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       sched_setscheduler, sched_getscheduler - set and get scheduling policy/parameters


       #include <sched.h>

       int sched_setscheduler(pid_t pid, int policy,
                              const struct sched_param *param);

       int sched_getscheduler(pid_t pid);

       struct sched_param {
           int sched_priority;


       sched_setscheduler() sets both the scheduling policy and the associated parameters for the
       process whose ID is specified in pid.  If pid  equals  zero,  the  scheduling  policy  and
       parameters  of  the calling process will be set.  The interpretation of the argument param
       depends on the selected policy.  Currently, Linux supports the following  "normal"  (i.e.,
       non-real-time) scheduling policies:

       SCHED_OTHER   the standard round-robin time-sharing policy;

       SCHED_BATCH   for "batch" style execution of processes; and

       SCHED_IDLE    for running very low priority background jobs.

       The   following  "real-time"  policies  are  also  supported,  for  special  time-critical
       applications that need precise control over  the  way  in  which  runnable  processes  are
       selected for execution:

       SCHED_FIFO    a first-in, first-out policy; and

       SCHED_RR      a round-robin policy.

       The semantics of each of these policies are detailed below.

       sched_getscheduler()  queries  the  scheduling  policy  currently  applied  to the process
       identified by pid.  If pid equals  zero,  the  policy  of  the  calling  process  will  be

   Scheduling Policies
       The scheduler is the kernel component that decides which runnable process will be executed
       by the CPU next.  Each process has an associated scheduling policy and a static scheduling
       priority,    sched_priority;    these    are   the   settings   that   are   modified   by
       sched_setscheduler().  The  scheduler  makes  it  decisions  based  on  knowledge  of  the
       scheduling policy and static priority of all processes on the system.

       For  processes  scheduled  under  one  of  the  normal  scheduling  policies (SCHED_OTHER,
       SCHED_IDLE, SCHED_BATCH), sched_priority is not used in scheduling decisions (it  must  be
       specified as 0).

       Processes  scheduled  under  one  of  the real-time policies (SCHED_FIFO, SCHED_RR) have a
       sched_priority value in the range 1 (low) to 99 (high).  (As the numbers imply,  real-time
       processes  always  have  higher  priority than normal processes.)  Note well: POSIX.1-2001
       only requires an implementation to support a minimum 32 distinct priority levels  for  the
       real-time  policies,  and some systems supply just this minimum.  Portable programs should
       use  sched_get_priority_min(2)  and  sched_get_priority_max(2)  to  find  the   range   of
       priorities supported for a particular policy.

       Conceptually,  the  scheduler  maintains  a  list  of runnable processes for each possible
       sched_priority value.  In order to determine which process runs next, the scheduler  looks
       for the nonempty list with the highest static priority and selects the process at the head
       of this list.

       A process's scheduling policy determines where it  will  be  inserted  into  the  list  of
       processes with equal static priority and how it will move inside this list.

       All  scheduling is preemptive: if a process with a higher static priority becomes ready to
       run, the currently running process will be preempted and returned to the wait list for its
       static priority level.  The scheduling policy only determines the ordering within the list
       of runnable processes with equal static priority.

   SCHED_FIFO: First In-First Out scheduling
       SCHED_FIFO can only be used with static priorities higher than 0, which means that when  a
       SCHED_FIFO  processes  becomes  runnable, it will always immediately preempt any currently
       running  SCHED_OTHER,  SCHED_BATCH,  or  SCHED_IDLE  process.   SCHED_FIFO  is  a   simple
       scheduling  algorithm  without time slicing.  For processes scheduled under the SCHED_FIFO
       policy, the following rules apply:

       *  A SCHED_FIFO process that has been preempted by another process of higher priority will
          stay  at the head of the list for its priority and will resume execution as soon as all
          processes of higher priority are blocked again.

       *  When a SCHED_FIFO process becomes runnable, it will be inserted at the end of the  list
          for its priority.

       *  A  call  to  sched_setscheduler()  or  sched_setparam(2)  will  put  the SCHED_FIFO (or
          SCHED_RR) process identified by pid at the start of the list if it was runnable.  As  a
          consequence,  it may preempt the currently running process if it has the same priority.
          (POSIX.1-2001 specifies that the process should go to the end of the list.)

       *  A process calling sched_yield(2) will be put at the end of the list.

       No other events will move a process scheduled under the SCHED_FIFO policy in the wait list
       of runnable processes with equal static priority.

       A SCHED_FIFO process runs until either it is blocked by an I/O request, it is preempted by
       a higher priority process, or it calls sched_yield(2).

   SCHED_RR: Round Robin scheduling
       SCHED_RR is a simple enhancement of SCHED_FIFO.  Everything described above for SCHED_FIFO
       also  applies  to  SCHED_RR, except that each process is only allowed to run for a maximum
       time quantum.  If a SCHED_RR process has been running for a time period equal to or longer
       than the time quantum, it will be put at the end of the list for its priority.  A SCHED_RR
       process that has been preempted by a higher  priority  process  and  subsequently  resumes
       execution as a running process will complete the unexpired portion of its round robin time
       quantum.  The length of the time quantum can be retrieved using sched_rr_get_interval(2).

