Provided by: lsscsi_0.31-1build2_amd64 bug


       lsscsi - list SCSI devices (or hosts), list NVMe devices


       lsscsi  [--brief]  [--classic]  [--controllers]  [--device] [--generic] [--help] [--hosts]
       [--kname] [--list] [--long] [--long-unit] [--lunhex]  [--no-nvme]  [--pdt]  [--protection]
       [--protmode]  [--scsi_id]  [--size]  [--sysfsroot=PATH]  [--sz-lbs] [--transport] [--unit]
       [--verbose] [--version] [--wwn] [H:C:T:L]


       Uses information in sysfs (Linux kernel series 2.6 and later) to  list  SCSI  devices  (or
       hosts)  currently attached to the system. Many non-SCSI storage devices (but not all) used
       the SCSI subsystem in Linux. In lsscsi  version  0.30  support  was  added  to  list  NVMe

       In  single line per device (LU or NVMe namespace) mode, the default, each line starts with
       a 4 element tuple surrounded by square brackets. For SCSI devices the first element 'H' is
       the host number, the second element 'C' is the controller number, the third element 'T' is
       the target number and the final element is the Logical Unit Number  (LUN).  All  four  are
       integers.   For  NVMe namespaces see two paragraphs down. When the --hosts option is given
       for SCSI devices the tuple is reduced to one element: the host number.

       If a H:C:T:L tuple is given as an argument on the command line then it acts  as  a  filter
       and  only  devices that match it are listed. The colons don't have to be present, and '-',
       '*', '?' or missing components at the end are interpreted as  wildcards.  The  default  is
       '*:*:*:*'  which means to match devices (i.e.  Logical Units). Any filter string using '*'
       of '?'  should be surrounded by single or double quotes to stop shell expansions.  If  '-'
       is used as a wildcard then the whole filter tuple should be prefixed by '-- ' to tell this
       utility there are no more options on the command line to be interpreted.   A  leading  '['
       and  trailing  ']'  are permitted ( e.g. '[1:0:0]' matches all LUNs on 1:0:0). May also be
       used to filter --hosts in which case only the H is active and may be either a number or in
       the form "host<n>" where <n> is a host number.

       For  NVMe  devices  and controllers almost all of the previous paragraph applies. The main
       difference is that "N" appears in the 'H' (first) position.  The 'C' position for NVMe  is
       the controller's Linux generated "char" device minor number which is the first number that
       appears in a typical NVMe controller name, for example: "/dev/nvme2". The 'T' position for
       NVMe  is the "CNTLID" value. The final 'L' position is the NVMe namespace identifier which
       is typically a sequential value starting at 1. The leading explicit "N" for  NVMe  devices
       is  converted  internally  into  a large value (32,767) that should not interfere with any
       Linux generated SCSI host number; it also means that the numeric sort used to  show  hosts
       (controllers)  and  devices  (LUs  or  logical  units)  will always place NVMe devices and
       controllers after those that use the SCSI subsystem. To filter using  a  H:C:T:L  argument
       for  NVMe  controllers,  "hostN",  "hostN:<num>",  "N"  or  "N:<num>" may be used; when no
       "<num>" is given, only NVMe controllers will be  listed  (i.e.  it  lists  no  SCSI  hosts

       By  default  in  this  utility device node names (e.g. "/dev/sda" or "/dev/root_disk") are
       obtained by noting the major and minor numbers for the listed device obtained  from  sysfs
       (e.g.  the  contents  of  "/sys/block/sda/dev") and then looking for a match in the "/dev"
       directory. This "match by major and minor" will allow  devices  that  have  been  given  a
       different name by udev (for example) to be correctly reported by this utility.

       In  some  situations it may be useful to see the device node name that Linux would produce
       by default, so the --kname option is provided.  An example of where this may be useful  is
       kernel error logs which tend to report disk error messages using the disk's default kernel


       Arguments to long options are mandatory  for  short  options  as  well.  The  options  are
       arranged  in alphabetical order based on the long option name. Hyphenated long options can
       also take underscore, and vice versa (e.g. --scsi_id or --scsi-id are acceptable).

