Provided by: cdrskin_1.5.4-1_amd64 bug


       cdrskin - burns preformatted data to CD, DVD, and BD via libburn.


       cdrskin [options|track_source_addresses]


       cdrskin  is  a program that provides some of cdrecord's options in a compatible way for CD
       media. With DVD and BD it has its own ways.  You do not need to be superuser for its daily

   Overview of features:
       Blanking of CD-RW and DVD-RW.
       Formatting of DVD-RW, DVD+RW, DVD-RAM, BD.
       Burning of data tracks or audio tracks with CD-TEXT to CD,
       either in versatile Track at Once mode (TAO)
       or in Session at Once mode for seamless tracks.
       Multi session on CD (follow-up sessions in TAO only)
       or on DVD-R[W] (in Incremental mode) or DVD+R[/DL] or BD-R.
       Single session Disk-at-once on DVD-RW, DVD-R, DVD-R DL.
       Single session or emulated ISO-9660 multi-session
       on overwriteable DVD+RW, DVD-RW, DVD-RAM, BD-RE
       or on data file or block device.
       Extraction of audio tracks and CD-TEXT to hard disk files.
       Bus scan, burnfree, speed options, retrieving media info, padding, fifo.
       See section EXAMPLES at the end of this text.

   General information paragraphs:
       Track recording model
       Write mode selection
       Recordable CD Media
       Sequentially Recordable DVD or BD Media
       Overwriteable DVD or BD Media
       Drive preparation and addressing
       Emulated drives

   Track recording model:
       The  input-output entities which get processed are called tracks.  A track stores a stream
       of bytes.
       More than one track can be burned by a single run of cdrskin.  In the  terms  of  the  MMC
       standard all tracks written by the same run constitute a session.
       Normally,  each  track is initiated by one track source address argument, which may either
       be "-" for standard input or the  address  of  a  readable  file.   Alternatively,  option
       cuefile=  may  be  used  to  read  a  session description from a text file and to read the
       session content from a single data file.
       If no write  mode  is  given  explicitly  then  one  will  be  chosen  which  matches  the
       peculiarities of track sources and the state of the output media.

       Some  media  types can be kept appendable so that further tracks can be written to them in
       subsequent runs of cdrskin (see option -multi).  Info about the addresses of burned tracks
       is kept in a table of content (TOC) on media and can be retrieved via cdrskin option -toc.
       This information is also used by the operating systems' CD-ROM read drivers.

       In general there are two types of tracks: data and audio.  They  differ  in  sector  size,
       throughput  and  readability via the systems' CD-ROM drivers and by music CD players. With
       DVD and BD there is only type data.
       If not explicitly option -audio is given, then any track is burned as  type  data,  unless
       the  track  source  is  a  file  with  suffix  ".wav" or ".au" and has a header part which
       identifies it as MS-WAVE or SUN Audio with suitable parameters. Such files are  burned  as
       audio tracks by default.

       While  audio tracks just contain a given time span of acoustic vibrations, data tracks may
       have an arbitrary meaning. Nevertheless, ISO-9660 filesystems are established as a  format
       which  can  represent a tree of directories and files on all major operating systems. Such
       filesystem images can be produced by programs mkisofs or genisoimage or xorriso.  They can
       also  be  extended  by  follow-up  tracks if prepared properly.  See the man pages of said
       programs.  cdrskin is able to fulfill the needs about their option -C.
       Another type of data  track  content  are  archive  formats  which  originally  have  been
       developed for magnetic tapes. Only formats which mark a detectable end-of-archive in their
       data are suitable, though. Well tested are the archivers afio and star. Not suitable seems
       GNU tar.

   Write mode selection:
       In general there are two approaches for writing media:
       A  permissive mode selected by option -tao which needs no predicted track size and can use
       multi-session capabilities if offered by drive and medium.
       A more restrictive mode -sao (alias -dao) which usually demands a predictable  track  size
       and is not necessarily capable of multi-session. It can be used to write CD-TEXT and it is
       the only one that works with option cuefile=.
       If none of the options -dao, -tao or -sao is given then the program will try to  choose  a
       write  mode which matches the defined recording job, the capabilities of the drive and the
       state of the present media.
       So the mentioning of write modes in the following paragraphs and in the examples is not so
       much  a  demand  that  the user shall choose one explicitly, but rather an illustration of
       what to expect with particular media types.

   Recordable CD Media:
       CD-R can be initially written only once and eventually extended until they get closed  (or
       are  spoiled because they are overly full). After that they are read-only. Closing is done
       automatically unless option -multi is given which keeps the media appendable.
       Write mode -tao is able to use track sources of unpredictable length (like stdin)  and  to
       write  further  sessions  to appendable media.  -sao produces audio sessions with seamless
       tracks but needs predicted track sizes and cannot append sessions to media.
       CD-RW media can be blanked to make  them  re-usable  for  another  round  of  overwriting.
       Usually  blank=fast  is the appropriate option.  Blanking damages the previous content but
       does not make it completely unreadable. It is no effective privacy  precaution.   Multiple
       cycles of blanking and overwriting with random numbers might be needed.

   Sequentially Recordable DVD or BD Media:
       Currently  DVD-RW, DVD-R[DL], DVD+R[DL], and BD-R can be used for the Sequential recording
       model. It resembles the model of CD media. Only DVD-RW can be  blanked  and  re-used  from
       DVD-RW  are  sequential media if they are in state "Sequential Recording".  The media must
       be either blank or appendable.  Newly purchased DVD-RW and DVD-R media are in this  state.
       Used DVD-RW get into blank sequential state by option blank=deformat_sequential .
       With DVD-R[W] two write modes may be available:
       Mode  DAO  has many restrictions. It does not work with appendable media, cannot do -multi
       and writes only a single track.  The size of the track needs to be known  in  advance.  So
       either  its  source  has  to  be  a  disk  file of recognizable size or the size has to be
       announced explicitly by options tsize= or tao_to_sao_tsize= .
       DAO is the only mode for DVD-R media which do not offer feature 21h Incremental  Streaming
       (e.g.  DVD-R  DL). DAO may also be selected explicitly by option -sao .  Program growisofs
       uses DAO on sequential DVD-R[W] media for maximum DVD-ROM/-Video compatibility.
       The other mode, Incremental Streaming, is the default write mode if it is available and if
       the  restrictions  of  DAO  would  prevent the job.  Incremental Streaming may be selected
       explicitly by option -tao as it resembles much  CD  TAO  by  accepting  track  sources  of
       unpredicted  length and being able to keep media appendable by option -multi . It does not
       work with DVD-R DL and minimally blanked DVD-RW.  The only restriction towards CD-R[W]  is
       the lack of support for -audio tracks.  Multiple tracks per session are permissible.
       The  write  modes for DVD+R[/DL] and BD-R resemble those with DVD-R except that each track
       gets wrapped in an own session. There is no -dummy writing with DVD+R[/DL] or BD-R.
       Quite deliberately write mode -sao insists in the tradition of a predicted track size  and
       blank  media,  whereas  -tao writes the tracks open ended and can be applied to appendable
       BD-R may be formatted before first use to enable the Defect Management which  might  catch
       and repair some bad spots at the expense of slow speed even with flawless media.
       Note:  Option  -multi might make DVD media unreadable in some DVD-ROM drives.  Best reader
       compatibility is achieved without it (i.e. by single session media).

   Overwriteable DVD or BD Media:
       Currently types DVD+RW, DVD-RW, DVD-RAM and BD-RE can be overwritten via cdrskin.
       Option -audio is not allowed. Only one track is allowed.   Option  -multi  cannot  mark  a
       recognizable  end  of  overwriteable  media.   Therefore  -multi is banned unless ISO-9660
       images shall be expandable by help of  option  --grow_overwriteable_iso  .   Without  this
       option  or  without  an  ISO-9660  filesystem image present on media, -toc does not return
       information about the media content and media get treated as blank regardless whether they
       hold data or not.
       Currently  there  is  no  difference between -sao and -tao. If ever, then -tao will be the
       mode which preserves the current behavior.

