Provided by: coreutils_9.4-3ubuntu6_amd64 bug


       ls - list directory contents


       ls [OPTION]... [FILE]...


       List  information  about  the  FILEs  (the  current  directory  by default).  Sort entries
       alphabetically if none of -cftuvSUX nor --sort is specified.

       Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.

       -a, --all
              do not ignore entries starting with .

       -A, --almost-all
              do not list implied . and ..

              with -l, print the author of each file

       -b, --escape
              print C-style escapes for nongraphic characters

              with -l, scale sizes by SIZE when printing them; e.g., '--block-size=M';  see  SIZE
              format below

       -B, --ignore-backups
              do not list implied entries ending with ~

       -c     with  -lt:  sort  by,  and  show,  ctime  (time  of  last  change  of  file  status
              information); with -l: show ctime and sort  by  name;  otherwise:  sort  by  ctime,
              newest first

       -C     list entries by columns

              color the output WHEN; more info below

       -d, --directory
              list directories themselves, not their contents

       -D, --dired
              generate output designed for Emacs' dired mode

       -f     list all entries in directory order

       -F, --classify[=WHEN]
              append indicator (one of */=>@|) to entries WHEN

              likewise, except do not append '*'

              across  -x,  commas  -m,  horizontal  -x,  long  -l,  single-column -1, verbose -l,
              vertical -C

              like -l --time-style=full-iso

       -g     like -l, but do not list owner

              group directories before files; can be augmented with a --sort option, but any  use
              of --sort=none (-U) disables grouping

       -G, --no-group
              in a long listing, don't print group names

       -h, --human-readable
              with -l and -s, print sizes like 1K 234M 2G etc.

       --si   likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024

       -H, --dereference-command-line
              follow symbolic links listed on the command line

              follow each command line symbolic link that points to a directory

              do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN (overridden by -a or -A)

              hyperlink file names WHEN

              append  indicator  with  style  WORD  to  entry  names: none (default), slash (-p),
              file-type (--file-type), classify (-F)

       -i, --inode
              print the index number of each file

       -I, --ignore=PATTERN
              do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN

       -k, --kibibytes
              default to 1024-byte blocks for file system  usage;  used  only  with  -s  and  per
              directory totals

       -l     use a long listing format

       -L, --dereference
              when  showing  file  information for a symbolic link, show information for the file
              the link references rather than for the link itself

       -m     fill width with a comma separated list of entries

       -n, --numeric-uid-gid
              like -l, but list numeric user and group IDs

       -N, --literal
              print entry names without quoting

       -o     like -l, but do not list group information

       -p, --indicator-style=slash
              append / indicator to directories

       -q, --hide-control-chars
              print ? instead of nongraphic characters

              show nongraphic characters as-is (the default, unless program is 'ls' and output is
              a terminal)

       -Q, --quote-name
              enclose entry names in double quotes

              use  quoting  style  WORD  for  entry  names: literal, locale, shell, shell-always,
              shell-escape, shell-escape-always, c, escape (overrides  QUOTING_STYLE  environment

       -r, --reverse
              reverse order while sorting

       -R, --recursive
              list subdirectories recursively

       -s, --size
              print the allocated size of each file, in blocks

       -S     sort by file size, largest first

              sort  by  WORD  instead  of  name:  none  (-U), size (-S), time (-t), version (-v),
              extension (-X), width

              select which timestamp used to display or sort; access time  (-u):  atime,  access,
              use;  metadata  change  time  (-c):  ctime, status; modified time (default): mtime,
              modification; birth time: birth, creation;

              with -l, WORD determines which time to show; with --sort=time, sort by WORD (newest

              time/date format with -l; see TIME_STYLE below

       -t     sort by time, newest first; see --time

       -T, --tabsize=COLS
              assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8

       -u     with  -lt:  sort  by,  and show, access time; with -l: show access time and sort by
              name; otherwise: sort by access time, newest first

       -U     do not sort; list entries in directory order

       -v     natural sort of (version) numbers within text

       -w, --width=COLS
              set output width to COLS.  0 means no limit

       -x     list entries by lines instead of by columns

       -X     sort alphabetically by entry extension

       -Z, --context
              print any security context of each file

       --zero end each output line with NUL, not newline

       -1     list one file per line

       --help display this help and exit

              output version information and exit

       The SIZE argument is an integer and optional unit (example: 10K is  10*1024).   Units  are
       K,M,G,T,P,E,Z,Y,R,Q  (powers  of 1024) or KB,MB,... (powers of 1000).  Binary prefixes can
       be used, too: KiB=K, MiB=M, and so on.

       The TIME_STYLE argument can be full-iso, long-iso, iso, locale,  or  +FORMAT.   FORMAT  is
       interpreted  like  in date(1).  If FORMAT is FORMAT1<newline>FORMAT2, then FORMAT1 applies
       to non-recent files and FORMAT2 to recent files.  TIME_STYLE prefixed with 'posix-'  takes
       effect  only  outside the POSIX locale.  Also the TIME_STYLE environment variable sets the
       default style to use.

       The WHEN argument defaults to 'always' and can also be 'auto' or 'never'.

       Using color to distinguish file types is disabled both by default and with  --color=never.
       With  --color=auto,  ls  emits  color  codes  only  when standard output is connected to a
       terminal.   The  LS_COLORS  environment  variable  can  change  the  settings.   Use   the
       dircolors(1) command to set it.

   Exit status:
       0      if OK,

       1      if minor problems (e.g., cannot access subdirectory),

       2      if serious trouble (e.g., cannot access command-line argument).


       Written by Richard M. Stallman and David MacKenzie.


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       Report any translation bugs to <>


       Copyright  ©  2023  Free  Software  Foundation, Inc.  License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or
       later <>.
       This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.  There is NO  WARRANTY,
       to the extent permitted by law.



       Full documentation <>
       or available locally via: info '(coreutils) ls invocation'