Provided by: mount_2.38.1-4ubuntu1_amd64 bug


       umount - unmount filesystems


       umount -a [-dflnrv] [-t fstype] [-O option...]

       umount [-dflnrv] {directory|device}

       umount -h|-V


       The umount command detaches the mentioned filesystem(s) from the file hierarchy. A
       filesystem is specified by giving the directory where it has been mounted. Giving the
       special device on which the filesystem lives may also work, but is obsolete, mainly
       because it will fail in case this device was mounted on more than one directory.

       Note that a filesystem cannot be unmounted when it is 'busy' - for example, when there are
       open files on it, or when some process has its working directory there, or when a swap
       file on it is in use. The offending process could even be umount itself - it opens libc,
       and libc in its turn may open for example locale files. A lazy unmount avoids this
       problem, but it may introduce other issues. See --lazy description below.


       -a, --all
           All of the filesystems described in /proc/self/mountinfo (or in deprecated /etc/mtab)
           are unmounted, except the proc, devfs, devpts, sysfs, rpc_pipefs and nfsd filesystems.
           This list of the filesystems may be replaced by --types umount option.

       -A, --all-targets
           Unmount all mountpoints in the current mount namespace for the specified filesystem.
           The filesystem can be specified by one of the mountpoints or the device name (or UUID,
           etc.). When this option is used together with --recursive, then all nested mounts
           within the filesystem are recursively unmounted. This option is only supported on
           systems where /etc/mtab is a symlink to /proc/mounts.

       -c, --no-canonicalize
           Do not canonicalize paths. The paths canonicalization is based on stat(2) and
           readlink(2) system calls. These system calls may hang in some cases (for example on
           NFS if server is not available). The option has to be used with canonical path to the
           mount point.

           This option is silently ignored by umount for non-root users.

           For more details about this option see the mount(8) man page. Note that umount does
           not pass this option to the /sbin/umount.type helpers.

       -d, --detach-loop
           When the unmounted device was a loop device, also free this loop device. This option
           is unnecessary for devices initialized by mount(8), in this case "autoclear"
           functionality is enabled by default.

           Causes everything to be done except for the actual system call or umount helper
           execution; this 'fakes' unmounting the filesystem. It can be used to remove entries
           from the deprecated /etc/mtab that were unmounted earlier with the -n option.

       -f, --force
           Force an unmount (in case of an unreachable NFS system).

           Note that this option does not guarantee that umount command does not hang. It’s
           strongly recommended to use absolute paths without symlinks to avoid unwanted
           readlink(2) and stat(2) system calls on unreachable NFS in umount.

       -i, --internal-only
           Do not call the /sbin/umount.filesystem helper even if it exists. By default such a
           helper program is called if it exists.

       -l, --lazy
           Lazy unmount. Detach the filesystem from the file hierarchy now, and clean up all
           references to this filesystem as soon as it is not busy anymore.

           A system reboot would be expected in near future if you’re going to use this option
           for network filesystem or local filesystem with submounts. The recommended use-case
           for umount -l is to prevent hangs on shutdown due to an unreachable network share
           where a normal umount will hang due to a downed server or a network partition.
           Remounts of the share will not be possible.

       -N, --namespace ns
           Perform umount in the mount namespace specified by ns. ns is either PID of process
           running in that namespace or special file representing that namespace.

           umount switches to the namespace when it reads /etc/fstab, writes /etc/mtab (or writes
           to /run/mount) and calls umount(2) system call, otherwise it runs in the original
           namespace. It means that the target mount namespace does not have to contain any
           libraries or other requirements necessary to execute umount(2) command.

           See mount_namespaces(7) for more information.

       -n, --no-mtab
           Unmount without writing in /etc/mtab.

       -O, --test-opts option...
           Unmount only the filesystems that have the specified option set in /etc/fstab. More
           than one option may be specified in a comma-separated list. Each option can be
           prefixed with no to indicate that no action should be taken for this option.

       -q, --quiet
           Suppress "not mounted" error messages.

       -R, --recursive
           Recursively unmount each specified directory. Recursion for each directory will stop
           if any unmount operation in the chain fails for any reason. The relationship between
           mountpoints is determined by /proc/self/mountinfo entries. The filesystem must be
           specified by mountpoint path; a recursive unmount by device name (or UUID) is
           unsupported. Since version 2.37 it umounts also all over-mounted filesystems (more
           filesystems on the same mountpoint).

       -r, --read-only
           When an unmount fails, try to remount the filesystem read-only.

       -t, --types type...
           Indicate that the actions should only be taken on filesystems of the specified type.
           More than one type may be specified in a comma-separated list. The list of filesystem
           types can be prefixed with no to indicate that no action should be taken for all of
           the mentioned types. Note that umount reads information about mounted filesystems from
           kernel (/proc/mounts) and filesystem names may be different than filesystem names used
           in the /etc/fstab (e.g., "nfs4" vs. "nfs").

       -v, --verbose
           Verbose mode.

       -h, --help
           Display help text and exit.

       -V, --version
           Print version and exit.


       Normally, only the superuser can umount filesystems. However, when fstab contains the user
       option on a line, anybody can umount the corresponding filesystem. For more details see
       mount(8) man page.

       Since version 2.34 the umount command can be used to perform umount operation also for
       fuse filesystems if kernel mount table contains user’s ID. In this case fstab user= mount
       option is not required.

       Since version 2.35 umount command does not exit when user permissions are inadequate by
       internal libmount security rules. It drops suid permissions and continue as regular
       non-root user. This can be used to support use-cases where root permissions are not
       necessary (e.g., fuse filesystems, user namespaces, etc).


       The umount command will automatically detach loop device previously initialized by
       mount(8) command independently of /etc/mtab.

       In this case the device is initialized with "autoclear" flag (see losetup(8) output for
       more details), otherwise it’s necessary to use the option --detach-loop or call losetup -d
       device. The autoclear feature is supported since Linux 2.6.25.


       The syntax of external unmount helpers is:

          umount.suffix {directory|device} [-flnrv] [-N namespace] [-t type.subtype]

       where suffix is the filesystem type (or the value from a uhelper= or helper= marker in the
       mtab file). The -t option can be used for filesystems that have subtype support. For

          umount.fuse -t fuse.sshfs

       A uhelper=something marker (unprivileged helper) can appear in the /etc/mtab file when
       ordinary users need to be able to unmount a mountpoint that is not defined in /etc/fstab
       (for example for a device that was mounted by udisks(1)).

       A helper=type marker in the mtab file will redirect all unmount requests to the
       /sbin/umount.type helper independently of UID.

       Note that /etc/mtab is currently deprecated and helper= and other userspace mount options
       are maintained by libmount.


           overrides the default location of the fstab file (ignored for suid)

           overrides the default location of the mtab file (ignored for suid)

           enables libmount debug output


           table of mounted filesystems (deprecated and usually replaced by symlink to

           table of known filesystems

           table of mounted filesystems generated by kernel.


       A umount command appeared in Version 6 AT&T UNIX.


       umount(2), losetup(8), mount_namespaces(7), mount(8)


       For bug reports, use the issue tracker at


       The umount command is part of the util-linux package which can be downloaded from Linux
       Kernel Archive <>.