       DVD+RW and DVD-RAM  media  need  no  special  initial  formatting.  They  offer  a  single
       continuous  data  area  for blockwise random access. BD-RE need explicit formatting before
       use. See blank=as_needed or blank=format_defectmgt .
       DVD-RW are sold in state "Sequential Recording". To become suitable for the  Overwriteable
       DVD  recording model they need to get formatted to state "Restricted Overwrite". Then they
       behave much like DVD+RW. This formatting can be done by option blank=format_overwrite .
       Several programs like dvd+rw-format, cdrecord, wodim, or cdrskin can bring a DVD-RW out of
       overwriteable state so that it has to be formatted again. If in doubt, just give it a try.

   Drive preparation and addressing:
       The  drives,  CD,  DVD,  or  BD  burners, are accessed via addresses which are specific to
       libburn and the operating system. Those addresses get listed by a run of cdrskin --devices
       or cdrskin --device_links.
       On  Linux, they are device files which traditionally do not offer w-permissions for normal
       users. Because libburn needs rw-permission, it might be only the superuser who is able  to
       get this list without further precautions.
       It is consensus that chmod a+rw /dev/sr0 or chmod a+rw /dev/hdc is less security sensitive
       than chmod u+s,a+x /usr/bin/cdrskin. The risk for the drive is  somewhat  higher  but  the
       overall  system  is  much less at stake.  Consider to restrict rw-access to a single group
       which bundles the users who are allowed to use the burner drive (like group "floppy").
       For drive permission examples on Linux, FreeBSD, and Solaris, see cdrskin/README.

       If you only got one CD capable drive then you may leave out cdrskin option dev=. Else  you
       should use this option to address the drive you want.
       cdrskin  option  dev=  not only accepts the listed addresses but also traditional cdrecord
       SCSI addresses which consist of three numbers: Bus,Target,Lun. On Linux there  is  also  a
       related  address  family  "ATA"  which accesses IDE drives not under control of Linux SCSI
       drivers: ATA:Bus,Target,Lun.
       See option -scanbus for getting a list of cdrecord style addresses.
       Further are accepted: links to libburn-suitable device files, device files which have  the
       same  major  and  minor  device  number, and device files which have the same SCSI address
       parameters (e.g. /dev/sg0).

   Emulated drives:
       Option --allow_emulated_drives enables addressing of pseudo-drives which get  emulated  on
       top  of  filesystem  objects. Regular data files and block devices result in pseudo-drives
       which behave much like DVD-RAM.  If the given address does not exist yet but its directory
       exists,  then it gets created as regular file.  Other file types like character devices or
       pipes result in pseudo-drives which behave much like blank DVD-R.  The target file address
       is given after prefix "stdio:".
       E.g.: dev=stdio:/tmp/my_pseudo_drive
       Addresses  of  the  form  "stdio:/dev/fd/<number>" are treated special. The number is read
       literally and used as open file descriptor. With dev="stdio:/dev/fd/1" the normal standard
       output  of  the  program  is  redirected  to stderr and the stream data of a burn run will
       appear on stdout.
       Not good for terminals ! Redirect it.
       Pseudo-drives support -dummy. Their reply with --tell_media_space can be  utopic.   -dummy
       burn runs touch the file but do not modify its data content.
       Note:  --allow_emulated_drives  is  restricted to stdio:/dev/null if cdrskin is run by the
       superuser or if it has changed user identity via the setuid bit of its access permissions.
       The  ban  for  the superuser can be lifted by a skillfully created file. See section FILES


       --help Show non-cdrecord compatible options.

       -help  Show cdrecord compatible options.
              Note that some of the help texts are quite wrong - for  cdrecord  as  well  as  for
              cdrskin   (e.g.  -format,  blank=,  -load).  They  are,  nevertheless,  traditional
              indicators for the availability of the listed options. Some frontend programs  make
              decisions after reading them.

              Print  cdrskin  id line, compatibility lure line, libburn version, cdrskin version,
              version timestamp, build timestamp (if available), and then exit.

       Alphabetical list of options which are intended to be compatible with original cdrecord by
       Joerg Schilling:

       -atip  Retrieve  some  info  about  media state. With CD-RW print "Is erasable".  With DVD
              media print "book type:" and a media  type  text.  With  BD  media  print  "Mounted
              Media:" and media type text.

       -audio Announces  that  the  subsequent  tracks  are to be burned as audio.  The source is
              supposed to be uncompressed headerless PCM, 44100 Hz, 16 bit, stereo.  For  little-
              endian  byte  order  (which  is  usual  on  PCs)  use  option  -swab. Unless marked
              explicitly by option -data, input files with suffix  ".wav"  are  examined  whether
              they have a header in MS-WAVE format confirming those parameters and eventually raw
              audio data get extracted and burned as audio track. Same is done for  suffix  ".au"
              and SUN Audio.
              Option -audio may be used only with CD media and not with DVD or BD.

              Blank a CD-RW, DVD-RW, or format a DVD-RW, DVD+RW, DVD-RAM, BD.  This is combinable
              with burning in the same run of cdrskin.  The type given with  blank=  selects  the
              particular behavior:

                     Try  to  make  the  media  ready  for  writing  from  scratch.  If  it needs
                     formatting, then  format  it.  If  it  is  not  blank,  then  try  to  apply
                     blank=fast.   It  is a reason to abort if the media cannot assume thoroughly
                     writeable state, e.g. if it is non-blank write-once.
                     This leaves unformatted DVD-RW in unformatted blank state. To format  DVD-RW
                     use blank=format_overwriteable. Blank unformatted BD-R stay unformatted.
                     (Note: blank=as_needed is not an original cdrecord option.)

              The  following  blank  types  are specific to particular media familes. Use them if
              special features are desired.

              all    Blank   an   entire   CD-RW   or   an   unformatted   DVD-RW.    (See   also
                     --prodvd_cli_compatible, --grow_overwriteable_iso)

              fast   Minimally  blank  an entire CD-RW or blank an unformatted DVD-RW.  (See also
                     --prodvd_cli_compatible, --grow_overwriteable_iso)

                     Like blank=all but with the additional ability to blank  overwriteable  DVD-
                     RW.    This  will  destroy  their  formatting  and  make  them  sequentially
                     recordable.  Another peculiarity is the ability to blank media which  appear
                     already  blank.   This is similar to option -force but does not try to blank
                     media other than recognizable CD-RW and DVD-RW.
                     (Note: blank=deformat_* are not original cdrecord options.)

                     Like blank=deformat_sequential but blanking DVD-RW only minimally.  This  is
                     faster  than  full  blanking  but  may  yield media incapable of Incremental
                     Streaming (-tao).

                     Format a media  if  it  is  not  formatted  yet,  and  if  cdrskin  supports
                     formatting   for   the  media  type,  and  if  formatting  will  not  happen
                     automatically during write.  This currently applies to  unformatted  DVD-RW,
                     DVD-RAM,  BD-RE,  and  blank  unformatted  BD-R.  Eventually the appropriate
                     default formatting is chosen.  If other media or states are encountered then
                     nothing happens.
                     The  following  formatting  types  are  more specialized to particular media

                     Format a DVD-RW to  "Restricted  Overwrite".  The  user  should  bring  some
                     (Note: blank=format_* are not original cdrecord options.)

                     Like format_overwrite without creating a 128 MiB trailblazer session.  Leads
                     to "intermediate" state which only supports sequential write beginning  from
                     address 0.  The "intermediate" state ends after the first session of writing

                     For DVD-RW this is like format_overwrite but claims full media  size  rather
                     than  just  128  MiB.  Most traditional formatting is attempted. No data get
                     written.  Much patience is required.
                     This option treats already formatted media even  if  not  option  -force  is
                     For  DVD+RW this is the only supported explicit formatting type. It provides
                     complete "de-icing" so no reader slips on unwritten data areas.

                     Format DVD-RAM or BD to reserve the  default  amount  of  spare  blocks  for
                     defect management.
                     The  following  format_defectmgt_*  enable  the  user to submit wishes which
                     nevertheless have to match one of the available formats. These  formats  are
                     offered by the drive after examining the media.

                     Disable  the  usual  media  quality  certification in order to save time and
                     format  to  default  size.   The  certification  setting  persists  even  if
                     subsequent blank= options override the size of the format selection.
                     Whether  formatting without certification works properly depends much on the
                     drive. One should check the "Format status:" from --list_formats afterwards.

                     Re-enable the usual media quality certification and format to default  size.
                     The certification setting persists like with format_defectmgt_cert_off.
                     Whether  there  happens certification at all depends much on the media state
                     and the actually selected format descriptor.

