Provided by: ghostscript_10.0.0~dfsg1-0ubuntu1_amd64 bug


       gs - Ghostscript (PostScript and PDF language interpreter and previewer)


       gs [ options ] [ files ] ...


       The  gs  command  invokes Ghostscript, an interpreter of Adobe Systems' PostScript(tm) and
       Portable Document Format (PDF) languages.  gs reads "files" in sequence and executes  them
       as  Ghostscript programs. After doing this, it reads further input from the standard input
       stream (normally the keyboard), interpreting each line separately and output to an  output
       device  (may  be  a  file  or  an  X11  window  preview, see below). The interpreter exits
       gracefully when it encounters the "quit" command (either in a file or from the  keyboard),
       at end-of-file, or at an interrupt signal (such as Control-C at the keyboard).

       The interpreter recognizes many option switches, some of which are described below. Please
       see the usage documentation for complete information. Switches may appear anywhere in  the
       command  line  and  apply to all files thereafter.  Invoking Ghostscript with the -h or -?
       switch produces a message which shows several useful switches, all the  devices  known  to
       that  executable,  and  the  search  path for fonts; on Unix it also shows the location of
       detailed documentation.

       Ghostscript may be built to use many different output devices.  To see which devices  your
       executable includes, run "gs -h".

       Unless  you specify a particular device, Ghostscript normally opens the first one of those
       and directs output to it.

       If you have installed the ghostscript-x Debian package and are under X, the default device
       is  an  X11  window  (previewer),  else  ghostscript will use the bbox device and print on
       stdout the dimension of the postscript file.

       So if the first one in the list is the one you want to use, just issue the command


       You can  also  check  the  set  of  available  devices  from  within  Ghostscript:  invoke
       Ghostscript and type

            devicenames ==

       but  the  first  device  on the resulting list may not be the default device you determine
       with "gs -h".  To specify "AbcXyz" as the initial output device, include the switch


       For example, for output to an Epson printer you might use the command

            gs -sDEVICE=epson

       The "-sDEVICE=" switch must precede the first mention of a file to  print,  and  only  the
       switch's first use has any effect.

       Finally,  you  can  specify  a  default device in the environment variable GS_DEVICE.  The
       order of precedence for these alternatives from highest to lowest  (Ghostscript  uses  the
       device defined highest in the list) is:

       Some  devices can support different resolutions (densities).  To specify the resolution on
       such a printer, use the "-r" switch:

            gs -sDEVICE=<device> -r<xres>x<yres>

       For example, on a 9-pin Epson-compatible printer, you  get  the  lowest-density  (fastest)
       mode with

            gs -sDEVICE=epson -r60x72

       and the highest-density (best output quality) mode with

            gs -sDEVICE=epson -r240x72.

       If  you select a printer as the output device, Ghostscript also allows you to choose where
       Ghostscript sends the output -- on Unix systems, usually to a temporary file.  To send the
       output to a file "", use the switch


       You  might want to print each page separately.  To do this, send the output to a series of
       files ",, ..." using the "-sOutputFile=" switch with "%d" in  a  filename


       Each  resulting  file receives one page of output, and the files are numbered in sequence.
       "%d" is a printf format specification; you can also use a variant like "%02d".

       You can also send output to a pipe.  For example, to pipe  output  to  the  "lpr"  command
       (which, on many Unix systems, directs it to a printer), use the option


       You can also send output to standard output:


       In this case you must also use the -q switch, to prevent Ghostscript from writing messages
       to standard output.

       To select a specific paper size, use the command line switch


       for instance


       Most ISO and US paper sizes are recognized. See the usage documentation for a  full  list,
       or the definitions in the initialization file "".

       Ghostscript  can  do  many  things other than print or view PostScript and PDF files.  For
       example, if you want to know the bounding box of a PostScript (or EPS)  file,  Ghostscript
       provides a special "device" that just prints out this information.

       For example, using one of the example files distributed with Ghostscript,

            gs -sDEVICE=bbox

       prints out

            %%BoundingBox: 0 25 583 732
            %%HiResBoundingBox: 0.808497 25.009496 582.994503 731.809445


       -- filename arg1 ...
              Takes  the next argument as a file name as usual, but takes all remaining arguments
              (even if they have the syntactic form of switches) and defines the name "ARGUMENTS"
              in  "userdict"  (not "systemdict") as an array of those strings, before running the
              file.  When Ghostscript finishes executing the file, it exits back to the shell.

              Define a name in "systemdict" with the given definition.  The token must be exactly
              one token (as defined by the "token" operator) and may contain no whitespace.

       -dname Define a name in "systemdict" with value=null.

              Define a name in "systemdict" with a given string as value.  This is different from
              -d.  For example, -dname=35 is equivalent to the program fragment
                   /name 35 def
              whereas -sname=35 is equivalent to
                   /name (35) def

       -P     Makes Ghostscript to look first in the current directory  for  library  files.   By
              default,  Ghostscript  no longer looks in the current directory, unless, of course,
              the first explicitly supplied directory is "." in -I.  See also the  INITIALIZATION
              FILES  section  below,  and bundled Use.htm for detailed discussion on search paths
              and how Ghostcript finds files.

       -q     Quiet startup: suppress normal startup messages, and  also  do  the  equivalent  of

              Equivalent  to  -dDEVICEWIDTH=number1  and -dDEVICEHEIGHT=number2.  This is for the
              benefit of devices (such as X11 windows) that require (or allow) width  and  height
              to be specified.

