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       hier - description of the filesystem hierarchy


       A typical Linux system has, among others, the following directories:

       /      This is the root directory.  This is where the whole tree starts.

       /bin   This  directory  contains  executable programs which are needed in single user mode
              and to bring the system up or repair it.

       /boot  Contains static files for the boot loader.  This directory  holds  only  the  files
              which  are  needed  during  the  boot process.  The map installer and configuration
              files should go to /sbin  and  /etc.   The  operating  system  kernel  (initrd  for
              example) must be located in either / or /boot.

       /dev   Special or device files, which refer to physical devices.  See mknod(1).

       /etc   Contains  configuration files which are local to the machine.  Some larger software
              packages, like X11, can  have  their  own  subdirectories  below  /etc.   Site-wide
              configuration  files  may  be  placed  here or in /usr/etc.  Nevertheless, programs
              should always look for these files in /etc and you may have links for  these  files
              to /usr/etc.

              Host-specific configuration files for add-on applications installed in /opt.

              This directory contains the configuration files for SGML (optional).

              When  a  new  user account is created, files from this directory are usually copied
              into the user's home directory.

              Configuration files for the X11 window system (optional).

              This directory contains the configuration files for XML (optional).

       /home  On machines with home  directories  for  users,  these  are  usually  beneath  this
              directory,  directly  or  not.   The  structure  of this directory depends on local
              administration decisions (optional).

       /lib   This directory should hold those shared libraries that are necessary  to  boot  the
              system and to run the commands in the root filesystem.

              These directories are variants of /lib on system which support more than one binary
              format requiring separate libraries (optional).

              Loadable kernel modules (optional).

              This directory contains items lost in the  filesystem.   These  items  are  usually
              chunks of files mangled as a consequence of a faulty disk or a system crash.

       /media This  directory  contains mount points for removable media such as CD and DVD disks
              or USB sticks.  On systems where more than one device exists for mounting a certain
              type of media, mount directories can be created by appending a digit to the name of
              those available above starting with '0', but the unqualified name must also exist.

              Floppy drive (optional).

              CD-ROM drive (optional).

              CD writer (optional).

              Zip drive (optional).

              USB drive (optional).

       /mnt   This directory is a mount point for a  temporarily  mounted  filesystem.   In  some
              distributions, /mnt contains subdirectories intended to be used as mount points for
              several temporary filesystems.

       /opt   This directory should contain add-on packages that contain static files.

       /proc  This is a mount point for the proc filesystem,  which  provides  information  about
              running  processes  and  the  kernel.   This pseudo-filesystem is described in more
              detail in proc(5).

       /root  This directory is usually the home directory for the root user (optional).

       /run   This directory contains information which describes the system since it was booted.
              Once this purpose was served by /var/run and programs may continue to use it.

       /sbin  Like  /bin,  this directory holds commands needed to boot the system, but which are
              usually not executed by normal users.

       /srv   This directory contains site-specific data that is served by this system.

       /sys   This is a mount point for the sysfs filesystem, which  provides  information  about
              the  kernel  like  /proc, but better structured, following the formalism of kobject

       /tmp   This directory contains temporary files which may be deleted with no  notice,  such
              as by a regular job or at system boot up.

       /usr   This  directory  is usually mounted from a separate partition.  It should hold only
              shareable, read-only data, so that it can be mounted by  various  machines  running

              The X-Window system, version 11 release 6 (present in FHS 2.3, removed in FHS 3.0).

              Binaries  which belong to the X-Window system; often, there is a symbolic link from
              the more traditional /usr/bin/X11 to here.

              Data files associated with the X-Window system.

              These contain miscellaneous files needed to run X;  Often, there is a symbolic link
              from /usr/lib/X11 to this directory.

              Contains  include  files needed for compiling programs using the X11 window system.
              Often, there is a symbolic link from /usr/include/X11 to this directory.

              This is the primary directory for executable programs.  Most programs  executed  by
              normal users which are not needed for booting or for repairing the system and which
              are not installed locally should be placed in this directory.

              Commands for the MH mail handling system (optional).

              This is the traditional place to look for X11 executables; on Linux, it usually  is
              a symbolic link to /usr/X11R6/bin.

              Replaced by /usr/share/dict.

              Replaced by /usr/share/doc.

              Site-wide  configuration  files to be shared between several machines may be stored
              in this directory.  However, commands should always reference those files using the
              /etc  directory.  Links from files in /etc should point to the appropriate files in

              Binaries for games and educational programs (optional).

              Include files for the C compiler.

              BSD compatibility include files (optional).

              Include files for the C compiler and  the  X-Window  system.   This  is  usually  a
              symbolic link to /usr/X11R6/include/X11.

              Include  files  which declare some assembler functions.  This used to be a symbolic
              link to /usr/src/linux/include/asm.

              This contains information which may change from system release  to  system  release
              and used to be a symbolic link to /usr/src/linux/include/linux to get at operating-
              system-specific information.

              (Note that one should have include files there that work correctly with the current
              libc  and  in  user space.  However, Linux kernel source is not designed to be used
              with user programs and does not know anything about the libc you are using.  It  is
              very   likely   that   things   will   break   if   you  let  /usr/include/asm  and
              /usr/include/linux point at a random kernel tree.  Debian systems don't do this and
              use headers from a known good kernel version, provided in the libc*-dev package.)

              Include files to use with the GNU C++ compiler.

              Object  libraries, including dynamic libraries, plus some executables which usually
              are not invoked directly.  More complicated programs may have whole  subdirectories

              Directory  contains  binaries  for  internal  use only and they are not meant to be
              executed directly by users shell or scripts.