       -b, --brief
              reduces one line per device output to the tuple and the primary device name.   This
              may  simplify  scripts  that process the output of this utility. With the --generic
              option it will show on each line the tuple (from which the bsg pass-through  device
              name  can be deduced), the primary device name (which the block subsystem uses) and
              the sg device name (also a pass-through).
              When the --pdt option is used together with this option the SCSI Peripheral  Device
              Type  (PDT)  is  displayed  in  hex (with a leading "0x") between the tuple and the
              primary device name. For NVMe namespaces "0x0" is displayed (for a disk  or  direct
              access device).

       -c, --classic
              The output is similar to that obtained from 'cat /proc/scsi/scsi'

       -C, --controllers
              Lists NVMe controllers and SCSI hosts. This is a synonym for the --hosts option.

       -d, --device
              After  outputting  the  (probable) SCSI device name the device node major and minor
              numbers are shown in brackets (e.g. "/dev/sda[8:0]").

       -g, --generic
              Output the SCSI generic device file name. Note that if the sg driver is a module it
              may need to be loaded otherwise '-' may appear.
              NVMe  does not have generic (char) devices in the same sense as SCSI.  Instead NVMe
              Admin, NVM (i.e. block type commands such as Read and  Write)  and  MI  (Management
              Interface  (e.g.  to  an  enclosure))  commands  are  all  sent  to  the containing
              controller whose device name is shown when the --hosts option is used.
              To unclutter the single line per device mode the --brief option combined with  this
              option should help.

       -h, --help
              Output the usage message and exit.

       -H, --hosts
              List  the SCSI hosts and NVMe controllers currently attached to the system. If this
              option is not given (and the --controllers option is not given) then  SCSI  devices
              (logical units (LUs)) followed by NVMe devices (namespaces) are listed.

       -k, --kname
              Use  Linux  default  algorithm  for  naming devices (e.g. block major 8, minor 0 is
              "/dev/sda") rather than the "match by major and minor" in the "/dev"  directory  as
              discussed above.

       -L, --list
              Output  additional information in <attribute_name>=<value> pairs, one pair per line
              preceded by two spaces. This option has the same effect as '-lll'.

       -l, --long
              Output additional information for each SCSI device (host).  Can  be  used  multiple
              times  for  more  output  in  which case the shorter option form is more convenient
              (e.g. '-lll'). When used three times  (i.e.  '-lll')  outputs  SCSI  device  (host)
              attributes    one    per    line;   preceded   by   two   spaces;   in   the   form

       -U, --long-unit
              Output logical unit name in full, if available.  It  replaces  the  normal  vendor,
              product  and revision strings given in the single logical unit per line mode. If no
              logical unit name is found "none" is printed. If the  logical  unit  name  is  long
              (e.g.  a  UUID)  then following fields are pushed further to the right as required.
              This option is functionally equivalent to the '-uuu' option.
              If the option is used twice (e.g. '-UU') then EUI, NAA,  UUID  and  T10  vendor  ID
              formats are prefixed by "eui.", "naa.", "uuid." and "t10." respectively.  Note that
              SCSI name format used by iSCSI should already be  prefixed  by  'iqn.'.  Using  the
              '--unit' option 4 or more times (e.g. '-uuuu') will have the same action as '-UU'.
              --long_unit is also an acceptable form when invoking this option.

       -x, --lunhex
              when  this  option  is  used once the LUN in the tuple (at the start of each device
              line) is shown in "T10" format which is up to 16 hexadecimal digits. It is prefixed
              by  "0x" to distinguish the LUN from the decimal value shown in the absence of this
              option. Also hierarchal LUNs are shown with a "_" character separating the  levels.
              For  example  the  two level LUN: 0x0355006600000000 will appear as 0x0355_0066. If
              this option is given twice (e.g. using the short form:  '-xx')  then  the  full  16
              hexadecimal digits are shown for each LUN, prefixed by "0x".
              For NVMe, the namespace identifier (nsid) is shown in the "L" position. The nsid is
              a 32 bit unsigned quantities  with  0x0  and  0xffffffff  reserved.   Without  this
              option,  the  nsid  is  shown in decimal. When this option is used once the nsid is
              output in hex with a lead 0x and with up to 3 leading zeros.  When this  option  is
              used twice the nsid is output in hex with up to 7 leading zeros.

