is set to half the expire time.


       Currently, there’s only one external handler defined (see the before-acquire-handler
       configuration item above).

       The following environment variables are exported to the handler:

           The ticket name, as given in the configuration file. (See ticket item above.)

           The local site name, as defined in site.

           The path to the active configuration file.

           The configuration name, as used by the -c commandline argument.

           When the ticket expires (in seconds since 1.1.1970), or 0.

       The handler is invoked with positional arguments specified after it.


           The default configuration file name. See also the -c argument.

           There is no default, but this is a typical location for the shared secret
           (authentication key).

           Directory that holds PID/lock files. See also the status command.


       In essence, every ticket corresponds to a separate Raft cluster.

       A ticket is granted to the Raft Leader which then owns (or keeps) the ticket.


       The booth daemon for an arbitrator which typically doesn’t run the cluster stack, may be
       started through systemd or with /etc/init.d/booth-arbitrator, depending on which init
       system the platform supports.

       The SysV init script starts a booth arbitrator for every configuration file found in

       Platforms running systemd can enable and start every configuration separately using

           # systemctl enable booth@<configurationname>
           # systemctl start  booth@<configurationname>

       systemctl requires the configuration name, even for the default name booth.


       Manual tickets allow users to create and manage tickets which are subsequently handled by
       booth without using the Raft algorithm. Granting and revoking manual tickets is fully
       controlled by the administrator. It is possible to define a number of manual and normal
       tickets in one GEO cluster.

       Automatic ticket management provided by Raft algorithm isn’t applied to manually
       controlled tickets. In particular, there is no elections, automatic failover procedures,
       and term expiration.

       However, booth controls if a ticket is currently being granted to any site and warns the
       user approprietly.

       Tickets which were manually granted to a site, will remain there until they are manually
       revoked. Even if a site becomes offline, the ticket will not be moved to another site.
       This behavior allows administrators to make sure that some services will remain in a
       particular site and will not be moved to another site, possibly located in a different
       geographical location.

       Also, configuring only manual tickets in a GEO cluster, allows one to have just two sites
       in a cluster, without a need of having an arbitrator. This is possible because there is no
       automatic elections and no voting performed for manual tickets.

       Manual tickets are defined in a configuration files by adding a mode ticket parameter and
       setting it to manual or MANUAL:

               mode = manual

       Manual tickets can be granted and revoked by using normal grant and revoke commands, with
       the usual flags and parameters. The only difference is that specyfiyng -F flag during
       grant command, forced a site to become a leader of the specified ticket, even if the
       ticket is granted to another site.


           Success. For the status command: Daemon running.

           General error code.

           No daemon process for that configuration active.


       Booth is tested regularly. See the README-testing file for more information.

       Please report any bugs either at GitHub:

       Or, if you prefer bugzilla, at openSUSE bugzilla (component "High Availability"):


       boothd was originally written (mostly) by Jiaju Zhang.

       In 2013 and 2014 Philipp Marek took over maintainership.

       Since April 2014 it has been mainly developed by Dejan Muhamedagic.

       Many people contributed (see the AUTHORS file).





       Copyright © 2011 Jiaju Zhang

       Copyright © 2013-2014 Philipp Marek

       Copyright © 2014 Dejan Muhamedagic

       Free use of this software is granted under the terms of the GNU General Public License
       (GPL) as of version 2 (see COPYING file) or later.

                                            2022-08-04                                  BOOTHD(8)