                     Format DVD-RAM or BD to reserve a maximum number of spare blocks.

                     Format DVD-RAM or BD to reserve a minimum number of spare blocks.  It  might
                     be  necessary  to format format_defectmgt_none first in order to get offered
                     the most minmal spare blocks sizes for format_defectmgt_min.

                     Format DVD-RAM or BD-RE to the largest available  payload  in  the  hope  to
                     disable  defect  management  at  all.  This  may  or  may  not  have a speed
                     increasing effect.  Unformatted blank BD-R will be left unformatted.

                     Format DVD-RAM or BD. The text  after  "format_defectmgt_payload_"  gives  a
                     number  of bytes, eventually with suffixes "s", "k", "m". The largest number
                     of spare blocks will be chosen which enables  at  least  the  given  payload

                     Format  DVD-RW,  DVD+RW, DVD-RAM or BD.  The number after "format_by_index_"
                     is used as index to the list of available format descriptors. This list  can
                     be  obtained  by option --list_formats.  The numbers after text "Format idx"
                     are the ones to be used with format_by_index_. Format descriptor  lists  are
                     volatile.  Do  neither  eject  nor  write  the  media  between  the  run  of
                     --list_formats and the run of blank=format_by_index_ or else you may  get  a
                     different format than desired.

              help   Print this list of blanking types.

              Retrieve  some  info  about the addressed drive and then exit.  Exits with non-zero
              value if the drive cannot be found and opened.

       -copy  Create the subsequent tracks with permission for an unlimited number of copies.

              Read a session description from a cue sheet file in CDRWIN format.  Base the tracks
              on  a  single  file which is given in the sheet by command FILE.  To enable CD-TEXT
              from the cue sheet file, cdrskin option -text has to be present.
              cdrskin currently supports TRACK datatypes AUDIO and MODE1/2048 which  may  not  be
              mixed.  Data source may be of FILE type BINARY, MOTOROLA, or WAVE.
              Non-CDRWIN commands ARRANGER, COMPOSER, MESSAGE are supported.
              Cue  sheet  file  commands CATALOG and ISRC may be overridden by option mcn= and by
              input_sheet_v07t= purpose specifiers "UPC / EAN" and "ISRC".  This does not  affect
              their appearance in CD-TEXT, but only on Q sub-channel.
              The track numbers may be overridden by option cd_start_tno=.

       -dao   Alias for option -sao. Write CD in Session at Once mode or DVD-R[W] in Disc-at-once

       -data  Subsequent tracks are data tracks. This option is default and only needed  to  mark
              the end of the range of an eventual option -audio or -xa1.
              Options  -mode2, -xa, and -xa2 get mapped to -data, not using the desired CD sector
              formats and thus not taking advantage of eventual higher payload.

       -xa1   Subsequent tracks are data tracks with input suitable for CD-ROM XA mode 2 form  1.
              This differs from -data input by 8 additional header bytes per block.  cdrskin will
              not write CD-ROM XA but rather strip the header bytes and write as -data tracks.

              Set the address of the drive to use. Valid are at least the addresses  listed  with
              options  --devices  or --device_links, X,Y,Z addresses listed with option -scanbus,
              ATA:X,Y,Z addresses listed with options  dev=ATA  -scanbus,  and  volatile  libburn
              drive numbers (numbering starts at "0").  Other device file addresses which lead to
              the same drive might work too.
              If no dev= is given, volatile address "dev=0" is assumed. That is the  first  drive
              found  being  available.  Better avoid this ambiguity on systems with more than one
              The special target "help" lists hints about available addressing formats.  Be aware
              that   deprecated   option   --old_pseudo_scsi_adr   may   change  the  meaning  of
              Bus,Target,Lun addresses.

              Set "driveropts=noburnfree" to disable the drive's  eventual  protection  mechanism
              against  temporary  lack  of  source  data  (i.e.  buffer  underrun).  A drive that
              announces no such capabilities will not get them enabled anyway, even if  attempted
              explicitly via "driveropts=burnfree".

       -dummy Try  to perform the drive operations without actually affecting the inserted media.
              There is no warranty that this will work with a particular  combination  of  drive,
              media, and write mode. Blanking is prevented reliably, though.  To avoid inadverted
              real burning, -dummy refuses burn  runs  on  anything  but  CD-R[W],  DVD-R[W],  or
              emulated stdio-drives.

       -eject Eject the disc after work is done.

       -force Assume  that  the  user  knows  better  in  situations  when cdrskin or libburn are
              insecure about drive or media state. This includes the attempt to blank media which
              are  classified  as unknown or unsuitable, and the attempt to use write modes which
              libburn believes they are not supported by the drive.
              Another application is to enforce blanking or re-formatting of media  which  appear
              to be in the desired blank or format state already.
              This  option  enables  a  burn run with option -dummy even if libburn believes that
              drive and media will not simulate the write mode but will write for real.
              It enables a burn run where cdrskin expects to exceed the available media capacity.
              Caution: Use this only when in urgent need.

              Same as blank=format_overwrite_full -force but restricted to DVD+RW.

              Set the fifo size to the given value. The value may  have  appended  letters  which
              multiply the preceding number:
              "k" or "K" = 1024 , "m" or "M" = 1024k , "g" or "G" = 1024m , "s" or "S" = 2048
              Set size to 0 in order to disable the fifo (default is "4m").
              The  fifo  buffers  an  eventual temporary surplus of track source data in order to
              provide the drive with a steady stream during times  of  temporary  lack  of  track
              source  supply.   The larger the fifo, the longer periods of poor source supply can
              be compensated.  But a large fifo needs substantial time to fill up if  not  curbed
              via option fifo_start_at=size.

              Set the grace time before starting to write. (Default is 0)

       -immed Equivalent to:
              The  name  of  this  cdrecord option stems from the "Immed" bit which can make some
              long running drive commands asynchronous and thus eases the  load  on  some  wiring
              hardware  types.  Regardless  of  option -immed, cdrskin uses asynchronous commands
              where possible and appropriate. To really disable asynchronous  command  execution,
              use option use_immed_bit=off .

              Set a comma separated list of index start address numbers for the next track.  This
              applies to CD SAO sessions only.
              The addresses count sectors from the start of the next track. The first  number  is
              for  index  1  and  must  be  0. The following numbers have to be larger than their
              respective predecessors. Up to 99 numbers are allowed.
              Sector numbers are computed from Min:Sec:Frame addresses by
               Sector = ((Min*60)+Sec)*75+Frame
              E.g.: "0,7512,20408" sets index 2 to 01:40:12 and index 3 to 04:32:08.

       -inq   Print the identification of the drive and then exit.

              The next track following this option will try to obtain its source  size  from  the
              header information out of the first few blocks of the source data.  If these blocks
              indicate an ISO-9660 filesystem then its declared  size  will  be  used  under  the
              assumption that it is a single session filesystem.
              If not, then the burn run will be aborted.
              The  range  of  -isosize  is  exactly  one track. Further tracks may be preceded by
              further -isosize options, though. At least 15 blocks of padding will  be  added  to
              each -isosize track. But be advised to rather use padsize=300k.
              This  option  can  be  performed  on track sources which are regular files or block
              devices. For the first track of the session it can be  performed  on  any  type  of
              source if there is a fifo of at least 64 kiB. See option fs= .

              Set  the ISRC for the next track source to the given text, which must be exactly 13
              characters long. It must comply to the format CCOOOYYSSSSS.
              CC is the country code. OOO is the owner code. Both may consist of capital  letters
              A  to Z and of decimal digits 0 to 9. YY depicts the year (00 to 99).  SSSSS is the
              serial number (00000 to 99999).
              This option does not affect CD-TEXT but only the Q sub-channel.

       -load  Load the media and exit. Exit value is 0 if any kind of media was found,  non  zero
              else. Note: Option -eject will unload the media even if -load is given.

       -lock  Like option -load but leave the drive's eject button disabled if there is any media
              found and not option -eject is given.
              Use program "eject" or cdrskin -eject to get the tray out of the  drive.   Runs  of
              programs like cdrecord, growisofs, wodim, cdrskin will not be hampered and normally
              enable the drive's eject button when they are done.

              Set the CD Media Catalog Number to text, which must be exactly 13  characters  long
              and should consist of decimal digits.
              This option does not affect CD-TEXT but only the Q sub-channel.

              Equivalent to:
              Percentage is permissible between 25 and 95.