       -N, --no-nvme
              this  option  excludes NVMe devices and controllers for the output. This option may
              be needed to stop NVMe device output interfering with specific format  output  like
              that produced when the --classic option is used.
              To  only  show  NVMe  devices,  use  'lsscsi N', to only show NVMe controllers, use
              'lsscsi -H N'.

       -D, --pdt
              this option displays the SCSI Peripheral Device Type (PDT) in hex preceded by "0x".
              For  NVME namespaces "0x0' is displayed which corresponds to a disk ("Direct Access
              Device" or SSD). In single line output  this  hex  PDT  replaces  the  device  type
              abbreviation (e.g. "0x0     " replaces "disk    ") and appears after the tuple.

       -p, --protection
              Output target (DIF) and initiator (DIX) protection types.

       -P, --protmode
              Output effective protection information mode for each disk device.

       -i, --scsi_id
              outputs the udev derived matching id found in /dev/disk/by-id/scsi* .  This is only
              for disk (and disk like) devices. If no match is found  then  "dm-uuid-mpath*"  and
              "usb*"  are  searched  in  the same directory.  If there is still no match then the
              /sys/class/block/<disk>/holders directory is searched. The matching id  is  printed
              following the device name (e.g.  /dev/sdc) and if there is no match "-" is output.

       -s, --size
              Print  disk  capacity  in  human  readable form. When given once, normal base 10 SI
              units are used as a prefix for 'B' which is bytes (aka octets).  For example MB, GB
              and  TB  stand  for  10^6, 10^9 and 10^12 bytes respectively. When given twice, IEC
              80000-3 prefixes for 'B' are used; for example MiB, GiB and  TiB  stand  for  2^20,
              2^30  and  2^40  bytes respectively. The output is rounded to 3 or less significant
              figures in order to fit on a single line.  It will also  output  the  size  of  RBC
              devices,  CD/DVD  media and host managed ZBC disks. Host aware ZBC disks have their
              "peripheral device type" set to 0 (the same as  normal  disks)  so  their  size  is
              If  given  three  times  (short  form is the more convenient: '-sss') then the disk
              capacity as a logical block count is given. This is  an  exact  figure  in  decimal
              reported by the storage device at discovery. Discovery is typically just after boot
              time, or when it was last attached if the storage device is removable.
              To unclutter the single line per device mode the --brief option combined with  this
              option should help.

       -y, --sysfsroot=PATH
              assumes  sysfs is mounted at PATH instead of the default '/sys' . If this option is
              given PATH should be an absolute path (i.e. start with '/').

       -S, --sz-lbs
              Print disk capacity as a number of logical blocks (which is the  same  as  '-sss').
              When  used  twice  a comma is added followed by the logical block size in bytes. It
              should be a number like 512 or 4096.
              If the logical block size cannot be  found  (e.g.  because  the  version  of  Linux
              predates  the  /sys/block/<dev_name>/queue  directory)  then the number of 512 byte
              blocks followed comma and then '512'  is  output  irrespective  of  what  the  true
              logical  block  size of the device is. This special case action occurs whether this
              option is given one or more times.
              To unclutter the single line per device mode the --brief option combined with  this
              option should help.

       -t, --transport
              Output  transport  information.  This  will  be  target  related information or, if
              --hosts is given, initiator related information. When used without --list,  a  name
              or  identifier  (or both) are output on a single line, usually prefixed by the type
              of transport. For devices this information replaces the normal vendor, product  and
              revision  strings.  When the --list option is also given then additionally multiple
              lines of attribute_name=value pairs are output, each indented by  two  spaces.  See
              the section on transports below.

