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       gitignore - Specifies intentionally untracked files to ignore


       $XDG_CONFIG_HOME/git/ignore, $GIT_DIR/info/exclude, .gitignore


       A gitignore file specifies intentionally untracked files that Git should ignore. Files
       already tracked by Git are not affected; see the NOTES below for details.

       Each line in a gitignore file specifies a pattern. When deciding whether to ignore a path,
       Git normally checks gitignore patterns from multiple sources, with the following order of
       precedence, from highest to lowest (within one level of precedence, the last matching
       pattern decides the outcome):

       •   Patterns read from the command line for those commands that support them.

       •   Patterns read from a .gitignore file in the same directory as the path, or in any
           parent directory (up to the top-level of the working tree), with patterns in the
           higher level files being overridden by those in lower level files down to the
           directory containing the file. These patterns match relative to the location of the
           .gitignore file. A project normally includes such .gitignore files in its repository,
           containing patterns for files generated as part of the project build.

       •   Patterns read from $GIT_DIR/info/exclude.

       •   Patterns read from the file specified by the configuration variable core.excludesFile.

       Which file to place a pattern in depends on how the pattern is meant to be used.

       •   Patterns which should be version-controlled and distributed to other repositories via
           clone (i.e., files that all developers will want to ignore) should go into a
           .gitignore file.

       •   Patterns which are specific to a particular repository but which do not need to be
           shared with other related repositories (e.g., auxiliary files that live inside the
           repository but are specific to one user’s workflow) should go into the
           $GIT_DIR/info/exclude file.

       •   Patterns which a user wants Git to ignore in all situations (e.g., backup or temporary
           files generated by the user’s editor of choice) generally go into a file specified by
           core.excludesFile in the user’s ~/.gitconfig. Its default value is
           $XDG_CONFIG_HOME/git/ignore. If $XDG_CONFIG_HOME is either not set or empty,
           $HOME/.config/git/ignore is used instead.

       The underlying Git plumbing tools, such as git ls-files and git read-tree, read gitignore
       patterns specified by command-line options, or from files specified by command-line
       options. Higher-level Git tools, such as git status and git add, use patterns from the
       sources specified above.


       •   A blank line matches no files, so it can serve as a separator for readability.

       •   A line starting with # serves as a comment. Put a backslash ("\") in front of the
           first hash for patterns that begin with a hash.

       •   Trailing spaces are ignored unless they are quoted with backslash ("\").

       •   An optional prefix "!" which negates the pattern; any matching file excluded by a
           previous pattern will become included again. It is not possible to re-include a file
           if a parent directory of that file is excluded. Git doesn’t list excluded directories
           for performance reasons, so any patterns on contained files have no effect, no matter
           where they are defined. Put a backslash ("\") in front of the first "!" for patterns
           that begin with a literal "!", for example, "\!important!.txt".

       •   The slash "/" is used as the directory separator. Separators may occur at the
           beginning, middle or end of the .gitignore search pattern.

       •   If there is a separator at the beginning or middle (or both) of the pattern, then the
           pattern is relative to the directory level of the particular .gitignore file itself.
           Otherwise the pattern may also match at any level below the .gitignore level.

       •   If there is a separator at the end of the pattern then the pattern will only match
           directories, otherwise the pattern can match both files and directories.

       •   For example, a pattern doc/frotz/ matches doc/frotz directory, but not a/doc/frotz
           directory; however frotz/ matches frotz and a/frotz that is a directory (all paths are
           relative from the .gitignore file).

       •   An asterisk "*" matches anything except a slash. The character "?" matches any one
           character except "/". The range notation, e.g.  [a-zA-Z], can be used to match one of
           the characters in a range. See fnmatch(3) and the FNM_PATHNAME flag for a more
           detailed description.

       Two consecutive asterisks ("**") in patterns matched against full pathname may have
       special meaning:

       •   A leading "**" followed by a slash means match in all directories. For example,
           "**/foo" matches file or directory "foo" anywhere, the same as pattern "foo".
           "**/foo/bar" matches file or directory "bar" anywhere that is directly under directory

       •   A trailing "/**" matches everything inside. For example, "abc/**" matches all files
           inside directory "abc", relative to the location of the .gitignore file, with infinite

       •   A slash followed by two consecutive asterisks then a slash matches zero or more
           directories. For example, "a/**/b" matches "a/b", "a/x/b", "a/x/y/b" and so on.

       •   Other consecutive asterisks are considered regular asterisks and will match according
           to the previous rules.


       The optional configuration variable core.excludesFile indicates a path to a file
       containing patterns of file names to exclude, similar to $GIT_DIR/info/exclude. Patterns
       in the exclude file are used in addition to those in $GIT_DIR/info/exclude.


       The purpose of gitignore files is to ensure that certain files not tracked by Git remain

       To stop tracking a file that is currently tracked, use git rm --cached to remove the file
       from the index. The filename can then be added to the .gitignore file to stop the file
       from being reintroduced in later commits.

       Git does not follow symbolic links when accessing a .gitignore file in the working tree.
       This keeps behavior consistent when the file is accessed from the index or a tree versus
       from the filesystem.


       •   The pattern hello.*  matches any file or directory whose name begins with hello.. If
           one wants to restrict this only to the directory and not in its subdirectories, one
           can prepend the pattern with a slash, i.e.  /hello.*; the pattern now matches
           hello.txt, hello.c but not a/

       •   The pattern foo/ will match a directory foo and paths underneath it, but will not
           match a regular file or a symbolic link foo (this is consistent with the way how
           pathspec works in general in Git)

       •   The pattern doc/frotz and /doc/frotz have the same effect in any .gitignore file. In
           other words, a leading slash is not relevant if there is already a middle slash in the

       •   The pattern foo/*, matches foo/test.json (a regular file), foo/bar (a directory), but
           it does not match foo/bar/hello.c (a regular file), as the asterisk in the pattern
           does not match bar/hello.c which has a slash in it.

               $ git status
               # Untracked files:
               #       Documentation/foo.html
               #       Documentation/gitignore.html
               #       file.o
               #       lib.a
               #       src/internal.o
               $ cat .git/info/exclude
               # ignore objects and archives, anywhere in the tree.
               $ cat Documentation/.gitignore
               # ignore generated html files,
               # except foo.html which is maintained by hand
               $ git status
               # Untracked files:
               #       Documentation/foo.html

       Another example:

               $ cat .gitignore
               $ ls arch/foo/kernel/vm*
               $ echo '!/vmlinux*' >arch/foo/kernel/.gitignore

       The second .gitignore prevents Git from ignoring arch/foo/kernel/

       Example to exclude everything except a specific directory foo/bar (note the /* - without
       the slash, the wildcard would also exclude everything within foo/bar):

               $ cat .gitignore
               # exclude everything except directory foo/bar


       git-rm(1), gitrepository-layout(5), git-check-ignore(1)


       Part of the git(1) suite