              Equivalent to -dDEVICEXRESOLUTION=number1 and -dDEVICEYRESOLUTION=number2.  This is
              for the benefit of  devices  such  as  printers  that  support  multiple  X  and  Y
              resolutions.  If only one number is given, it is used for both X and Y resolutions.

              Adds  the designated list of directories at the head of the search path for library

       -      This is not really a switch, but indicates to Ghostscript that  standard  input  is
              coming  from  a  file  or  a  pipe  and  not  interactively  from the command line.
              Ghostscript reads from standard input until it reaches  end-of-file,  executing  it
              like any other file, and then continues with processing the command line.  When the
              command line has been entirely processed, Ghostscript exits rather than going  into
              its interactive mode.

       Note that the normal initialization file "" makes "systemdict" read-only, so the
       values of names defined with -D, -d, -S, or -s cannot be  changed  (although,  of  course,
       they can be superseded by definitions in "userdict" or other dictionaries.)


              Disables character caching.  Useful only for debugging.

              Disables the "bind" operator.  Useful only for debugging.

              Suppresses the normal initialization of the output device.  This may be useful when

              Disables the prompt and pause at the end of each page.  This may be  desirable  for
              applications where another program is driving Ghostscript.

              Disables  the  use  of  fonts  supplied  by the underlying platform (for instance X
              Windows). This may be needed if the platform fonts look undesirably different  from
              the scalable fonts.

              Restricts file operations the job can perform. Now the default mode of operation.

              Leaves  "systemdict"  writable.   This  is  necessary  when running special utility
              programs, but is strongly discouraged as it  bypasses  normal  Postscript  security

              Selects an alternate initial output device, as described above.

              Selects  an  alternate  output  file  (or  pipe)  for the initial output device, as
              described above.


       The -dSAFER option restricts file system accesses to those files and  directories  allowed
       by  the  relevant environment variables (such as GS_LIB) or by the command line parameters
       (see for details).

       SAFER mode is now the default mode of operation. Thus when running programs that  need  to
       open  files or set restricted parameters you should pass the -dNOSAFER command line option
       or its synonym -dDELAYSAFER.

       Running with NOSAFER/DELAYSAFER (as the same suggests) loosens the security  and  is  thus
       recommended  ONLY  for  debugging  or  in  VERY  controlled  workflows,  and  strongly NOT
       recommended in any other circumstances.


       The locations of many Ghostscript run-time files are compiled into the executable when  it
       is  built.   Run "gs -h" to find the location of Ghostscript documentation on your system,
       from which you can get more details. On a Debian system they are in /usr.

              Startup files, utilities, and basic font definitions (where  [0-9]*.[0.9]*  is  the
              ghostscript version)

              More font definitions from the gsfonts package

              Ghostscript demonstration files (if ghostscript-doc package is installed)

              Diverse document files (may need to install ghostscript-doc package)


       When  looking  for  the initialization files "gs_*.ps", the files related to fonts, or the
       file for the "run" operator, Ghostscript first tries to open the file  with  the  name  as
       given,  using  the current working directory if no directory is specified.  If this fails,
       and the file name doesn't specify an explicit directory or drive  (for  instance,  doesn't
       contain "/" on Unix systems), Ghostscript tries directories in this order:

       1.  the directories specified by the -I switches in the command line (see below), if any;

       2.  the directories specified by the GS_LIB environment variable, if any;

       3.  the directories specified by the GS_LIB_DEFAULT macro in the Ghostscript makefile when
           the         executable         was         built.           GS_LIB_DEFAULT          is
           "/usr/share/ghostscript/[0-9]*.[0-9]*/lib"  on  a  Debian system where "[0-9]*.[0-9]*"
           represents the Ghostscript version number

       Each of these (GS_LIB_DEFAULT, GS_LIB, and -I parameter) may be either a single  directory
       or a list of directories separated by ":".


              String of options to be processed before the command line options

              Used to specify an output device

              Path names used to search for fonts

       GS_LIB Path names for initialization files and fonts

       TEMP   Where temporary files are made


       Ghostscript,  or  more  properly the X11 display device, looks for the following resources
       under the program name "Ghostscript":

              The border width in pixels (default = 1).

              The name of the border color (default = black).

              The window size and placement, WxH+X+Y (default is NULL).

              The number of x pixels  per  inch  (default  is  computed  from  WidthOfScreen  and

              The  number  of  y  pixels  per  inch  (default is computed from HeightOfScreen and

              Determines whether backing store is to be used for saving display window (default =

       See  the  usage document for a more complete list of resources.  To set these resources on
       Unix, put them in a file such as "~/.Xresources" in the following form:

            Ghostscript*geometry:     612x792-0+0
            Ghostscript*xResolution: 72
            Ghostscript*yResolution: 72

       Then merge these resources into the X server's resource database:

            % xrdb -merge ~/.Xresources


       The various Ghostscript document files (above), especially Use.htm.   On  Debian  you  may
       need to install ghostscript-doc before reading the documentation.


       See and the Usenet news group comp.lang.postscript.


       This document was last revised for Ghostscript version 10.00.0.


       Artifex  Software,  Inc.  are  the  primary  maintainers of Ghostscript.  Russell J. Lang,
       gsview at, is the author of most of the MS Windows code in Ghostscript.