       -minfo Print  information  about  the  loaded media. This includes media type, writability
              state, and a quite readable table of content.

              Run option -msinfo and copy the result line into the file given  by  path.   Unlike
              -msinfo  this option does not redirect all normal output away from standard output.
              But it may be combined with -msinfo to achieve this.
              Note: msifile=path is actually an option of wodim and not of cdrecord.

              Retrieve multi-session info for preparing a  follow-up  session  by  option  -C  of
              programs  mkisofs,  genisoimage,  or xorriso -as mkisofs.  Print result to standard
              output.  This option redirects to stderr all  message  output  except  the  one  of
              option --tell_media_space and its own result string, which consists of two numbers.
              The result string shall be used as argument of option -C with  said  programs.   It
              gives  the start address of the most recent session and the predicted start address
              of the next session to be appended. The string is empty if the most recent  session
              was not written with option -multi.
              To  have  a  chance  for  working  on  overwriteable  media,  this option has to be
              accompanied by option --grow_overwriteable_iso.

       -multi This option keeps CD, unformatted DVD-R[W], DVD+R, or  BD-R  appendable  after  the
              current  session  has been written.  Without it the disc gets closed and may not be
              written any more  - unless it is a -RW and gets blanked which causes  loss  of  its
              The  following sessions can only be written in -tao mode. -multi is prohibited with
              DVD-R[W] DAO write mode and on  DVD-R  DL  media.   Option  --prodvd_cli_compatible
              eventually makes -multi tolerable but cannot make it work.
              In  order  to  have  all  filesystem  content  accessible,  the  eventual  ISO-9660
              filesystem of a follow-up session needs to be prepared in  a  special  way  by  the
              filesystem  formatter program. mkisofs and genisoimage expect particular info about
              the situation which can be retrieved by cdrskin option -msinfo.
              To retrieve an archive file which was written as follow-up  session,  you  may  use
              option  -toc to learn about the "lba" of the desired track number.  This lba is the
              address of the 2048 byte block where the archive begins.
              With overwriteable DVD or BD media, -multi cannot mark the end of the session.   So
              when  adding  a  new  session  this  end  has  to  be  determined from the payload.
              Currently  only  ISO-9660  filesystems  can  be   used   that   way.   See   option
              --grow_overwriteable_iso for lifting the ban on -multi.
              Note: -multi might make DVD media unreadable in some DVD-ROM drives.

              Create  subsequent tracks with permission for a single level of copies.  I.e. those
              copies would then be marked by -scms as offering no permission for further copies.

       -nopad Do not add trailing zeros to the data stream. Nevertheless, since there seems to be
              no  use  for  audio tracks with incomplete last sector, this option applies only to
              data tracks. There it is default.

              Indicate for subsequent tracks that they were mastered without pre-emphasis.

       -pad   Add 30 kiB of trailing zeros to each data track. (This is not sufficient  to  avoid
              problems with various CD-ROM read drivers.)

              Add  the  given  amount  of trailing zeros to the next data track. This option gets
              reset to padsize=0 after that next track is written. It may be set again before the
              next track argument. About size specifiers, see option fs=.

              Indicate for subsequent tracks that they were mastered with pre-emphasis.

       -sao   Write CD in Session At Once mode or sequential DVD-R[W] in Disc-at-once (DAO) mode.
              With  CD  this  mode is able to put several audio tracks on media without producing
              audible gaps between them.
              With DVD-R[W] this mode can only write a single track.  No -multi is  allowed  with
              DVD-R[W] -sao.
              -sao  is permissible with overwriteable DVD, or DVD+R[/DL], or BD but actually only
              imposes restrictions without providing known advantages.
              -sao can only be used for tracks of fixely predicted size. This implies that  track
              arguments which depict stdin or named pipes need to be preceded by option tsize= or
              by option tao_to_sao_tsize=.
              -sao cannot be used on appendable media.

              Scan the system for drives. On Linux the drives at /dev/s* and at /dev/hd*  are  to
              be  scanned by two separate runs. One without dev= for /dev/s* and one with dev=ATA
              for /dev/hd* devices. (Option --drives lists all available drives in a single run.)
              Drives which are busy or which offer no rw-permission to the user  of  cdrskin  are
              not listed. Busy drives get reported in form of warning messages.
              The useful fields in a result line are:
              Bus,Target,Lun Number) 'Vendor' 'Mode' 'Revision'

       -scms  Create  subsequent tracks without permission for being copied. This is usually done
              for tracks which are copies of tracks that were marked with -nocopy  (but  not  yet
              with -scms). So copies of copies are prohibited.
              This  option  gets  reset by option -copy. Thus the combination -copy -nocopy means
              -nocopy surely without -scms.

              Set speed of drive. With data CD, 1x speed corresponds to a throughput  of  153,600
              bytes/second.  With  DVD,  1x  =  1,385,000  bytes/second.   With BD 1x = 4,495,625
              bytes/second.  It is not an error to set a speed higher than is suitable for  drive
              and  media.  One should stay within a realistic speed range, though.  Special speed
              settings are:
              0 = minimal speed , -1 = maximal speed (default), text "any" = like -1.

       -swab  Announce that the raw audio data source of subsequent tracks is byte swapped versus
              the  expectations  of  cdrecord.  This option is suitable for audio where the least
              significant byte of a 16 bit word is first (little-endian, Intel).  Most raw  audio
              data  on  PC systems are available in this byte order.  Less guesswork is needed if
              track sources are in format MS-WAVE in a file with suffix ".wav".

       -tao   Write CD in Track At Once (TAO) mode, sequential DVD-R[W] in Incremental  Streaming
              mode,  or DVD+R[/DL] without traditional -sao restrictions.  This mode also applies
              pro-forma to overwriteable media
              Mode -tao can be used with track sources of unpredictable size, like standard input
              or named pipes. It is also the only mode that can be used for writing to appendable
              media which already hold data. With unformatted DVD-R[W] it is the only mode  which
              can keep media appendable by option -multi.
              Mode -tao is not usable for minimally blanked DVD-RW and for DVD-R DL.

       -text  Enable  writing  of  CD-TEXT  attributes  read  by option cuefile=.  Without option
              -text, cue sheet file command CDTEXTFILE will be ignored and no CD-TEXT  attributes
              will  be  read  from  the  file.  Nevertheless, CATALOG and ISRC will have the same
              effect as options mcn= and isrc=.

              Read CD-TEXT packs from the file depicted by path and put them into the Lead-in  of
              the emerging session. This session has to be done by Session At Once (SAO) mode and
              may only contain audio tracks.
              path must lead to a regular file, which consists of  an  optional  header  of  four
              bytes  and  one  or  more  text  packs of 18 bytes each. Suitable would be the file
              'cdtext.dat' which gets extracted from CD media by options -vv -toc  and  shown  in
              human readable form by -vvv -toc.
              The  header,  if present, must tell the file size minus 2, encoded as big-endian 16
              bit word. The other two bytes must be 0.
              If there is no 4-byte header, then a trailing 0-byte, as of Sony specification,  is
              tolerated and ignored.
              A  text  pack  consists of a pack type byte, a track number byte, a counter byte, a
              Block Number and Character Indicator byte, 12 text characters or  data  bytes,  two
              optional CRC bytes. For details see libburn documentation file doc/cdtext.txt.
              By  default,  the input file is checked for correct CRC bytes. If all CRC bytes are
              0, then the correct values get silently inserted. If there are non-zero CRC  bytes,
              then  a  mismatch  causes the abort of the burn run.  This check can be disabled by
              option -force.
              Note that this option overrides option input_sheet_v07t= .

       -toc   Print the table of content (TOC) which describes the tracks recorded on disc.   The
              output  contains  all  info from option -atip plus lines which begin with "track:",
              the track number, the word "lba:" and a number which gives the start address of the
              track.  Addresses  are counted in CD sectors which with SAO or TAO data tracks hold
              2048 bytes each.
              If verbosity is set to level 2 (-v -v) then the CD-TEXT packs from the  lead-in  of
              an audio CD get extracted and written into file 'cdtext.dat', if that file does not
              yet exist. Prepended is a 4 byte header, followed by one or more packs of 18  bytes
              Verbosity level 3 causes the CD-TEXT packs to be printed as hex numbers to standard
              output. Bytes 4 to 15 of certain pack types are printed as ASCII characters if they
              have values in the range of 32 to 126.
              See option textfile= for more information about the text pack format.