       -u, --unit
              Output logical unit name, if available. If this option is given once or twice, then
              the 30 character field where the vendor, product and revision strings  are  usually
              placed  is  expanded  to 32 characters and replaced by the logical unit name. If no
              logical unit name is found "none" is printed.  The first found of the  NAA,  EUI-64
              or SCSI name string is output unless a SCSI name string is found and the associated
              target port indicates the iSCSI protocol, in which case the  SCSI  name  string  is
              preferred. Finally if there is no match on the above and a T10 Vendor ID descriptor
              is found then it is used.
              If the name cannot fit in the 32 character field then it is truncated to the  right
              and  a trailing '_' character is used to alert the reader to the truncation. The 32
              character width is chosen since that is large enough to hold 16 byte NAA or  EUI-64
              identifiers. However SCSI name strings as used by iSCSI can be larger than that.
              If  this  option  is  used  twice then this field is also 32 character wide. If the
              logical unit name cannot fit then it will be truncated to the left  and  a  leading
              '_' character is used to alert the reader to the truncation.
              If  this option is used three times the whole logical unit name is output, followed
              by several spaces.
              In order for this option to work, it needs a Linux kernel from and including 3.15 .
              It  accesses  the  sysfs vpd_pg83 file for the device in question. Old SCSI and ATA
              (SATA) equipment may not provide this information. If it is provided by ATA  (SATA)
              then it will be the WWN.

       -v, --verbose
              outputs  directory  names  where  information is found. Use multiple times for more

       -V, --version
              outputs version information then exits. If used once outputs  to  stderr;  if  used
              twice outputs to stdout and shortens the date to yyyymmdd numeric format.

       -w, --wwn
              outputs  the  WWN for disks instead of manufacturer, model and revision (or instead
              of transport information). The World Wide Name (WWN) is typically 64 bits long  (16
              hex  digits)  but could be up to 128 bits long. To indicate the WWN is hexadecimal,
              it is prefixed by "0x". The ATA/SATA WWN is referred to as LU name in SCSI  jargon;
              hence this option is more or less superseded by the --unit and --long-unit options.


       This  utility  lists  SCSI  devices  which  are  known  as  logical units (LU) in the SCSI
       Architecture Model (ref: SAM-5 at or hosts when the --hosts option  is
       given.  A  host  is  called  an  initiator  in  SAM-5.  A  SCSI command travels out via an
       initiator, across some transport to a target and then onwards to a logical unit. A  target
       device  may  contain several logical units. A target device has one or more ports that can
       be viewed as transport end points. Each FC and SAS disk is a single target  that  has  two
       ports  and  contains  one  logical  unit.  If  both  target  ports on a FC or SAS disk are
       connected and visible to a machine, then lsscsi will show two  entries.  Initiators  (i.e.
       hosts)  also have one or more ports and some HBAs in Linux have a host entry per initiator
       port while others have a host entry per initiator device.

       When the --transport option is given for devices (i.e.  --hosts not given)  then  most  of
       the  information  produced by lsscsi is associated with the target, or more precisely: the
       target port, through which SCSI commands pass that access a logical unit.

       Typically this utility provides one line of output per "device"  or  host.   Significantly
       more  information can be obtained by adding the --list option. When used together with the
       --transport  option,  after  the  summary  line,  multiple  lines  of  transport  specific
       information  in  the  form  "<attribute_name>=<value>"  are  output,  each indented by two
       spaces.  Using a filter argument will reduce the volume of output if a lot of  devices  or
       hosts are present.

       The  transports  that  are currently recognized are: IEEE 1394, ATA, FC, iSCSI, SAS, SATA,
       SPI, SRP and USB.

       For IEEE 1394 (a.k.a. Firewire and "SBP" when  storage  is  involved),  the  EUI-64  based
       target  port  name  is  output  when  --transport  is given, in the absence of the --hosts
       option. When the --hosts option is given then the EUI-64 initiator port  name  is  output.
       Output on the summary line specific to the IEEE 1394 transport is prefixed by "sbp:".

       To  detect  ATA  and SATA devices a crude check is performed on the driver name (after the
       checks for other transports are exhausted). Based on the driver name  either  the  ATA  or
       SATA  transport  type is chosen. Output on the summary line is either "ata:" or "sata:". A
       search is made for an associated vpd_pg83 file in sysfs,  if  found  it  may  contain  the
       device's  WWN  which is output if present. The WWN will not appear in Linux kernels before
       3.15 and with old PATA and SATA devices. Most device and hosts flagged as "ata:" will  use
       the  parallel ATA transport (PATA). For SATA devices that are attached via a SAS expander,
       see the SAS paragraph below.

