Provided by: ceph-common_17.2.0-0ubuntu4_amd64
rbd - manage rados block device (RBD) images
rbd [ -c ceph.conf ] [ -m monaddr ] [--cluster cluster-name] [ -p | --pool pool ] [ command ... ]
rbd is a utility for manipulating rados block device (RBD) images, used by the Linux rbd driver and the rbd storage driver for QEMU/KVM. RBD images are simple block devices that are striped over objects and stored in a RADOS object store. The size of the objects the image is striped over must be a power of two.
-c ceph.conf, --conf ceph.conf Use ceph.conf configuration file instead of the default /etc/ceph/ceph.conf to determine monitor addresses during startup. -m monaddress[:port] Connect to specified monitor (instead of looking through ceph.conf). --cluster cluster-name Use different cluster name as compared to default cluster name ceph. -p pool-name, --pool pool-name Interact with the given pool. Required by most commands. --namespace namespace-name Use a pre-defined image namespace within a pool --no-progress Do not output progress information (goes to standard error by default for some commands).
--image-format format-id Specifies which object layout to use. The default is 2. • format 1 - (deprecated) Use the original format for a new rbd image. This format is understood by all versions of librbd and the kernel rbd module, but does not support newer features like cloning. • format 2 - Use the second rbd format, which is supported by librbd since the Bobtail release and the kernel rbd module since kernel 3.10 (except for "fancy" striping, which is supported since kernel 4.17). This adds support for cloning and is more easily extensible to allow more features in the future. -s size-in-M/G/T, --size size-in-M/G/T Specifies the size of the new rbd image or the new size of the existing rbd image in M/G/T. If no suffix is given, unit M is assumed. --object-size size-in-B/K/M Specifies the object size in B/K/M. Object size will be rounded up the nearest power of two; if no suffix is given, unit B is assumed. The default object size is 4M, smallest is 4K and maximum is 32M. The default value can be changed with the configuration option rbd_default_order, which takes a power of two (default object size is 2 ^ rbd_default_order). --stripe-unit size-in-B/K/M Specifies the stripe unit size in B/K/M. If no suffix is given, unit B is assumed. See striping section (below) for more details. --stripe-count num Specifies the number of objects to stripe over before looping back to the first object. See striping section (below) for more details. --snap snap Specifies the snapshot name for the specific operation. --id username Specifies the username (without the client. prefix) to use with the map command. --keyring filename Specifies a keyring file containing a secret for the specified user to use with the map command. If not specified, the default keyring locations will be searched. --keyfile filename Specifies a file containing the secret key of --id user to use with the map command. This option is overridden by --keyring if the latter is also specified. --shared lock-tag Option for lock add that allows multiple clients to lock the same image if they use the same tag. The tag is an arbitrary string. This is useful for situations where an image must be open from more than one client at once, like during live migration of a virtual machine, or for use underneath a clustered file system. --format format Specifies output formatting (default: plain, json, xml) --pretty-format Make json or xml formatted output more human-readable. -o krbd-options, --options krbd-options Specifies which options to use when mapping or unmapping an image via the rbd kernel driver. krbd-options is a comma-separated list of options (similar to mount(8) mount options). See kernel rbd (krbd) options section below for more details. --read-only Map the image read-only. Equivalent to -o ro. --image-feature feature-name Specifies which RBD format 2 feature should be enabled when creating an image. Multiple features can be enabled by repeating this option multiple times. The following features are supported: • layering: layering support • striping: striping v2 support • exclusive-lock: exclusive locking support • object-map: object map support (requires exclusive-lock) • fast-diff: fast diff calculations (requires object-map) • deep-flatten: snapshot flatten support • journaling: journaled IO support (requires exclusive-lock) • data-pool: erasure coded pool support --image-shared Specifies that the image will be used concurrently by multiple clients. This will disable features that are dependent upon exclusive ownership of the image. --whole-object Specifies that the diff should be limited to the extents of a full object instead of showing intra-object deltas. When the object map feature is enabled on an image, limiting the diff to the object extents will dramatically improve performance since the differences can be computed by examining the in-memory object map instead of querying RADOS for each object within the image. --limit Specifies the limit for the number of snapshots permitted.