              Example. Retrieve an afio archive from track number 2:
                     lba=$(cdrskin dev=/dev/cdrom -toc 2>&1 | \
                     grep '^track:[ ]*[ 0-9][0-9]' | \
                     tail +"$tracknumber" | head -1 | \
                     awk '{ print $4}' )
                     dd if=/dev/cdrom bs=2048 skip="$lba" | \
                     afio -t - | less

              Announces the exact size of the next track source. This is necessary with any write
              mode other than -tao if the track source is not a regular disk file, but  e.g.  "-"
              (standard input) or a named pipe.  About size specifiers, see option fs=.
              If  the  track source does not deliver the predicted amount of bytes, the remainder
              of the track is padded with zeros. This is not considered  an  error.   If  on  the
              other  hand  the track source delivers more than the announced bytes then the track
              on media gets truncated to the predicted  size  and  cdrskin  exits  with  non-zero

       -v     Increment  verbosity level by one. Startlevel is 0 with only few messages.  Level 1
              prints progress report with long running operations  and  also  causes  some  extra
              lines  to  be  put  out  with info retrieval options.  Level 2 additionally reports
              about option settings derived from arguments or  startup  files.  Level  3  is  for
              debugging  and  useful  mainly in conjunction with somebody who had a look into the
              program sourcecode.

       -V     Enable logging of SCSI commands to stderr. This is helpful for  expert  examination
              of  the  interaction  between libburn and the drive.  The commands are specified in
              SCSI-3 standards SPC, SBC, MMC.

       -waiti Wait until input data is available at stdin or EOF  occurs  at  stdin.   Only  then
              begin to access any drives.
              One  should  use  this  if cdrskin is working at the end of a pipe where the feeder
              process reads from the drive before it starts  writing  its  output  into  cdrskin.
              mkisofs ... -C 0,12800 -M /dev/sr0 | \
              cdrskin dev=/dev/sr0 ... -waiti -
              This  option  works  even if stdin is not among the track sources. If no process is
              piping in, then the Enter key of your terminal will act  as  trigger  for  cdrskin.
              Note that this input line will not be consumed by cdrskin if stdin is not among the
              track sources. It will end up as shell command, usually.

       Alphabetical list of options which are genuine to cdrskin and intended for normal use:

              Curb explicitly given speed= values to the maximum which is announced by the  drive
              for  the  loaded  media.  By  default, such an adjustment is only made with pseudo-
              speeds 0 and -1 whereas speed settings > 0 are sent unchanged to  the  drive  which
              will then choose an appropriate speed on its own.

              Enable  drive  addresses  of the form dev=stdio:<path>. See above, paragraph "Drive
              preparation and addressing".

              Disable the  loud  warning  about  insecure  discrepance  between  login  user  and
              effective user which indicates application of chmod u+s to the program binary.  One
              should not do this chmod u+s , but it is an old cdrecord tradition.

              Allow source_addresses to begin with "-" (plus further characters) or to contain  a
              "="  character.   By  default  such arguments are seen as misspelled options. It is
              nevertheless   not   possible   to   use   one   of   the   options   listed   with

              Abort  if  the  write  address  given with this option is not the same as predicted
              immediately before the write session starts. This option can ensure  that  a  start
              address  which  was  presumed  by a formatter like mkisofs -C is really used by the
              drive for writing.  assert_write_lba=0 effectively demands blank media and excludes
              Block numbering is peculiar: If the last character of the option string is a letter
              [a-zA-Z] then the usual unit scaling by "s", "k", "m", etc. applies and the  result
              is  divided  by  2048.  Else the number value of the string is taken as plain block
              number with block size 2048 byte.  (E.g ...=1000 or  ...=1000s  means  block  1000,
              ...=1m means block 512, ...=4096b means block number 2)

              Set  the  number  which shall be written as CD track number with the first track of
              the session. The following tracks will then get written with consecutive  CD  track
              numbers.  The  resulting  number  of  the last track must not exceed 99. The lowest
              possible start number is 1, which is also the default.
              This setting applies only to CD SAO writing. It overrides the track number settings
              caused by options cuefile= or input_sheet_v07t=.

              Extract  the  CD-TEXT  packs  from the lead-in of an audio CD and write them to the
              file with the given path. If CD-TEXT can be  retrieved,  then  this  file  will  be
              suitable for option textfile=.
              Not  all  drives  can  read  CD-TEXT and not all audio CDs bear CD-TEXT.  It is not
              considered an error if no CD-TEXT is available.

              Extract the CD-TEXT packs from the lead-in of an audio CD and write them  as  human
              readable  Sony Input Sheet Version 0.7T to the file with the given path. If CD-TEXT
              can be retrieved, then this file will be suitable for option input_sheet_v07t=.
              If the given path is "-", then the result is printed to standard output.
              Not all drives can read CD-TEXT and not all audio CDs  bear  CD-TEXT.   It  is  not
              considered an error if no CD-TEXT is available.

              Exit with a nonzero value if no drive can be found during a bus scan.

              List the device file addresses of all accessible CD drives. In order to get listed,
              a drive has to offer rw-permission for the cdrskin user and it may not be busy. The
              superuser  should be able to see all idle drives listed and busy drives reported as
              "SORRY" messages.
              Each available drive gets listed by a line containing the following fields:
              Number dev='Devicefile' rw-Permissions : 'Vendor' 'Model'
              Number and Devicefile can both be used with option dev=,  but  number  is  volatile
              (numbering changes if drives become busy).

              Like  --devices,  but  presenting the drives with addresses of symbolic links which
              point to the actual device files.
              Modern GNU/Linux systems may shuffle drive addresses from boot to boot.   The  udev
              daemon is supposed to create links which always point to the same drive, regardless
              of its system address.  Option --device_links shows the addresses of such links  if
              they  begin  by  "/dev/dvd"  or  "/dev/cd".  Precedence is: "dvdrw", "cdrw", "dvd",
              "cdrom", "cd".

              Do not write a session with tracks but rather make an appropriate number of  direct
              write  operations  with no preparations. Flushing the drive buffer will be the only
              finalization. It is advised  to  eject  the  media  afterwards  because  the  write
              operations  circumvent  the  usual  system  i/o  with  its  caches  and buffers. By
              ejecting, those invalid memory copies get surely discarded.
              Only few media can be written this way: DVD-RAM, BD-RE,  RVD+RW  and  overwriteable
              DVD-RW. Writing is restricted to the already formatted area of the media.
              Writing  starts  at  byte  0  of  the  media  or  at  the  address  given by option
              write_start_address= .  Only the first track source is used as input for the  write
              operations.  The fifo (fs=) is disabled.
              Parameter  size  controls  the  amount of data to be written. Size 0 means that the
              track source shall be used up until EOF. In this case, the last  write  transaction
              gets  padded  up to the necessary size by zeros. Size -1 revokes direct writing and
              switches back to normal session oriented writing.
              Both, write_start_address and direct_write_amount size must be aligned to  a  media
              dependent   transaction  size.  With  DVD-RAM,  BD-RE,  DVD+RW  this  is  2k,  with
              overwriteable DVD-RW it is 32k.

              Set the number of bytes to be transmitted with each write operation to  DVD  or  BD
              media.  With  most  write  types, tracks get padded up to the next multiple of this
              write size (see option --obs_pad).  A number of 64 KB may improve  throughput  with
              systems  which  show  latency  problems.  The default depends on media type, option
              stream_recording=, and on compile time options.

              Extract tracks from an audio CD  as  separate  WAVE  audio  files  into  the  given
              directory.   This  directory  has to already exist, but none of the track files may
              exist.  This option will rather fail than overwrite an existing file.
              By default all tracks of the CD are extracted  to  files  with  names  trackNN.wav,
              where NN is the track number from 01 to at most 99.

              Set a filename which shall be used by extract_audio_to= instead of the default name

              Enable Digital Audio Play flaw  obscuring  mechanisms  like  audio  data  mute  and

              Set  a  list  of  track  numbers  to  define  which  tracks  shall  be extracted by
              extract_audio_to=.  If no extract_tracks= is  given,  then  all  audio  tracks  get
              extracted.  It is permissible to have more than one extract_tracks= option in order
              to split a long list into shorter pieces.
              The lowest permissible track number is 1, the highest is 99.