       For Fibre Channel (FC) the port name and port identifier are output  when  --transport  is
       given.  In  the  absence  of  the  --hosts  option  these  ids will be for the target port
       associated with the device (logical unit) being listed. When the --hosts option  is  given
       then  the  ids  are  for  the  initiator port used by the host. Output on the summary line
       specific to the FC transport is prefixed by "fc:".  If FCoE (over  Ethernet)  is  detected
       the prefix is changed to "fcoe:".

       For  iSCSI the target port name is output when --transport is given, in the absence of the
       --hosts option. This is made up of the iSCSI name and the target portal group  tag.  Since
       the  iSCSI  name  starts  with "iqn" no further prefix is used. When the --hosts option is
       given then only "iscsi:" is output on the summary line.

       For Serial Attached SCSI the SAS address of the target port (or initiator port if  --hosts
       option  is  also  given)  is  output.  This  will be a naa-5 address. For SAS HBAs and SAS
       targets (such as SAS disks and tape drives) the SAS address will be world wide unique. For
       SATA  disks  attached to a SAS expander, the expander provides the SAS address by adding a
       non zero value to its (i.e. the  expander's)  SAS  address  (e.g.  expander_sas_address  +
       phy_id  +  1).  SATA disks directly attached to SAS HBAs seem to have an indeterminate SAS
       address. Output on the summary line specific to the SAS transport is prefixed by "sas:".

       For SATA devices, see the paragraph above  on  ATA  devices.  As  noted  in  the  previous
       paragraph,  SATA  devices  attached  to  SAS  expanders  will  display  a manufactured SAS
       transport address (manufactured by the expander) rather than the SATA device's WWN.

       For the SCSI Parallel Interface (SPI) the target port identifier (usually a number between
       0  and  15  inclusive)  is output when --transport is given, in the absence of the --hosts
       option. When the --hosts option is given then only "spi:" is output on the summary line.

       For the PCIe transport (a.k.a. PCI Express) there at two possible storage types: NVMe  and
       SOP/PQI  (SCSI  over  PCIe).  There  are very few examples of the latter currently so this
       utility concentrates on NVMe. NVMe uses its own command set and  not  SCSI  but  has  many
       things  in  common.  Rather  than  re-invent  everything  currently  in  use that SCSI has
       accumulated over nearly 40 years, NVMe is beginning to use some parts of  SCSI.  A  recent
       example is the SES-3 standard for enclosure management which has been adopted by NVMe.  In
       SCSI a SES device is a logical unit with a  peripheral  device  type  (PDT)  of  0xd  (for
       enclosure)  so  it  will appear when the lsscsi utility is invoked without any options. In
       NVMe is seems that an enclosure with appear as attached to the management  interface  (MI)
       of  a NVMe controller. This means it should appear when "lsscsi --hosts" is invoked. It is
       unclear whether such a NVMe controller can have any storage namespaces associated with it.
       The  sg_ses  utility  (in  the sg3_utils package) can then be given that NVMe controller's
       device name (e.g. /dev/nmve1).
       When the --transport option is given, after "pcie" the NVMe controller's subsystem  vendor
       id and device id are output, separated by a colon (e.g. "pcie 0x8086:0x390a").

       For the SCSI RDMA Protocol (SRP) the IB (InfiniBand) port's GUID is given.  As an example,
       it has a form like this: 0002:c903:00fa:abcd .

       When a USB transport is detected, the summary line will contain "usb:" followed by  a  USB
       device  name.  The USB device name has the form "<b>-<p1>[.<p2>[.<p3>]]:<c>.<i>" where <b>
       is the USB bus number, <p1> is the port on the host. <p2> is a port on  a  host  connected
       hub,  if  present.  If needed <p3> is a USB hub port closer to the USB storage device. <c>
       refers to the configuration number while <i> is the interface number. There is a  separate
       SCSI  host  for  each  USB  (SCSI)  target. A USB SCSI target may contain multiple logical
       units. Thus the same "usb: <device_name>" string appears for  a  USB  SCSI  host  and  all
       logical units that belong to the USB SCSI target associated with that USB SCSI host.