bench --io-type <read | write | readwrite | rw> [--io-size size-in-B/K/M/G/T] [--io-threads num-ios-in-flight] [--io-total size-in-B/K/M/G/T] [--io-pattern seq | rand] [--rw-mix-read read proportion in readwrite] image-spec Generate a series of IOs to the image and measure the IO throughput and latency. If no suffix is given, unit B is assumed for both --io-size and --io-total. Defaults are: --io-size 4096, --io-threads 16, --io-total 1G, --io-pattern seq, --rw-mix-read 50. children snap-spec List the clones of the image at the given snapshot. This checks every pool, and outputs the resulting poolname/imagename. This requires image format 2. clone [--object-size size-in-B/K/M] [--stripe-unit size-in-B/K/M --stripe-count num] [--image-feature feature-name] [--image-shared] parent-snap-spec child-image-spec Will create a clone (copy-on-write child) of the parent snapshot. Object size will be identical to that of the parent image unless specified. Size will be the same as the parent snapshot. The --stripe-unit and --stripe-count arguments are optional, but must be used together. The parent snapshot must be protected (see rbd snap protect). This requires image format 2. config global get config-entity key Get a global-level configuration override. config global list [--format plain | json | xml] [--pretty-format] config-entity List global-level configuration overrides. config global set config-entity key value Set a global-level configuration override. config global remove config-entity key Remove a global-level configuration override. config image get image-spec key Get an image-level configuration override. config image list [--format plain | json | xml] [--pretty-format] image-spec List image-level configuration overrides. config image set image-spec key value Set an image-level configuration override. config image remove image-spec key Remove an image-level configuration override. config pool get pool-name key Get a pool-level configuration override. config pool list [--format plain | json | xml] [--pretty-format] pool-name List pool-level configuration overrides. config pool set pool-name key value Set a pool-level configuration override. config pool remove pool-name key Remove a pool-level configuration override. cp (src-image-spec | src-snap-spec) dest-image-spec Copy the content of a src-image into the newly created dest-image. dest-image will have the same size, object size, and image format as src-image. Note: snapshots are not copied, use deep cp command to include snapshots. create (-s | --size size-in-M/G/T) [--image-format format-id] [--object-size size-in-B/K/M] [--stripe-unit size-in-B/K/M --stripe-count num] [--thick-provision] [--no-progress] [--image-feature feature-name]... [--image-shared] image-spec Will create a new rbd image. You must also specify the size via --size. The --stripe-unit and --stripe-count arguments are optional, but must be used together. If the --thick-provision is enabled, it will fully allocate storage for the image at creation time. It will take a long time to do. Note: thick provisioning requires zeroing the contents of the entire image. deep cp (src-image-spec | src-snap-spec) dest-image-spec Deep copy the content of a src-image into the newly created dest-image. Dest-image will have the same size, object size, image format, and snapshots as src-image. device list [-t | --device-type device-type] [--format plain | json | xml] --pretty-format Show the rbd images that are mapped via the rbd kernel module (default) or other supported device. device map [-t | --device-type device-type] [--cookie device-cookie] [--show-cookie] [--read-only] [--exclusive] [-o | --options device-options] image-spec | snap-spec Map the specified image to a block device via the rbd kernel module (default) or other supported device (nbd on Linux or ggate on FreeBSD). The --options argument is a comma separated list of device type specific options (opt1,opt2=val,...). device unmap [-t | --device-type device-type] [-o | --options device-options] image-spec | snap-spec | device-path Unmap the block device that was mapped via the rbd kernel module (default) or other supported device. The --options argument is a comma separated list of device type specific options (opt1,opt2=val,...). device attach [-t | --device-type device-type] --device device-path [--cookie device-cookie] [--show-cookie] [--read-only] [--exclusive] [--force] [-o | --options device-options] image-spec | snap-spec Attach the specified image to the specified block device (currently only nbd on Linux). This operation is unsafe and should not be normally used. In particular, specifying the wrong image or the wrong block device may lead to data corruption as no validation is performed by nbd kernel driver. The --options argument is a comma separated list of device type specific options (opt1,opt2=val,...). device detach [-t | --device-type device-type] [-o | --options device-options] image-spec | snap-spec | device-path Detach the block device that was mapped or attached (currently only nbd on Linux). This operation is unsafe and should not be normally used. The --options argument is a comma separated list of device type specific options (opt1,opt2=val,...). diff [--from-snap snap-name] [--whole-object] image-spec | snap-spec Dump a list of byte extents in the image that have changed since the specified start snapshot, or since the image was created. Each output line includes the starting offset (in bytes), the length of the region (in bytes), and either 'zero' or 'data' to indicate whether the region is known to be zeros or may contain other data. du [-p | --pool pool-name] [image-spec | snap-spec] [--merge-snapshots] Will calculate the provisioned and actual disk usage of all images and associated snapshots within the specified pool. It can also be used against individual images and snapshots. If the RBD fast-diff feature is not enabled on images, this operation will require querying the OSDs for every potential object within the image. The --merge-snapshots will merge snapshots used space into their parent images. encryption format image-spec format passphrase-file [--cipher-alg alg] Formats image to an encrypted format. All data previously written to the image will become unreadable. A cloned image cannot be formatted, although encrypted images can be cloned. Supported formats: luks1, luks2. Supported cipher algorithms: aes-128, aes-256 (default). export [--export-format format (1 or 2)] (image-spec | snap-spec) [dest-path] Export image to dest path (use - for stdout). The --export-format accepts '1' or '2' currently. Format 2 allow us to export not only the content of image, but also the snapshots and other properties, such as image_order, features. export-diff [--from-snap snap-name] [--whole-object] (image-spec | snap-spec) dest-path Export an incremental diff for an image to dest path (use - for stdout). If an initial snapshot is specified, only changes since that snapshot are included; otherwise, any regions of the image that contain data are included. The end snapshot is specified using the standard --snap option or @snap syntax (see below). The image diff format includes metadata about image size changes, and the start and end snapshots. It efficiently represents discarded or 'zero' regions of the image. feature disable image-spec feature-name... Disable the specified feature on the specified image. Multiple features can be specified. feature enable image-spec feature-name... Enable the specified feature on the specified image. Multiple features can be specified. flatten image-spec If image is a clone, copy all shared blocks from the parent snapshot and make the child independent of the parent, severing the link between parent snap and child. The parent snapshot can be unprotected and deleted if it has no further dependent clones. This requires image format 2. group create group-spec Create a group. group image add group-spec image-spec Add an image to a group. group image list group-spec List images in a group. group image remove group-spec image-spec Remove an image from a group. group ls [-p | --pool pool-name] List rbd groups. group rename src-group-spec dest-group-spec Rename a group. Note: rename across pools is not supported. group rm group-spec Delete a group. group snap create group-snap-spec Make a snapshot of a group. group snap list group-spec List snapshots of a group. group snap rm group-snap-spec Remove a snapshot from a group. group snap rename group-snap-spec snap-name Rename group's snapshot. group snap rollback group-snap-spec Rollback group to snapshot. image-meta get image-spec key Get metadata value with the key. image-meta list image-spec Show metadata held on the image. The first column is the key and the second column is the value. image-meta remove image-spec key Remove metadata key with the value. image-meta set image-spec key value Set metadata key with the value. They will displayed in image-meta list. import [--export-format format (1 or 2)] [--image-format format-id] [--object-size size-in-B/K/M] [--stripe-unit size-in-B/K/M --stripe-count num] [--image-feature feature-name]... [--image-shared] src-path [image-spec] Create a new image and imports its data from path (use - for stdin). The import operation will try to create sparse rbd images if possible. For import from stdin, the sparsification unit is the data block size of the destination image (object size). The --stripe-unit and --stripe-count arguments are optional, but must be used together. The --export-format accepts '1' or '2' currently. Format 2 allow us to import not only the content of image, but also the snapshots and other properties, such as image_order, features. import-diff src-path image-spec Import an incremental diff of an image and applies it to the current image. If the diff was generated relative to a start snapshot, we verify that snapshot already exists before continuing. If there was an end snapshot we verify it does not already exist before applying the changes, and create the snapshot when we are done. info image-spec | snap-spec Will dump information (such as size and object size) about a specific rbd image. If image is a clone, information about its parent is also displayed. If a snapshot is specified, whether it is protected is shown as well. journal client disconnect journal-spec Flag image journal client as disconnected. journal export [--verbose] [--no-error] src-journal-spec path-name Export image journal to path (use - for stdout). It can be make a