   SCHED_OTHER: Default Linux time-sharing scheduling
       SCHED_OTHER can only be used at static priority 0.   SCHED_OTHER  is  the  standard  Linux
       time-sharing  scheduler that is intended for all processes that do not require the special
       real-time mechanisms.  The process to run is chosen from the static priority 0 list  based
       on  a  dynamic priority that is determined only inside this list.  The dynamic priority is
       based on the nice value (set by nice(2) or setpriority(2)) and  increased  for  each  time
       quantum  the  process  is  ready to run, but denied to run by the scheduler.  This ensures
       fair progress among all SCHED_OTHER processes.

   SCHED_BATCH: Scheduling batch processes
       (Since Linux 2.6.16.)  SCHED_BATCH can only be used at static priority 0.  This policy  is
       similar  to SCHED_OTHER in that it schedules the process according to its dynamic priority
       (based on the nice value).  The difference is that this policy will cause the scheduler to
       always assume that the process is CPU-intensive.  Consequently, the scheduler will apply a
       small scheduling penalty with respect to wakeup behaviour, so that this process is  mildly
       disfavored in scheduling decisions.

       This  policy  is  useful  for  workloads that are noninteractive, but do not want to lower
       their nice value, and for workloads that want a deterministic  scheduling  policy  without
       interactivity causing extra preemptions (between the workload's tasks).

   SCHED_IDLE: Scheduling very low priority jobs
       (Since  Linux 2.6.23.)  SCHED_IDLE can only be used at static priority 0; the process nice
       value has no influence for this policy.

       This policy is intended for running jobs at extremely low priority (lower even than a  +19
       nice value with the SCHED_OTHER or SCHED_BATCH policies).

   Resetting scheduling policy for child processes
       Since  Linux  2.6.32,  the  SCHED_RESET_ON_FORK  flag  can  be ORed in policy when calling
       sched_setscheduler().  As a result of including this flag, children created by fork(2)  do
       not  inherit  privileged scheduling policies.  This feature is intended for media-playback
       applications, and can be used to prevent applications evading the  RLIMIT_RTTIME  resource
       limit (see getrlimit(2)) by creating multiple child processes.

       More  precisely,  if  the SCHED_RESET_ON_FORK flag is specified, the following rules apply
       for subsequently created children:

       *  If the calling process has a scheduling policy of SCHED_FIFO or SCHED_RR, the policy is
          reset to SCHED_OTHER in child processes.

       *  If  the  calling  process has a negative nice value, the nice value is reset to zero in
          child processes.

       After the SCHED_RESET_ON_FORK flag has been enabled, it can only be reset if  the  process
       has  the  CAP_SYS_NICE  capability.   This  flag is disabled in child processes created by

       The  SCHED_RESET_ON_FORK   flag   is   visible   in   the   policy   value   returned   by

   Privileges and resource limits
       In Linux kernels before 2.6.12, only privileged (CAP_SYS_NICE) processes can set a nonzero
       static priority (i.e., set a real-time  scheduling  policy).   The  only  change  that  an
       unprivileged  process can make is to set the SCHED_OTHER policy, and this can only be done
       if the effective user ID of  the  caller  of  sched_setscheduler()  matches  the  real  or
       effective  user ID of the target process (i.e., the process specified by pid) whose policy
       is being changed.

       Since Linux 2.6.12, the RLIMIT_RTPRIO resource limit defines a ceiling on an  unprivileged
       process's  static  priority  for  the  SCHED_RR  and  SCHED_FIFO  policies.  The rules for
       changing scheduling policy and priority are as follows:

       *  If an unprivileged process has a nonzero RLIMIT_RTPRIO soft limit, then it  can  change
          its scheduling policy and priority, subject to the restriction that the priority cannot
          be set to a value higher than the maximum of its current priority and its RLIMIT_RTPRIO
          soft limit.

       *  If  the RLIMIT_RTPRIO soft limit is 0, then the only permitted changes are to lower the
          priority, or to switch to a non-real-time policy.

       *  Subject to the same rules, another unprivileged process can also make these changes, as
          long  as  the  effective  user  ID of the process making the change matches the real or
          effective user ID of the target process.

       *  Special  rules  apply  for  the  SCHED_IDLE.   In  Linux  kernels  before  2.6.39,   an
          unprivileged  process  operating under this policy cannot change its policy, regardless
          of the value of its RLIMIT_RTPRIO resource limit.  In Linux kernels  since  2.6.39,  an
          unprivileged process can switch to either the SCHED_BATCH or the SCHED_NORMAL policy so
          long as its nice value falls within the range permitted  by  its  RLIMIT_NICE  resource
          limit (see getrlimit(2)).