              Set a command name to be executed if cdrskin encounters  a  known  cdrecord  option
              which   it   does   not   yet  support.  If  a  non-empty  command  is  given  with
              fallback_program=, and if no essential options are  given  which  are  specific  to
              cdrskin, then cdrskin will delegate the job to said command.
              The  natural commands to be given are cdrecord or wodim but one may well submit the
              address of an own program.
              The fallback program will get all arguments of cdrskin which do not match the shell
              patterns  --?*  or  *_*=*  . This eventually suppresses path names of track sources
              which happen to match those patterns. The options from the startup  files  are  not
              handed to the fallback program.
              Fallback  program  execution  is  disabled  if cdrskin is run setuid and not option
              --allow_setuid is given. In general, the drive's  device  files  and  the  involved
              programs  should  be set up so that each program runs under its advised conditions.
              (E.g. cdrskin as member of group floppy, cdrecord setuid root.)
              Two alias names for cdrskin are predefined with default fallback programs:
              unicord implies fallback_program=cdrecord
              codim implies fallback_program=wodim

              Indicate for subsequent tracks that they were mastered with four channels.

              Do not wait for full fifo but start burning as soon as the given number of bytes is
              read.  This  option  may  be  helpful  to  bring the average throughput near to the
              maximum throughput of a drive. A large fs= and a  small  fifo_start_at=  combine  a
              quick  burn  start  and  a large savings buffer to compensate for temporary lack of
              source data. At the beginning of burning, the software  protection  against  buffer
              underrun  is  as  weak  as  the size of fifo_start_at= . So it is best if the drive
              offers   hardware   protection   which   is   enabled    automatically    if    not
              driveropts=noburnfree is given.

              Enable  emulation  of multi-session writing on overwriteable media which contain an
              ISO-9660 filesystem. This emulation is learned from growisofs -M but adapted to the
              usage model of
              cdrskin -msinfo
              mkisofs -C -M | cdrskin -waiti [-multi] -
              --grow_overwriteable_iso does not hamper the use of true multi-session media.  I.e.
              it is possible to use the same cdrskin options with both  kinds  of  media  and  to
              achieve  similar  results  if  ISO-9660  filesystem images are to be written.  This
              option implies option -isosize and therefore demands that the  track  source  is  a
              ISO-9660 filesystem image.
              With  overwriteable  media  and  no  option  blank=fast|all  present  it expands an
              eventual ISO-9660 filesystem on media. It is assumed that this image's  inner  size
              description  points  to  the  end of the valuable data.  Overwriteable media with a
              recognizable ISO-9660 size will be regarded as appendable  rather  than  as  blank.
              I.e.  options  -msinfo  and -toc will work.  -toc will always show a single session
              with its size increasing with every added mkisofs image.
              If not overridden by option write_start_address=, the track with the new image will
              be  placed  behind  the end of the old one. One may use option assert_write_lba= to
              make sure that media state and mkisofs job do match.
              --grow_overwriteable_iso causes option blank=fast|all  to  invalidate  an  eventual
              ISO-9660  image by altering the first few bytes of block 16 on overwriteable media.
              Option -multi is tolerated in order not to hamper true multi-session media.
              An equivalent of growisofs -Z for overwriteable media is:
              mkisofs | cdrskin --grow_overwriteable_iso blank=fast [-multi] -
              With multi-session DVD, blank=fast will act like dvd+rw-format -blank=full .
              growisofs -dvd-compat is roughly equivalent to cdrskin without option -multi.

              Read CD-TEXT definitions from a Sony Input Sheet version 0.7T. Up to eight or seven
              such  sheets  can  be read by multiple input_sheet_v07t= options.  Each will define
              one CD-TEXT language block.
              The first line of a sheet file decides whether more than one sheet may  be  defined
              by the file. If it is
                Input Sheet Version = 0.7T
              then  each  further  line  with  that  text switches to the next sheet for the next
              block.  If it is not, then all definitions apply to a single block.
              The information in such a sheet is given by text lines of the following form:
                purpose specifier [whitespace] = [whitespace] content text
              [whitespace] is zero or more ASCII 32 (space) or ASCII  9  (tab)  characters.   The
              purpose  specifier  tells the meaning of the content text.  Empty content text does
              not cause a CD-TEXT attribute to be attached.
              The following purpose specifiers apply to the session as a whole:
                Purpose specifier   | Content example
                Text Code           = 8859
                Language Code       = English
                Album Title         = Joyful Nights
                Artist Name         = United Cat Orchestra
                Songwriter          = Various Songwriters
                Composer            = Various Composers
                Arranger            = Tom Cat
                Album Message       = For all our fans
                Catalog Number      = 1234567890
                Genre Code          = Classical
                Genre Information   = Feline classic music
                Closed Information  = This is not to be shown by CD players
                UPC / EAN           = 1234567890123
                Text Data Copy Protection = OFF
                First Track Number  = 1
                Last Track Number   = 3
              The following purpose specifiers apply to particular tracks:
                Purpose specifier   | Content example
                Track 01 Title      = Song of Joy
                Track 01 Artist     = Felix and The Purrs
                Track 01 Songwriter = Friedrich Schiller
                Track 01 Composer   = Ludwig van Beethoven
                Track 01 Arranger   = Tom Cat
                Track 01 Message    = Fritz and Louie once were punks
                ISRC 01             = XYCRR1101234
              Track numbers are decimal despite the leading 0. There  should  be  as  many  track
              definitions as there are track source files given.
              See  libburn's  doc/cdtext.txt  for  a detailed definition of 0.7T and the possible
              values for Text Code, Language Code, Genre Code, Text Data Copy Protection.
              The Q sub-channel settings by "UPC / EAN" and "ISRC" may be overridden  by  options
              mcn=  and  isrc=.   This  will  not  affect  their appearance as CD-TEXT.  They may
              override cuefile= commands CATALOG and ISRC in the same way.
              If options -text cuefile= are given and if the cue sheet file defines CD-TEXT, then
              only  seven  input_sheet_v07t=  options may be given. They will then be used as CD-
              TEXT language blocks 1 to 7.
              This option will get into effect only if no option textfile= is given.   The  write
              mode must be SAO on CD. All tracks must be -audio tracks.
              The track numbers may be overridden by option cd_start_tno=.

              List  the  available  format  descriptors  as  reported by the drive for the loaded
              media. Each descriptor line begins with "Format  idx"  and  the  descriptor's  list
              index,  followed  by  a ":", the format type, the number of payload blocks and that
              same number converted to MiB.
              The meaning of the format types is defined by the MMC standard with command  FORMAT
              UNIT. A user will more be interested in the sizes than in the types.

              List  all  ignored cdrecord options. The "-" options cannot be used as addresses of
              track sources. No track source address may begin with a text  equal  to  an  option
              which ends by "=". The list is ended by an empty line.

              Put  out  a  list  of  speed values as reported by the output drive with the loaded
              medium. This does not necessarily mean that the medium is writable  or  that  these
              speeds  are  actually achievable. Especially the lists reported with empty drive or
              with ROM media obviously advertise speeds for other media.
              It is not mandatory to use speed values out of the  listed  range.   The  drive  is
              supposed to choose a safe speed that is as near to the desired speed as possible.
              At  the  end  of the list, "Write speed L" and "Write speed H" are the best guesses
              for lower and upper speed limit.  "Write speed l" and "Write speed  h"  may  appear
              only with CD and eventually override the list of other speed offers.
              Only  if the drive reports contradicting speed information there will appear "Write
              speed 0" or "Write speed-1", which tell the outcome of speed selection  by  options
              speed=0  or  speed=-1,  if  it  deviates  from  "Write speed L" or "Write speed H",

              Like option -toc but marking each session start by a line "first: X  last:  Y"  and
              each session end by "track:lout ...".

              When  aquiring the optical drive, do not try to load its tray. This yields the same
              behavior for desktop drives with tray loader as is shown  by  laptop  drives  which
              usually lack a motorized tray loader.

              Only  if  used  as  first  command  line  argument this option prevents reading and
              interpretation of eventual startup files. See section FILES below.

              Adds a newline character to each pacifier line that would elsewise  be  overwritten
              by  the  next  pacifier  line.  Such  lines  are  emitted  during a run of writing,
              formatting, or blanking if option -v is given.