backup of the image journal especially before attempting dangerous operations. Note that this command may not always work if the journal is badly corrupted. journal import [--verbose] [--no-error] path-name dest-journal-spec Import image journal from path (use - for stdin). journal info journal-spec Show information about image journal. journal inspect [--verbose] journal-spec Inspect and report image journal for structural errors. journal reset journal-spec Reset image journal. journal status journal-spec Show status of image journal. lock add [--shared lock-tag] image-spec lock-id Lock an image. The lock-id is an arbitrary name for the user's convenience. By default, this is an exclusive lock, meaning it will fail if the image is already locked. The --shared option changes this behavior. Note that locking does not affect any operation other than adding a lock. It does not protect an image from being deleted. lock ls image-spec Show locks held on the image. The first column is the locker to use with the lock remove command. lock rm image-spec lock-id locker Release a lock on an image. The lock id and locker are as output by lock ls. ls [-l | --long] [pool-name] Will list all rbd images listed in the rbd_directory object. With -l, also show snapshots, and use longer-format output including size, parent (if clone), format, etc. merge-diff first-diff-path second-diff-path merged-diff-path Merge two continuous incremental diffs of an image into one single diff. The first diff's end snapshot must be equal with the second diff's start snapshot. The first diff could be - for stdin, and merged diff could be - for stdout, which enables multiple diff files to be merged using something like 'rbd merge-diff first second - | rbd merge-diff - third result'. Note this command currently only support the source incremental diff with stripe_count == 1 migration abort image-spec Cancel image migration. This step may be run after successful or failed migration prepare or migration execute steps and returns the image to its initial (before migration) state. All modifications to the destination image are lost. migration commit image-spec Commit image migration. This step is run after a successful migration prepare and migration execute steps and removes the source image data. migration execute image-spec Execute image migration. This step is run after a successful migration prepare step and copies image data to the destination. migration prepare [--order order] [--object-size object-size] [--image-feature image-feature] [--image-shared] [--stripe-unit stripe-unit] [--stripe-count stripe-count] [--data-pool data-pool] [--import-only] [--source-spec json] [--source-spec-path path] src-image-spec [dest-image-spec] Prepare image migration. This is the first step when migrating an image, i.e. changing the image location, format or other parameters that can't be changed dynamically. The destination can match the source, and in this case dest-image-spec can be omitted. After this step the source image is set as a parent of the destination image, and the image is accessible in copy-on-write mode by its destination spec. An image can also be migrated from a read-only import source by adding the --import-only optional and providing a JSON-encoded --source-spec or a path to a JSON-encoded source-spec file using the --source-spec-path optionals. mirror image demote image-spec Demote a primary image to non-primary for RBD mirroring. mirror image disable [--force] image-spec Disable RBD mirroring for an image. If the mirroring is configured in image mode for the image's pool, then it can be explicitly disabled mirroring for each image within the pool. mirror image enable image-spec mode Enable RBD mirroring for an image. If the mirroring is configured in image mode for the image's pool, then it can be explicitly enabled mirroring for each image within the pool. The mirror image mode can either be journal (default) or snapshot. The journal mode requires the RBD journaling feature. mirror image promote [--force] image-spec Promote a non-primary image to primary for RBD mirroring. mirror image resync image-spec Force resync to primary image for RBD mirroring. mirror image status image-spec Show RBD mirroring status for an image. mirror pool demote [pool-name] Demote all primary images within a pool to non-primary. Every mirroring enabled image will demoted in the pool. mirror pool disable [pool-name] Disable RBD mirroring by default within a pool. When mirroring is disabled on a pool in this way, mirroring will also be disabled on any images (within the pool) for which mirroring was enabled explicitly. mirror pool enable [pool-name] mode Enable RBD mirroring by default within a pool. The mirroring mode can either be pool or image. If configured in pool mode, all images in the pool with the journaling feature enabled are mirrored. If configured in image mode, mirroring needs to be explicitly enabled (by mirror image enable command) on each image. mirror pool info [pool-name] Show information about the pool mirroring configuration. It includes mirroring mode, peer UUID, remote cluster name, and remote client name. mirror pool peer add [pool-name] remote-cluster-spec Add a mirroring peer to a pool. remote-cluster-spec