       For  historical  reasons  and as used by several other Unix based Operating Systems, Linux
       uses a tuple of integers to describe (a path to) a SCSI device (also  know  as  a  Logical
       Unit (LU)). The last element of that tuple is the so-called Logical Unit Number (LUN). And
       originally in SCSI a LUN was an integer, at first 3 bits long, then 8 then 16  bits.  SCSI
       LUNs  today (SAM-5 section 4.7) are 64 bits but SCSI standards now consider a LUN to be an
       array of 8 bytes.

       Up until 2013, Linux mapped SCSI LUNs to a 32 bit integer by taking the first 4  bytes  of
       the  SCSI LUN and ignoring the last 4 bytes. Linux treated the first two bytes of the SCSI
       LUN as a unit (a word) and it became the least  significant  16  bits  in  the  Linux  LUN
       integer.  The  next  two  bytes  of the SCSI LUN became the upper 16 bits in the Linux LUN
       integer. The rationale for this was to keep commonly used LUNs small Linux  LUN  integers.
       The  most  common  LUN  (by far) in SCSI LUN (hex) notation is 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 and
       this becomes the Linux LUN integer 0. The next most common LUN is 00 01 00 00 00 00 00  00
       and this becomes the Linux LUN integer 1.

       In 2013 it is proposed to increase Linux LUNs to a 64 bit integer by extending the mapping
       outlined above. In this case all information that is possible to represent in a  SCSI  LUN
       is  mapped  a  Linux  LUN (64 bit) integer. And the mapping can be reversed without losing

       This version of the utility supports both 32 and 64 bit Linux LUN  integers.   By  default
       the  LUN  shown  at  the end of the tuple commencing each line is a Linux LUN as a decimal
       integer. When the --lunhex option is given then the LUN is in SCSI LUN format with  the  8
       bytes  run  together,  with  the  output  in  hexadecimal and prefixed by '0x'. The LUN is
       decoded according to SAM-5's description and trailing zeros (i.e. digits to the right) are
       not  shown. So LUN 0 (i.e. 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00) is shown as 0x0000 and LUN 65 (i.e. 00
       41 00 00 00 00 00 00) is shown as 0x0041.  If the --lunhex option is given twice then  the
       full 64 bits (i.e. 16 hexadecimal digits) are shown.

       If  the  --lunhex  option  is  not given on the command line then the environment variable
       LSSCSI_LUNHEX_OPT is checked. If LSSCSI_LUNHEX_OPT is present then  its  associated  value
       becomes   the   number  of  times  the  --lunhex  is  set  internally.  So,  for  example,
       'LSSCSI_LUNHEX_OPT=2  lsscsi' and 'lsscsi -xx' are equivalent.


       Information  about   this   utility   including   examples   can   also   be   found   at: .


       Information for this command is derived from the sysfs file system, which is assumed to be
       mounted at /sys unless specified otherwise by the user.  SCSI (pseudo) devices  that  have
       been  detected  by  the  SCSI  mid  level  will be listed even if the required upper level
       drivers (i.e. sd, sr, st, osst or ch) have not been loaded. If the appropriate upper level
       driver  has  not  been  loaded  then  the  device file name will appear as '-' rather than
       something like '/dev/st0'. Note that some devices (e.g. scanners and medium  changers)  do
       not  have  a  primary  upper level driver and can only be accessed via a SCSI generic (sg)
       device name.

       Generic SCSI devices can also be accessed via the bsg driver in Linux.   By  default,  the
       bsg  driver's  device  node names are of the form '/dev/bsg/H:C:T:L'. So, for example, the
       SCSI device shown by this utility on a line starting with the  tuple  '6:0:1:2'  could  be
       accessed via the bsg driver with the '/dev/bsg/6:0:1:2' device node name.

       lsscsi version 0.21 or later is required to correctly display SCSI devices in Linux kernel
       2.6.26 (and possibly later) when  the  CONFIG_SYSFS_DEPRECATED_V2  kernel  option  is  not


       Written by Doug Gilbert


       Report bugs to <dgilbert at interlog dot com>.


       Copyright © 2003-2020 Douglas Gilbert
       This  software  is distributed under the GPL version 2. There is NO warranty; not even for


       lspci lsusb lsblk