              These directories are variants of /usr/lib on system which support  more  than  one
              binary   format  requiring  separate  libraries,  except  that  the  symbolic  link
              /usr/lib<qual>/X11 is not required (optional).

              The usual place for data files associated with X programs, and configuration  files
              for   the   X  system  itself.   On  Linux,  it  usually  is  a  symbolic  link  to

              contains executables and include files for the GNU C compiler, gcc(1).

              Files for the GNU groff document formatting system.

              Files for uucp(1).

              This is where programs which are local to the site typically go.

              Binaries for programs local to the site.

              Local documentation.

              Configuration files associated with locally installed programs.

              Binaries for locally installed games.

              Files associated with locally installed programs.

              These directories are variants of /usr/local/lib on system which support more  than
              one binary format requiring separate libraries (optional).

              Header files for the local C compiler.

              Info pages associated with locally installed programs.

              Man pages associated with locally installed programs.

              Locally installed programs for system administration.

              Local application data that can be shared among different architectures of the same

              Source code for locally installed software.

              Replaced by /usr/share/man.

              This directory contains program binaries for system administration  which  are  not
              essential for the boot process, for mounting /usr, or for system repair.

              This  directory contains subdirectories with specific application data, that can be
              shared among different architectures of the same OS.  Often one  finds  stuff  here
              that used to live in /usr/doc or /usr/lib or /usr/man.

              Contains  color  management  information, like International Color Consortium (ICC)
              Color profiles (optional).

              Contains the word lists used by spell checkers (optional).

              List of English words (optional).

              Documentation about installed programs (optional).

              Static data files for games in /usr/games (optional).

              Info pages go here (optional).

              Locale information goes here (optional).

              Manual pages go here in subdirectories according to the man page sections.

              These directories contain manual pages for the specific locale in source code form.
              Systems  which use a unique language and code set for all manual pages may omit the
              <locale> substring.

              Miscellaneous data that can be shared among different architectures of the same OS.

              The message catalogs for native language support go here (optional).

              Postscript Printer Definition (PPD) files (optional).

              Files for SGML (optional).

              DocBook DTD (optional).

              TEI DTD (optional).

              HTML DTD (optional).

              MathML DTD (optional).

              The database for terminfo (optional).

              Troff macros that are not distributed with groff (optional).

              Files for XML (optional).

              DocBook DTD (optional).

              XHTML DTD (optional).

              MathML DTD (optional).

              Files for timezone information (optional).

              Source files for different parts of the system, included  with  some  packages  for
              reference  purposes.   Don't  work here with your own projects, as files below /usr
              should be read-only except when installing software (optional).

              This was the traditional place for the kernel source.  Some distributions put  here
              the  source  for  the  default  kernel  they ship.  You should probably use another
              directory when building your own kernel.

              Obsolete.  This should be a link to  /var/tmp.   This  link  is  present  only  for
              compatibility reasons and shouldn't be used.

       /var   This  directory  contains  files  which  may  change in size, such as spool and log

              Process accounting logs (optional).

              This directory is superseded by /var/log and should be a symbolic link to /var/log.

              Reserved for historical reasons.

              Data cached for programs.

              Locally generated fonts (optional).

              Locally formatted man pages (optional).

              WWW proxy or cache data (optional).

              Package specific cache data (optional).

       /var/catman/cat[1-9] or /var/cache/man/cat[1-9]
              These directories contain preformatted manual pages according  to  their  man  page
              section.  (The use of preformatted manual pages is deprecated.)

              System crash dumps (optional).

              Reserved for historical reasons.

              Variable game data (optional).

              Variable state information for programs.

              Variable files containing color management information (optional).

              State directory for hwclock (optional).

              Miscellaneous state data.

              X display manager variable data (optional).

              Editor backup files and state (optional).

              These directories must be used for all distribution packaging support.

              State data for packages and subsystems (optional).

              Packaging support files (optional).

              Variable data for /usr/local.

              Lock  files  are  placed  in this directory.  The naming convention for device lock
              files is LCK..<device> where <device> is the device's name in the filesystem.   The
              format  used is that of HDU UUCP lock files, that is, lock files contain a PID as a
              10-byte ASCII decimal number, followed by a newline character.

              Miscellaneous log files.

              Variable data for /opt.

              Users' mailboxes.  Replaces /var/spool/mail.

              Reserved for historical reasons.

              Reserved for historical reasons.

              Run-time variable files, like files holding process identifiers (PIDs)  and  logged
              user  information  (utmp).   Files  in  this directory are usually cleared when the
              system boots.

              Spooled (or queued) files for various programs.

              Spooled jobs for at(1).

              Spooled jobs for cron(8).

              Spooled files for printing (optional).

              Spools for a specific printer (optional).

              Replaced by /var/mail.

              Queued outgoing mail (optional).

              Spool directory for news (optional).

              Spooled files for rwhod(8) (optional).

              Spooled files for the smail(1) mail delivery program.

              Spooled files for uucp(1) (optional).

              Like /tmp, this directory holds temporary files stored for an unspecified duration.

              Database files for NIS, formerly known as the Sun Yellow Pages (YP).


       The  Filesystem  Hierarchy  Standard  (FHS),  Version  3.0,  published  March   19,   2015


       This  list  is  not  exhaustive;  different  distributions  and  systems may be configured


       find(1), ln(1), proc(5), file-hierarchy(7), mount(8)

       The Filesystem Hierarchy Standard