is [remote client name@]remote cluster name. The default for remote client name is "client.admin". This requires mirroring mode is enabled. mirror pool peer remove [pool-name] uuid Remove a mirroring peer from a pool. The peer uuid is available from mirror pool info command. mirror pool peer set [pool-name] uuid key value Update mirroring peer settings. The key can be either client or cluster, and the value is corresponding to remote client name or remote cluster name. mirror pool promote [--force] [pool-name] Promote all non-primary images within a pool to primary. Every mirroring enabled image will promoted in the pool. mirror pool status [--verbose] [pool-name] Show status for all mirrored images in the pool. With --verbose, also show additionally output status details for every mirroring image in the pool. mirror snapshot schedule add [-p | --pool pool] [--namespace namespace] [--image image] interval [start-time] Add mirror snapshot schedule. mirror snapshot schedule list [-R | --recursive] [--format format] [--pretty-format] [-p | --pool pool] [--namespace namespace] [--image image] List mirror snapshot schedule. mirror snapshot schedule remove [-p | --pool pool] [--namespace namespace] [--image image] interval [start-time] Remove mirror snapshot schedule. mirror snapshot schedule status [-p | --pool pool] [--format format] [--pretty-format] [--namespace namespace] [--image image] Show mirror snapshot schedule status. mv src-image-spec dest-image-spec Rename an image. Note: rename across pools is not supported. namespace create pool-name/namespace-name Create a new image namespace within the pool. namespace list pool-name List image namespaces defined within the pool. namespace remove pool-name/namespace-name Remove an empty image namespace from the pool. object-map check image-spec | snap-spec Verify the object map is correct. object-map rebuild image-spec | snap-spec Rebuild an invalid object map for the specified image. An image snapshot can be specified to rebuild an invalid object map for a snapshot. pool init [pool-name] [--force] Initialize pool for use by RBD. Newly created pools must initialized prior to use. resize (-s | --size size-in-M/G/T) [--allow-shrink] image-spec Resize rbd image. The size parameter also needs to be specified. The --allow-shrink option lets the size be reduced. rm image-spec Delete an rbd image (including all data blocks). If the image has snapshots, this fails and nothing is deleted. snap create snap-spec Create a new snapshot. Requires the snapshot name parameter specified. snap limit clear image-spec Remove any previously set limit on the number of snapshots allowed on an image. snap limit set [--limit] limit image-spec Set a limit for the number of snapshots allowed on an image. snap ls image-spec Dump the list of snapshots inside a specific image. snap protect snap-spec Protect a snapshot from deletion, so that clones can be made of it (see rbd clone). Snapshots must be protected before clones are made; protection implies that there exist dependent cloned children that refer to this snapshot. rbd clone will fail on a nonprotected snapshot. This requires image format 2. snap purge image-spec Remove all unprotected snapshots from an image. snap rename src-snap-spec dest-snap-spec Rename a snapshot. Note: rename across pools and images is not supported. snap rm [--force] snap-spec Remove the specified snapshot. snap rollback snap-spec Rollback image content to snapshot. This will iterate through the entire blocks array and update the data head content to the snapshotted version. snap unprotect snap-spec Unprotect a snapshot from deletion (undo snap protect). If cloned children remain, snap unprotect fails. (Note that clones may exist in different pools than the parent snapshot.) This requires image format 2. sparsify [--sparse-size sparse-size] image-spec Reclaim space for zeroed image extents. The default sparse size is 4096 bytes and can be changed via --sparse-size option with the following restrictions: it should be power of two, not less than 4096, and not larger than image object size. status image-spec Show the status of the image, including which clients have it open. trash ls [pool-name] List all entries from trash. trash mv image-spec Move an image to the trash. Images, even ones actively in-use by clones, can be moved to the trash and deleted at a later time. trash purge [pool-name] Remove all expired images from trash. trash restore image-id Restore an image from trash. trash rm image-id Delete an image from trash. If image deferment time has not expired you can not removed it unless use force. But an actively in-use by clones or has snapshots can not be removed. trash purge schedule add [-p | --pool pool] [--namespace namespace] interval [start-time] Add trash purge schedule. trash purge schedule list [-R | --recursive] [--format format] [--pretty-format] [-p | --pool pool] [--namespace namespace] List trash purge schedule. trash purge schedule remove [-p | --pool pool] [--namespace namespace] interval [start-time] Remove trash purge schedule. trash purge schedule status [-p | --pool pool] [--format format] [--pretty-format] [--namespace namespace] Show trash purge schedule status. watch image-spec Watch events on image.