              Activates behavior modifications with  some  DVD  situations  which  bring  cdrskin
              nearer to the behavior of cdrecord-ProDVD:
              Option -multi with unsuitable media is not an error but simply has no effect.
              Options blank=fast and blank=all deformat overwriteable DVD-RW media.
              Option  blank=fast  does  indeed  minmal blanking with DVD-RW. This may yield media
              which can only do DAO but not Incremental Streaming.

              Accept only the last argument of the command line as track source address.

              Set the number of bytes after which to force output to drives with prefix "stdio:".
              This forcing keeps the memory from being clogged with lots of pending data for slow
              devices. Default "on" is the same as "16m".   Forced  output  can  be  disabled  by

              By  setting  "on" request that compliance to the desired speed setting is preferred
              over management of write errors. With DVD-RAM and BD this can bring effective write
              speed  near  to the nominal write speed of the media.  But it will also disable the
              automatic use of replacement blocks if write errors occur.  It  might  as  well  be
              disliked or ignored by the drive.
              If  a  number  is given, then error management stays enabled for all byte addresses
              below that number. Any number below 16s is the same as "off".

              Set an exact fixed size for the next track to be in effect only if the track source
              cannot  deliver  a  size  prediction and no tsize= was specified and an exact track
              size prediction is demanded by the write mode.
              This was the fallback from bad old times when cdrskin was unable to  burn  in  mode
              -tao  .  It  came  back  with minimally blanked DVD-RW, which cannot do Incremental
              Streaming (-tao), and with explicitly selected write mode  -sao  for  best  DVD-ROM
              If  the  track source delivers less bytes than announced then the missing ones will
              be filled with zeros.

              Prepare a recording session, do not perform  it  but  rather  inquire  the  maximum
              number  of 2048 byte data blocks which may be written in the current state of media
              with the prepared setup. So this option disables recording of  data.  It  does  not
              disable blanking, though, and will measure space afterwards.
              It  is  not  mandatory  to  give  track  sources but their nature may influence the
              available capacity. So for most realistic results one may  set  up  the  full  burn
              session  and  add  --tell_media_space.  But  if one has to expect a cdrskin version
              prior to 0.3.3 no track source should be given in order not to start an involuntary
              burn session.  In this case set at least -sao or -tao explicitly.
              The  result  gets  printed  to  standard  output. It is 0 or empty if no writing is
              possible with the given options.  This  option  redirects  to  stderr  all  message
              output except its own result string and eventual output of -msinfo.

              Read a CD-TEXT pack file (e.g. cdtext.dat from a run with -v -v -toc) and print its
              content  in  the  human   readable   format   that   is   described   with   option
              The  program  run  ends  immediately  thereafter.  No drive scan will happen and no
              drive will be acquired.
              To avoid the cdrskin start message in the output, run:
                cdrskin textfile_to_v07t=cdtext.dat | grep -v '^cdrskin'

              Indicate for subsequent tracks that they were mastered with two channels.

              Set the address on media where to start writing the track. With DVD+RW, DVD-RAM  or
              BD-RE byte_offset must be aligned to 2 kiB blocks, but better is 32 kiB.  With DVD-
              RW 32 kiB alignment is mandatory.
              Other media are not suitable for this option yet.

              Mode 1 keeps the program from trying to write to the burner drive while its  buffer
              is in danger to be filled by more than parameter "max_percent".  If this filling is
              exceeded then the program will wait until the filling  is  at  most  the  value  of
              parameter "min_percent".
              Percentages are permissible in the range of 25 to 100.
              This  can ease the load on operating system and drive controller and thus help with
              achieving better input  bandwidth  if  disk  and  burner  are  not  on  independent
              controllers (like hda and hdb). Unsufficient input bandwidth is indicated by output
              "(fifo  xy%)" of option -v if xy is lower than 90 for some time.  modesty_on_drive=
              might hamper output bandwidth and cause buffer underruns.
              A new use case is to work around the poor simultaneous performance of multiple burn
              runs on Linux kernel 3.16 and alike. Here it is not  about  giving  the  hard  disk
              enough  time  to  fill the fifo, but about keeping ioctl(SG_IO) from blocking for a
              longer time and thus blocking all other burn runs.
              To have max_percent larger than the burner's best actual buffer fill has  the  same
              effect  as min_percent==max_percent. Some burners do not use their full buffer with
              all media types. Watch output "[buf xy%]" of option -v to get an impression of  the
              actual  buffer usage. Some burners are not suitable because they report buffer fill
              with granularity too large in size or time, or because they go to full  speed  only
              when their buffer is full.
              If  a  write attempt is delayed, the program will wait for a number of microseconds
              which is given by parameter "min_usec" before inquiring the buffer again.  If  more
              retries  occur,  this  waiting  time between inquiries increases up to the value of
              parameter "max_usec".
              If  the  delay  lasts  longer  than  the  number  of  seconds  given  by  parameter
              "timeout_sec", then mode 1 is set 0 and normal burning goes on.
              Mode 0 disables this feature. Mode -1 keeps it unchanged. Default is:
              The  defaults  of  cdrskin  are  good for IDE problems. With concurrent Linux SG_IO
              problems on modern hardware, higher min_percent and lower usec might  yield  better
              buffer fills while still avoiding the problem:

       Alphabetical  list  of options which are only intended for very special situations and not
       for  normal use:

              Establish default signal handling not to leave a drive in busy state but rather  to
              shut  it  down and to wait until it has ended the final operations.  This option is
              only needed for revoking eventual --ignore_signals or --no_abort_handler.

              Enable the use of media profiles which have been implemented but  not  yet  tested.
              Currently  this  option  is  without  effect  because no media types are under test
              (If you really test experimental media, then please report the outcome on  libburn-

              Prepare a burn run, report the effective array of CD-TEXT packs to stdout, and then
              end the program run without starting to burn the session.  A blank  CD-R  or  CD-RW
              has to be present in the drive, nevertheless.
              The  output is formatted in lines which describe 18 bytes as 2-digit hex numbers or
              as single printable characters.  See  libburn  document  doc/cdtext.txt  about  the
              format of these records.

              Like  --cdtext_dummy  but  without  preventing the burn run. Combinable with option
              -dummy to exercise a CD burn run with no persistent impact on the medium.

              Set drive address alias.  This  was  necessary  before  cdrskin-0.2.4  to  manually
              translate cdrecord addresses into cdrskin addresses.
              <sep>  is  a  single  character  which  may not occur in the address string <from>.
              <from> is an address as expected to be given by the user via option dev=.  <to>  is
              the address to be used instead whenever <from> is given.  More than one translation
              instruction can be given in one cdrskin run.
              E.g.: dev_translation=+ATA:1,0,0+/dev/sr1 dev_translation=+ATA:1,1,0+/dev/sr2

              Linux specific: Abort process if a busy drive is encountered.

              Linux specific: Try to wait  for  a  busy  drive  to  become  free.   This  is  not
              guaranteed to work with all drivers. Some need nonblocking i/o.

              Linux specific: Try to get exclusive lock on drive device file via fcntl(2).

              Linux specific: Combine --drive_not_f_setlk and --drive_not_o_excl.

              Linux specific: Do not try to get exclusive lock on drive device file via fcntl(2).

              Linux  specific:  Do  not  ask the operating system to prevent opening busy drives.
              Whether this leads to senseful behavior depends on operating system and kernel.

              Linux specific: Select a SCSI device file family  to  be  scanned  for  by  options
              --devices,  --device_links  and  -scanbus.   Normally  this  is  /dev/sgN on kernel
              versions < 2.6 and /dev/srN on kernels >= 2.6 . This  option  explicitly  overrides
              that  default  in  order  to  meet  other programs at a common device file for each
              drive.  On kernel 2.4 families sr and scd will find no drives.
              Device file family /dev/hdX on kernel >= 2.6 is not affected by this setting.

              Linux specific: Try  to  exclusively  reserve  device  files  /dev/srN,  /dev/scdM,
              /dev/sgK  of  drives.   This  would  be  helpful to protect against collisions with
              program growisofs.  Regrettably on Linux kernel 2.4 with  ide-scsi  emulation  this
              seems  not  to  work.  Whether  it becomes helpful with new Linux systems has to be

              Disable fifo despite any fs=.

              Use a separate fifo for each track.

