Provided by: makefs_20190105-3_amd64 bug


     makefs — create a filesystem image from a directory tree


     makefs [-x] [-B byte-order] [-b free-blocks] [-d debug-mask] [-F specfile] [-f free-files]
            [-M minimum-size] [-m maximum-size] [-N userdb-dir] [-o fs-options] [-S sector-size]
            [-s image-size] [-t fs-type] [-T maximum-time] image-file directory


     The utility makefs creates a filesystem image into image-file from the directory tree
     directory.  No special devices or privileges are required to perform this task.

     The options are as follows:

     -B byte-order
           Set the byte order of the image to byte-order.  Valid byte orders are ‘4321’, ‘big’,
           or ‘be’ for big endian, and ‘1234’, ‘little’, or ‘le’ for little endian.  Some
           filesystems may have a fixed byte order; in those cases this argument will be ignored.

     -b free-blocks
           Ensure that a minimum of free-blocks free blocks exist in the image.  An optional ‘%’
           suffix may be provided to indicate that free-blocks indicates a percentage of the
           calculated image size.

     -d debug-mask
           Enable various levels of debugging, depending upon which bits are set in debug-mask.
           XXX: document these

     -F specfile
           Use specfile as an mtree(8) ‘specfile’ specification.

           If a specfile entry exists in the underlying filesystem, its permissions and
           modification time will be used unless specifically overridden by the specfile.  An
           error will be raised if the type of entry in the specfile conflicts with that of an
           existing entry.

           In the opposite case (where a specfile entry does not have an entry in the underlying
           filesystem) the following occurs: If the specfile entry is marked optional, the
           specfile entry is ignored.  Otherwise, the entry will be created in the image, and it
           is necessary to specify at least the following parameters in the specfile: type, mode,
           gname, or gid, and uname or uid, device (in the case of block or character devices),
           and link (in the case of symbolic links).  If time isn't provided, the current time
           will be used.  If flags isn't provided, the current file flags will be used.  Missing
           regular file entries will be created as zero-length files.

     -f free-files
           Ensure that a minimum of free-files free files (inodes) exist in the image.  An
           optional ‘%’ suffix may be provided to indicate that free-files indicates a percentage
           of the calculated image size.

     -M minimum-size
           Set the minimum size of the filesystem image to minimum-size.

     -m maximum-size
           Set the maximum size of the filesystem image to maximum-size.  An error will be raised
           if the target filesystem needs to be larger than this to accommodate the provided
           directory tree.

     -N dbdir
           Use the user database text file master.passwd and group database text file group from
           dbdir, rather than using the results from the system's getpwnam(3) and getgrnam(3)
           (and related) library calls.

     -o fs-options
           Set filesystem specific options.  fs-options is a comma separated list of options.
           Valid filesystem specific options are detailed below.

     -S sector-size
           Set the filesystem sector size to sector-size.  Defaults to 512.

     -s image-size
           Set the size of the filesystem image to image-size.

     -t fs-type
           Create an fs-type filesystem image.  The following filesystem types are supported:

                 ffs     BSD fast filesystem (default).

                 cd9660  ISO 9660 filesystem.

     -T maximum-time
           Clamp superblock and file timestamps to maximum-time seconds since the Epoch.

     -x    Exclude filesystem nodes not explicitly listed in the specfile.

     Where sizes are specified, a decimal number of bytes is expected.  Two or more numbers may
     be separated by an “x” to indicate a product.  Each number may have one of the following
     optional suffixes:
           b    Block; multiply by 512
           k    Kibi; multiply by 1024 (1 KiB)
           m    Mebi; multiply by 1048576 (1 MiB)
           g    Gibi; multiply by 1073741824 (1 GiB)
           t    Tebi; multiply by 1099511627776 (1 TiB)
           w    Word; multiply by the number of bytes in an integer

   FFS-specific options
     ffs images have ffs-specific optional parameters that may be provided.  Each of the options
     consists of a keyword, an equal sign (‘=’), and a value.  The following keywords are

           avgfilesize   Expected average file size.
           avgfpdir      Expected number of files per directory.
           bsize         Block size.
           density       Bytes per inode.
           fsize         Fragment size.
           maxbpg        Maximum blocks per file in a cylinder group.
           minfree       Minimum % free.
           optimization  Optimization preference; one of ‘space’ or ‘time’.
           extent        Maximum extent size.
           maxbpcg       Maximum total number of blocks in a cylinder group.
           version       UFS version.  1 for FFS (default), 2 for UFS2.

   CD9660-specific options
     cd9660 images have ISO9660-specific optional parameters that may be provided.  The arguments
     consist of a keyword and, optionally, an equal sign (‘=’), and a value.  The following
     keywords are supported:

           allow-deep-trees      Allow the directory structure to exceed the maximum specified in
                                 the spec.
           allow-max-name        Allow 37 instead of 33 characters for filenames by omitting the
                                 version id.
           allow-multidot        Allow multiple dots in a filename.
           applicationid         Application ID of the image.
           archimedes            Use the ‘ARCHIMEDES’ extension to encode RISC OS metadata.
           boot-info-table       Write a legacy 56-byte table at offset 8 into the boot image
                                 (see below).
           boot-load-segment     Set load segment for the boot image.
           bootimage             Filename of a boot image in the format “sysid;filename”, where
                                 “sysid” is one of ‘i386’, ‘mac68k’, ‘macppc’, or ‘powerpc’.
           creation-date         Override PVD creation date.
           effective-date        Override PVD effective date.
           expiration-date       Override PVD expiration date.
           generic-bootimage     Load a generic boot image into the first 32K of the cd9660
           hard-disk-boot        Boot image is a hard disk image.
           hide-rr-moved         Assign the RR_MOVED directory a rock ridge name of the empty
                                 string instead of the default .rr_moved.
           keep-bad-images       Don't throw away images whose write was aborted due to an error.
                                 For debugging purposes.
           label                 Label name of the image.
           modification-date     Override PVD modification date.
           no-boot               Boot image is not bootable.
           no-emul-boot          Boot image is a “no emulation” ElTorito image.
           no-trailing-padding   Do not pad the image (apparently Linux needs the padding).
           omit-trailing-period  Violate the standard, do not append a trailing period to
                                 filenames without an extension.
           preparer              Preparer ID of the image.
           publisher             Publisher ID of the image.
           rockridge             Use RockRidge extensions (for longer filenames, etc.).
           rr-squash             Force uid 0, gid 0, and rationalised permission bits for
                                 RockRidge entries.
           volumeid              Volume set identifier of the image.

     The boot-info-table currently consists of the following fields (all 7.3.1 numbers), offsets
     relative to the boot image:
           0    8 bytes: kept as is, not part of checksum
           8    LBA of PVD
           12   LBA of boot image
           16   Size in bytes of boot image
           20   32-bit additive sum of all 32-bit words of boot image
           24   40 reserved bytes (MBZ)
           64   Begin of checksummed data, kept as is

     Dates (to override) are in format (YYYYmmddHHMMSS00) and Universal Time, i.e. with
     zero offset from Greenwich Mean Time.


     strsuftoll(3), installboot(8), mtree(8), newfs(8)


     The makefs utility appeared in NetBSD 1.6.

     Support for overriding PVD dates and the boot info table was added in MirBSD 11.


     Luke Mewburn <> (original program)
     Daniel Watt,
     Walter Deignan,
     Ryan Gabrys,
     Alan Perez-Rathke,
     Ram Vedam (cd9660 support)
     Thorsten Glaser <>


     makefs may be limited to images less than 2 GiB in size due to internal use of the long