IMAGE, SNAP, GROUP AND JOURNAL SPECS
image-spec is [pool-name/[namespace-name/]]image-name snap-spec is [pool-name/[namespace-name/]]image-name@snap-name group-spec is [pool-name/[namespace-name/]]group-name group-snap-spec is [pool-name/[namespace-name/]]group-name@snap-name journal-spec is [pool-name/[namespace-name/]]journal-name The default for pool-name is "rbd" and namespace-name is "". If an image name contains a slash character ('/'), pool-name is required. The journal-name is image-id. You may specify each name individually, using --pool, --namespace, --image, and --snap options, but this is discouraged in favor of the above spec syntax.
RBD images are striped over many objects, which are then stored by the Ceph distributed object store (RADOS). As a result, read and write requests for the image are distributed across many nodes in the cluster, generally preventing any single node from becoming a bottleneck when individual images get large or busy. The striping is controlled by three parameters: object-size The size of objects we stripe over is a power of two. It will be rounded up the nearest power of two. The default object size is 4 MB, smallest is 4K and maximum is 32M. stripe_unit Each [stripe_unit] contiguous bytes are stored adjacently in the same object, before we move on to the next object. stripe_count After we write [stripe_unit] bytes to [stripe_count] objects, we loop back to the initial object and write another stripe, until the object reaches its maximum size. At that point, we move on to the next [stripe_count] objects. By default, [stripe_unit] is the same as the object size and [stripe_count] is 1. Specifying a different [stripe_unit] and/or [stripe_count] is often referred to as using "fancy" striping and requires format 2.
KERNEL RBD (KRBD) OPTIONS
Most of these options are useful mainly for debugging and benchmarking. The default values are set in the kernel and may therefore depend on the version of the running kernel. Per client instance rbd device map options: • fsid=aaaaaaaa-bbbb-cccc-dddd-eeeeeeeeeeee - FSID that should be assumed by the client. • ip=a.b.c.d[:p] - IP and, optionally, port the client should use. • share - Enable sharing of client instances with other mappings (default). • noshare - Disable sharing of client instances with other mappings. • crc - Enable CRC32C checksumming for msgr1 on-the-wire protocol (default). For msgr2.1 protocol this option is ignored: full checksumming is always on in 'crc' mode and always off in 'secure' mode. • nocrc - Disable CRC32C checksumming for msgr1 on-the-wire protocol. Note that only payload checksumming is disabled, header checksumming is always on. For msgr2.1 protocol this option is ignored. • cephx_require_signatures - Require msgr1 message signing feature (since 3.19, default). This option is deprecated and will be removed in the future as the feature has been supported since the Bobtail release. • nocephx_require_signatures - Don't require msgr1 message signing feature (since 3.19). This option is deprecated and will be removed in the future. • tcp_nodelay - Disable Nagle's algorithm on client sockets (since 4.0, default). • notcp_nodelay - Enable Nagle's algorithm on client sockets (since 4.0). • cephx_sign_messages - Enable message signing for msgr1 on-the-wire protocol (since 4.4, default). For msgr2.1 protocol this option is ignored: message signing is built into 'secure' mode and not offered in 'crc' mode. • nocephx_sign_messages - Disable message signing for msgr1 on-the-wire protocol (since 4.4). For msgr2.1 protocol this option is ignored. • mount_timeout=x - A timeout on various steps in rbd device map and rbd device unmap sequences (default is 60 seconds). In particular, since 4.2 this can be used to ensure that rbd device unmap eventually times out when there is no network connection to a cluster. • osdkeepalive=x - OSD keepalive timeout (default is 5 seconds). • osd_idle_ttl=x - OSD idle TTL (default is 60 seconds). Per mapping (block device) rbd device map options: • rw - Map the image read-write (default). Overridden by --read-only. • ro - Map the image read-only. Equivalent to --read-only. • queue_depth=x - queue depth (since 4.2, default is 128 requests). • lock_on_read - Acquire exclusive lock on reads, in addition to writes and discards (since 4.9). • exclusive - Disable automatic exclusive lock transitions (since 4.12). Equivalent to --exclusive. • lock_timeout=x - A timeout on waiting for the acquisition of exclusive lock (since 4.17, default is 0 seconds, meaning no timeout). • notrim - Turn off discard and write zeroes offload support to avoid deprovisioning a fully provisioned image (since 4.17). When enabled, discard requests will fail with -EOPNOTSUPP, write zeroes requests will fall back to manually zeroing. • abort_on_full - Fail write requests with -ENOSPC when the cluster is full or the data pool reaches its quota (since 5.0). The default behaviour is to block until the full condition is cleared. • alloc_size - Minimum allocation unit of the underlying OSD object store backend (since 5.1, default is 64K bytes). This is used to round off and drop discards that are too small. For bluestore, the recommended setting is bluestore_min_alloc_size (typically 64K for hard disk drives and 16K for solid-state drives). For filestore with filestore_punch_hole = false, the recommended setting is image object size (typically 4M). • crush_location=x - Specify the location of the client in terms of CRUSH hierarchy (since 5.8). This is a set of key-value pairs separated from each other by '|', with keys separated from values by ':'. Note that '|' may need to be quoted or escaped to avoid it being interpreted as a pipe by the shell. The key is the bucket type name (e.g. rack, datacenter or region with default bucket types) and the value is the bucket name. For example, to indicate that the client is local to rack "myrack", data center "mydc" and region "myregion": crush_location=rack:myrack|datacenter:mydc|region:myregion Each key-value pair stands on its own: "myrack" doesn't need to reside in "mydc", which in turn doesn't need to reside in "myregion". The location is not a path to the root of the hierarchy but rather a set of nodes that are matched independently, owning to the fact that bucket names are unique within a CRUSH map. "Multipath" locations are supported, so it is possible to indicate locality for multiple parallel hierarchies: crush_location=rack:myrack1|rack:myrack2|datacenter:mydc • read_from_replica=no - Disable replica reads, always pick the primary OSD (since 5.8, default). • read_from_replica=balance - When issued a read on a replicated pool, pick a random OSD for serving it (since 5.8). This mode is safe for general use only since Octopus (i.e. after "ceph osd require-osd-release octopus"). Otherwise it should be limited to read-only workloads such as images mapped read-only everywhere or snapshots. • read_from_replica=localize - When issued a read on a replicated pool, pick the most local OSD for serving it (since 5.8). The locality metric is calculated against the location of the client given with crush_location; a match with the lowest-valued bucket type wins. For example, with default bucket types, an OSD in a matching rack is closer than an OSD in a matching data center, which in turn is closer than an OSD in a matching region. This mode is safe for general use only since Octopus (i.e. after "ceph osd require-osd-release octopus"). Otherwise it should be limited to read-only workloads such as images mapped read-only everywhere or snapshots. • compression_hint=none - Don't set compression hints (since 5.8, default). • compression_hint=compressible - Hint to the underlying OSD object store backend that the data is compressible, enabling compression in passive mode (since 5.8). • compression_hint=incompressible - Hint to the underlying OSD object store backend that the data is incompressible, disabling compression in aggressive mode (since 5.8). • ms_mode=legacy - Use msgr1 on-the-wire protocol (since 5.11, default). • ms_mode=crc - Use msgr2.1 on-the-wire protocol, select 'crc' mode, also referred to as plain mode (since 5.11). If the daemon denies 'crc' mode, fail the connection. • ms_mode=secure - Use msgr2.1 on-the-wire protocol, select 'secure' mode (since 5.11). 