              Expand the last track of the session to occupy all  remaining  free  space  on  the
              This  option  overrides  option -multi. It will not fill up media if option -sao is
              given with CD media.
              Caution: With multi-session media this option might increase readatibility on  DVD-
              ROM  drives  but  with  some  DVD  recorders  and media types it might also fail to
              produce readable media at all. "Your mileage may vary".
              You can expect the best possible read compatibility if you do  not  use  -multi  at

              Open  the addressed drive, wait the given number of seconds, release the drive, and
              do normal work as indicated by the other options used. This option helps to explore
              the  program behavior when faced with busy drives. Just start a second cdrskin with
              option --devices while grab_drive_and_wait= is still active.

              Try to ignore any signals rather than to abort the program. This is not a very good
              idea. You might end up waiting a very long time for cdrskin to finish.

              List  the  SCSI/MMC  features  which  were obtained from the drive when it was last
              acquired or re-assessed. Although this is better readable than  the  raw  reply  to
              SCSI  command  GET  CONFIGURATION,  the  MMC specification text is still needed for
              interpreting it.
              The list consists of line groups of the form
                Code +/- : Name : Version,P/N
                           Raw feature data bytes as hex numbers
                           Parsed info as Name=Value pairs
              The headline is the only one which has no blank at its start.  Code is given as  16
              bit hex number.
              "+"  marks  a currently offered feature. "-" marks those which may be offered under
              different circumstances.
              Name is the feature name as listed in MMC specs.
              "P" marks persistent features. "N" marks non-persistent features.
              The Raw data can occupy more than one line. No "=" occurs in such lines.  If no raw
              data are present, one line with some blanks is listed instead.
              The  Parsed  info  shows  some extracted field values with names which resemble the
              names used in the MMC description of the  particular  feature.  Parsed  info  lines
              contain at least one Name=Value pair. More than one line is possible.  If no parsed
              info is produced, one line with some blanks is listed instead.
                0107 - : Real Time Streaming : 4,N
                         1f 00 00 00
                         RBCB=1 , SCS=1 , MP2A=1 , WSPD=1 , SW=1

              On signals exit even if the drive is in busy state. This is not a very  good  idea.
              You might end up with a stuck drive that refuses to hand out the media.

              Refuse to blank appendable CD-RW or DVD-RW. This is a feature that was once builtin
              with libburn. No information available for what use case it was needed.

              Do only literal translations of  dev=.  This  prevents  cdrskin  from  test-opening
              device files in order to find one that matches the given dev= specifier.
              Partly  Linux  specific: Such opening is needed for Bus,Target,Lun addresses unless
              option --old_pseudo_scsi_adr is given. It is also needed  to  resolve  device  file
              addresses  which  are not listed with cdrskin --devices but nevertheless point to a
              usable drive. (Like /dev/sg0 using the same SCSI address as /dev/sr0.)

              Pad the data of last write operation of a DVD-R[W] DAO session  or  stdio:  pseudo-
              drive  up  to  the  full  size  of an output chunk.  This padding has to be applied
              automatically to the other DVD and BD media types, where it causes e.g. ISO  images
              to have trailing unclaimed blocks.
              Use  this option if there is the suspicion that DAO sessions abort with your kernel
              and/or DVD drive, if their size is not a multiple of 16 blocks.
              This option may also get enabled at compile time of libburn.

              Linux specific: Use and report literal Bus,Target,Lun addresses  rather  than  real
              SCSI  and  pseudo  ATA  addresses. This method is outdated and was never compatible
              with original cdrecord.

              Define whether a post-gap shall be written at the end of the  track  and  how  many
              sectors  this  gap shall have. A post-gap occupies the range of an additional index
              of the track. It contains zeros. No bytes from the track source will  be  read  for
              writing the post-gap.
              This setting affects only CD SAO write runs.

              Define  whether  a  pre-gap  shall be written before the track and how many sectors
              this pre-gap shall have. A pre-gap is written in the range of  track  index  0  and
              contains  zeros.  No  bytes from the track source will be read for writing the pre-
              This setting affects only CD SAO write runs.
              The first track automatically gets a pre-gap of at least 150 sectors. Its size  can
              only be enlarged by this call.

              Control whether several long lasting SCSI commands shall be executed with the Immed
              bit, which makes the commands end early while the drive operation  is  still  going
              on.  cdrskin  then inquires progress indication until the drive reports to be ready
              again. If this feature is turned off, then blanking and  formatting  will  show  no
              progress indication.
              It  may  depend  on  the operating system whether use_immed_bit= is set to "off" by

              Silently interpret option -xa1 as -data. This may be necessary if a  frontend  does
              not prepare -xa1 block headers but insists in using option -xa1.


   Get an overview of drives and their addresses:
       cdrskin -scanbus
       cdrskin dev=ATA -scanbus
       cdrskin --device_links

   Get info about a particular drive or loaded media:
       cdrskin dev=0,1,0 -checkdrive
       cdrskin dev=ATA:1,0,0 -v -atip
       cdrskin dev=/dev/hdc -minfo

   Prepare CD-RW or DVD-RW for re-use, DVD-RAM or BD-RE for first use:
       cdrskin -v dev=/dev/sg1 blank=as_needed -eject

   Format DVD-RW to avoid need for blanking before re-use:
       cdrskin -v dev=/dev/sr0 blank=format_overwrite

   De-format DVD-RW to make it capable of multi-session again:
       cdrskin -v dev=/dev/sr0 blank=deformat_sequential

   Write ISO-9660 filesystem image as only one to blank or formatted media:
       cdrskin -v dev=/dev/hdc speed=12 fs=8m \
         blank=as_needed -eject padsize=300k my_image.iso

   Write  compressed afio archive on-the-fly (not possible with minimally blanked DVD-RW or DVD-R
       find . | afio -oZ - | \
       cdrskin -v dev=0,1,0 fs=32m speed=8 \
         blank=as_needed padsize=300k -

   Write multi-session to the same CD, DVD-R[W], DVD+R[/DL], or BD-R:
       cdrskin dev=/dev/sr0 -v padsize=300k -multi 1.iso
       cdrskin dev=/dev/sr0 -v padsize=300k -multi 2.iso
       cdrskin dev=/dev/sr0 -v padsize=300k -multi 3.iso
       cdrskin dev=/dev/sr0 -v padsize=300k 4.iso

   Get multi-session info for option -C of program mkisofs:
       c_values=$(cdrskin dev=/dev/hdc -msinfo 2>/dev/null)
       mkisofs ... -C "$c_values" ...

   Inquire free space on media for a -multi run:
       x=$(cdrskin dev=/dev/sr0 -multi \
         --tell_media_space 2>/dev/null)
       echo "Available: $x blocks of 2048 data bytes"

   Write audio tracks and CD-TEXT to CD:
       cdrskin -v dev=ATA:1,0,0 speed=48 -sao \
         input_sheet_v07t=cdtext.v07t \
         track1.wav -audio -swab track3.raw

   Extract audio tracks and CD-TEXT from CD into directory /home/me/my_cd:
       mkdir /home/me/my_cd
       cdrskin -v dev=/dev/sr0 extract_audio_to=/home/me/my_cd \


   Startup files:
       If not --no_rc is given as the first argument then cdrskin attempts on startup to read the
       arguments from the following files:


       The  files  are read in the sequence given above, but none of them is required for cdrskin
       to function properly. Each readable line is treated  as  one  single  argument.  No  extra
       blanks.  A first character '#' marks a comment, empty lines are ignored.
       Example content of a startup file:
       # This is the default device
       # Some more options

   Disabling superuser safety precautions:
       The  superuser  is normally banned from using any other emulated drive but /dev/null. This
       ban can be lifted by the existence of file


       where the directory must be owned by the superuser and must not  offer  w-permissions  for
       group or others.
       Warning:  Superusers  must take care not to spoil their hard disk via its raw block device
       (like stdio:/dev/hda or stdio:/dev/sd0).


       Formatting data track sources for cdrskin:
              mkisofs(8), genisoimage(8), xorriso(1), afio(1), star(1)

       Other CD/DVD/BD burn programs:
              cdrecord(1), wodim(1), xorriso(1)

       For DVD/BD burning (also tutor of libburn's DVD/BD capabilities):


       cdrskin was written by Thomas Schmitt <>.

       This manual page was started by George Danchev <> and is  now  maintained
       by Thomas Schmitt.

                                   Version 1.5.4, Jan 30, 2021                         CDRSKIN(1)