       Privileged (CAP_SYS_NICE) processes ignore the RLIMIT_RTPRIO limit; as with older kernels,
       they can make arbitrary changes to scheduling policy and priority.  See  getrlimit(2)  for
       further information on RLIMIT_RTPRIO.

   Response time
       A  blocked high priority process waiting for the I/O has a certain response time before it
       is scheduled again.  The device driver writer can greatly reduce  this  response  time  by
       using a "slow interrupt" interrupt handler.

       Child  processes  inherit  the  scheduling  policy  and  parameters across a fork(2).  The
       scheduling policy and parameters are preserved across execve(2).

       Memory locking is usually needed for real-time processes to avoid paging delays; this  can
       be done with mlock(2) or mlockall(2).

       Since a nonblocking infinite loop in a process scheduled under SCHED_FIFO or SCHED_RR will
       block all processes with lower priority forever, a software developer should  always  keep
       available  on the console a shell scheduled under a higher static priority than the tested
       application.  This will allow an emergency kill of tested real-time applications  that  do
       not  block  or  terminate  as  expected.   See  also  the description of the RLIMIT_RTTIME
       resource limit in getrlimit(2).

       POSIX systems on which sched_setscheduler() and sched_getscheduler() are available  define
       _POSIX_PRIORITY_SCHEDULING in <unistd.h>.


       On  success,  sched_setscheduler() returns zero.  On success, sched_getscheduler() returns
       the policy for the process (a nonnegative integer).  On error, -1 is returned,  and  errno
       is set appropriately.


       EINVAL The  scheduling  policy  is  not  one of the recognized policies, param is NULL, or
              param does not make sense for the policy.

       EPERM  The calling process does not have appropriate privileges.

       ESRCH  The process whose ID is pid could not be found.


       POSIX.1-2001 (but see BUGS below).  The SCHED_BATCH and  SCHED_IDLE  policies  are  Linux-


       POSIX.1  does not detail the permissions that an unprivileged process requires in order to
       call sched_setscheduler(), and details vary across systems.  For example,  the  Solaris  7
       manual  page says that the real or effective user ID of the calling process must match the
       real user ID or the save set-user-ID of the target process.

       Originally, Standard Linux was intended as a general-purpose operating system  being  able
       to  handle  background  processes,  interactive applications, and less demanding real-time
       applications (applications that need to usually  meet  timing  deadlines).   Although  the
       Linux  kernel  2.6  allowed  for kernel preemption and the newly introduced O(1) scheduler
       ensures that the time needed to schedule is fixed and deterministic  irrespective  of  the
       number  of  active  tasks,  true real-time computing was not possible up to kernel version

   Real-time features in the mainline Linux kernel
       From kernel version 2.6.18 onward, however, Linux  is  gradually  becoming  equipped  with
       real-time capabilities, most of which are derived from the former realtime-preempt patches
       developed by Ingo Molnar, Thomas Gleixner, Steven Rostedt, and others.  Until the  patches
       have been completely merged into the mainline kernel (this is expected to be around kernel
       version 2.6.30), they must be installed to achieve the best real-time performance.   These
       patches are named:


       and can be downloaded from

       Without the patches and prior to their full inclusion into the mainline kernel, the kernel
       configuration   offers   only   the   three   preemption   classes    CONFIG_PREEMPT_NONE,
       CONFIG_PREEMPT_VOLUNTARY,  and CONFIG_PREEMPT_DESKTOP which respectively provide no, some,
       and considerable reduction of the worst-case scheduling latency.

       With the patches applied or after their full  inclusion  into  the  mainline  kernel,  the
       additional  configuration  item CONFIG_PREEMPT_RT becomes available.  If this is selected,
       Linux is transformed  into  a  regular  real-time  operating  system.   The  FIFO  and  RR
       scheduling policies that can be selected using sched_setscheduler() are then used to run a
       process with true real-time priority and a minimum worst-case scheduling latency.


       POSIX says that on success, sched_setscheduler() should  return  the  previous  scheduling
       policy.   Linux sched_setscheduler() does not conform to this requirement, since it always
       returns 0 on success.


       getpriority(2),    mlock(2),    mlockall(2),    munlock(2),    munlockall(2),     nice(2),
       sched_get_priority_max(2),         sched_get_priority_min(2),        sched_getaffinity(2),
       sched_getparam(2),  sched_rr_get_interval(2),   sched_setaffinity(2),   sched_setparam(2),
       sched_yield(2), setpriority(2), capabilities(7), cpuset(7)

       Programming  for  the  real world - POSIX.4 by Bill O. Gallmeister, O'Reilly & Associates,
       Inc., ISBN 1-56592-074-0

       The kernel source file Documentation/scheduler/sched-rt-group.txt (since kernel 2.6.25).


       This page is part of release 3.35 of the Linux man-pages project.  A  description  of  the
       project,  and information about reporting bugs, can be found at