'secure' mode provides full in-transit encryption ensuring both confidentiality and authenticity. If the daemon denies 'secure' mode, fail the connection. • ms_mode=prefer-crc - Use msgr2.1 on-the-wire protocol, select 'crc' mode (since 5.11). If the daemon denies 'crc' mode in favor of 'secure' mode, agree to 'secure' mode. • ms_mode=prefer-secure - Use msgr2.1 on-the-wire protocol, select 'secure' mode (since 5.11). If the daemon denies 'secure' mode in favor of 'crc' mode, agree to 'crc' mode. • rxbounce - Use a bounce buffer when receiving data (since 5.17). The default behaviour is to read directly into the destination buffer. A bounce buffer is needed if the destination buffer isn't guaranteed to be stable (i.e. remain unchanged while it is being read to). In particular this is the case for Windows where a system-wide "dummy" (throwaway) page may be mapped into the destination buffer in order to generate a single large I/O. Otherwise, "libceph: ... bad crc/signature" or "libceph: ... integrity error, bad crc" errors and associated performance degradation are expected. • udev - Wait for udev device manager to finish executing all matching "add" rules and release the device before exiting (default). This option is not passed to the kernel. • noudev - Don't wait for udev device manager. When enabled, the device may not be fully usable immediately on exit. rbd device unmap options: • force - Force the unmapping of a block device that is open (since 4.9). The driver will wait for running requests to complete and then unmap; requests sent to the driver after initiating the unmap will be failed. • udev - Wait for udev device manager to finish executing all matching "remove" rules and clean up after the device before exiting (default). This option is not passed to the kernel. • noudev - Don't wait for udev device manager.
To create a new rbd image that is 100 GB: rbd create mypool/myimage --size 102400 To use a non-default object size (8 MB): rbd create mypool/myimage --size 102400 --object-size 8M To delete an rbd image (be careful!): rbd rm mypool/myimage To create a new snapshot: rbd snap create mypool/myimage@mysnap To create a copy-on-write clone of a protected snapshot: rbd clone mypool/myimage@mysnap otherpool/cloneimage To see which clones of a snapshot exist: rbd children mypool/myimage@mysnap To delete a snapshot: rbd snap rm mypool/myimage@mysnap To map an image via the kernel with cephx enabled: rbd device map mypool/myimage --id admin --keyfile secretfile To map an image via the kernel with different cluster name other than default ceph: rbd device map mypool/myimage --cluster cluster-name To unmap an image: rbd device unmap /dev/rbd0 To create an image and a clone from it: rbd import --image-format 2 image mypool/parent rbd snap create mypool/parent@snap rbd snap protect mypool/parent@snap rbd clone mypool/parent@snap otherpool/child To create an image with a smaller stripe_unit (to better distribute small writes in some workloads): rbd create mypool/myimage --size 102400 --stripe-unit 65536B --stripe-count 16 To change an image from one image format to another, export it and then import it as the desired image format: rbd export mypool/myimage@snap /tmp/img rbd import --image-format 2 /tmp/img mypool/myimage2 To lock an image for exclusive use: rbd lock add mypool/myimage mylockid To release a lock: rbd lock remove mypool/myimage mylockid client.2485 To list images from trash: rbd trash ls mypool To defer delete an image (use --expires-at to set expiration time, default is now): rbd trash mv mypool/myimage --expires-at "tomorrow" To delete an image from trash (be careful!): rbd trash rm mypool/myimage-id To force delete an image from trash (be careful!): rbd trash rm mypool/myimage-id --force To restore an image from trash: rbd trash restore mypool/myimage-id To restore an image from trash and rename it: rbd trash restore mypool/myimage-id --image mynewimage
rbd is part of Ceph, a massively scalable, open-source, distributed storage system. Please refer to the Ceph documentation at https://docs.ceph.com for more information.
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