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       getpriority, setpriority - get/set program scheduling priority


       Standard C library (libc, -lc)


       #include <sys/resource.h>

       int getpriority(int which, id_t who);
       int setpriority(int which, id_t who, int prio);


       The  scheduling priority of the process, process group, or user, as indicated by which and
       who is obtained with the getpriority() call and set  with  the  setpriority()  call.   The
       process  attribute  dealt  with by these system calls is the same attribute (also known as
       the "nice" value) that is dealt with by nice(2).

       The value which is one of PRIO_PROCESS, PRIO_PGRP, or PRIO_USER, and  who  is  interpreted
       relative  to  which  (a  process identifier for PRIO_PROCESS, process group identifier for
       PRIO_PGRP, and a user ID for PRIO_USER).  A zero value for who denotes (respectively)  the
       calling  process,  the  process  group  of the calling process, or the real user ID of the
       calling process.

       The prio argument is a value in the range -20 to 19 (but see NOTES below), with -20  being
       the highest priority and 19 being the lowest priority.  Attempts to set a priority outside
       this range are silently clamped to the range.  The default priority  is  0;  lower  values
       give a process a higher scheduling priority.

       The  getpriority()  call  returns the highest priority (lowest numerical value) enjoyed by
       any of the specified processes.  The setpriority() call sets the priorities of all of  the
       specified processes to the specified value.

       Traditionally,  only  a  privileged process could lower the nice value (i.e., set a higher
       priority).  However, since Linux 2.6.12, an unprivileged process  can  decrease  the  nice
       value of a target process that has a suitable RLIMIT_NICE soft limit; see getrlimit(2) for


       On success, getpriority() returns the calling thread's nice value, which may be a negative
       number.  On error, it returns -1 and sets errno to indicate the error.

       Since  a  successful  call  to  getpriority()  can legitimately return the value -1, it is
       necessary to clear errno prior to the call, then check errno afterward to determine if  -1
       is an error or a legitimate value.

       setpriority()  returns 0 on success.  On failure, it returns -1 and sets errno to indicate
       the error.


       EACCES The caller attempted to set a lower nice value (i.e., a higher  process  priority),
              but  did  not  have the required privilege (on Linux: did not have the CAP_SYS_NICE

       EINVAL which was not one of PRIO_PROCESS, PRIO_PGRP, or PRIO_USER.

       EPERM  A process was located, but its effective user ID did not match either the effective
              or  the  real user ID of the caller, and was not privileged (on Linux: did not have
              the CAP_SYS_NICE capability).  But see NOTES below.

       ESRCH  No process was located using the which and who values specified.


       POSIX.1-2001, POSIX.1-2008, SVr4, 4.4BSD (these interfaces first appeared in 4.2BSD).


       For further details on the nice value, see sched(7).

       Note: the addition of the "autogroup" feature in Linux 2.6.38 means that the nice value no
       longer has its traditional effect in many circumstances.  For details, see sched(7).

       A  child created by fork(2) inherits its parent's nice value.  The nice value is preserved
       across execve(2).

       The details on the condition for EPERM depend on the system.   The  above  description  is
       what  POSIX.1-2001  says,  and  seems  to be followed on all System V-like systems.  Linux
       kernels before Linux 2.6.12 required the real or effective user ID of the caller to  match
       the  real  user  of  the process who (instead of its effective user ID).  Linux 2.6.12 and
       later require the effective user ID of the caller to match the real or effective  user  ID
       of  the  process who.  All BSD-like systems (SunOS 4.1.3, Ultrix 4.2, 4.3BSD, FreeBSD 4.3,
       OpenBSD-2.5, ...) behave in the same manner as Linux 2.6.12 and later.

   C library/kernel differences
       The getpriority system call returns nice values translated to the  range  40..1,  since  a
       negative  return  value  would be interpreted as an error.  The glibc wrapper function for
       getpriority() translates the value back according to the formula unice = 20 - knice (thus,
       the  40..1  range  returned by the kernel corresponds to the range -20..19 as seen by user


       According to POSIX, the nice value is a per-process setting.  However, under  the  current
       Linux/NPTL  implementation  of  POSIX  threads,  the nice value is a per-thread attribute:
       different  threads  in  the  same  process  can  have  different  nice  values.   Portable
       applications  should  avoid  relying  on  the  Linux behavior, which may be made standards
       conformant in the future.


       nice(1), renice(1), fork(2), capabilities(7), sched(7)

       Documentation/scheduler/sched-nice-design.txt in the Linux kernel source tree (since Linux