Provided by: screen_4.0.3-14ubuntu8_amd64 bug


       screen - screen manager with VT100/ANSI terminal emulation


       screen [ -options ] [ cmd [ args ] ]
       screen -r [[pid.]tty[.host]]
       screen -r sessionowner/[[pid.]tty[.host]]


       Screen  is  a  full-screen  window  manager  that  multiplexes a physical terminal between
       several processes (typically interactive shells).   Each  virtual  terminal  provides  the
       functions of a DEC VT100 terminal and, in addition, several control functions from the ISO
       6429 (ECMA 48, ANSI X3.64) and ISO 2022 standards (e.g. insert/delete line and support for
       multiple  character sets).  There is a scrollback history buffer for each virtual terminal
       and a copy-and-paste mechanism that allows moving text regions between windows.

       When screen is called, it creates a single window with a shell in  it  (or  the  specified
       command)  and  then  gets  out of your way so that you can use the program as you normally
       would.  Then, at any time, you can create new (full-screen) windows with other programs in
       them  (including  more shells), kill existing windows, view a list of windows, turn output
       logging on and off, copy-and-paste text between  windows,  view  the  scrollback  history,
       switch  between  windows  in whatever manner you wish, etc. All windows run their programs
       completely independent of each other. Programs  continue  to  run  when  their  window  is
       currently  not  visible and even when the whole screen session is detached from the user's
       terminal.  When a program terminates, screen (per default) kills the window that contained
       it.  If this window was in the foreground, the display switches to the previous window; if
       none are left, screen exits.

       Everything you type is sent to the program  running  in  the  current  window.   The  only
       exception  to  this  is the one keystroke that is used to initiate a command to the window
       manager.  By default, each command begins with a control-a (abbreviated C-a from now  on),
       and  is  followed  by one other keystroke.  The command character and all the key bindings
       can be fully customized to be anything you like, though they are always two characters  in

       Screen does not understand the prefix "C-" to mean control.  Please use the caret notation
       ("^A" instead of "C-a") as arguments to e.g. the escape command or the -e option.   Screen
       will also print out control characters in caret notation.

       The  standard  way  to  create a new window is to type "C-a c".  This creates a new window
       running a shell and switches to that window immediately, regardless of the  state  of  the
       process  running  in  the  current  window.  Similarly, you can create a new window with a
       custom command in it by first binding the command to a keystroke (in your  .screenrc  file
       or  at  the  "C-a  :"  command  line) and then using it just like the "C-a c" command.  In
       addition, new windows can be created by running a command like:

              screen emacs prog.c

       from a shell prompt within a previously created window.  This will not run another copy of
       screen,  but  will instead supply the command name and its arguments to the window manager
       (specified in the $STY environment variable) who will use it to  create  the  new  window.
       The  above example would start the emacs editor (editing prog.c) and switch to its window.
       - Note that you cannot transport environment variables from  the  invoking  shell  to  the
       application (emacs in this case), because it is forked from the parent screen process, not
       from the invoking shell.

       If "/var/run/utmp" is writable by screen, an appropriate record will be  written  to  this
       file  for  each  window,  and  removed  when the window is terminated.  This is useful for
       working with "talk", "script", "shutdown", "rsend", "sccs" and other similar programs that
       use  the utmp file to determine who you are. As long as screen is active on your terminal,
       the terminal's own record is removed from the utmp file. See also "C-a L".


       Before you begin to use screen you'll need to make sure you have correctly  selected  your
       terminal type, just as you would for any other termcap/terminfo program.  (You can do this
       by using tset for example.)

       If you're impatient and want to get started without doing a lot more reading,  you  should
       remember  this  one command:  "C-a ?".  Typing these two characters will display a list of
       the available screen commands and their bindings.  Each  keystroke  is  discussed  in  the
       section "DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS". The manual section "CUSTOMIZATION" deals with the contents
       of your .screenrc.

       If your terminal is a "true" auto-margin terminal (it doesn't allow the last  position  on
       the  screen  to  be updated without scrolling the screen) consider using a version of your
       terminal's termcap that has automatic margins turned off. This will ensure an accurate and
       optimal  update  of  the screen in all circumstances. Most terminals nowadays have "magic"
       margins (automatic margins plus usable last column). This is  the  VT100  style  type  and
       perfectly  suited  for  screen.  If all you've got is a "true" auto-margin terminal screen
       will be content to use it, but updating a character put into  the  last  position  on  the
       screen  may not be possible until the screen scrolls or the character is moved into a safe
       position in some other way. This delay can be shortened by using a terminal  with  insert-
       character capability.


       Screen has the following command-line options:

       -a   include  all capabilities (with some minor exceptions) in each window's termcap, even
            if screen must redraw parts of the display in order to implement a function.

       -A   Adapt the sizes of all windows to the size of  the  current  terminal.   By  default,
            screen  tries  to  restore its old window sizes when attaching to resizable terminals
            (those with "WS" in its description, e.g. suncmd or some xterm).

       -c file
            override the default configuration file from "$HOME/.screenrc" to file.

       -d|-D []
            does not start screen, but detaches the elsewhere running screen session. It has  the
            same  effect  as  typing  "C-a  d"  from  screen's  controlling  terminal.  -D is the
            equivalent to the power detach key.  If no session can be detached,  this  option  is
            ignored. In combination with the -r/-R option more powerful effects can be achieved:

       -d -r   Reattach a session and if necessary detach it first.

       -d -R   Reattach a session and if necessary detach or even create it first.

       -d -RR  Reattach  a session and if necessary detach or create it. Use the first session if
               more than one session is available.

       -D -r   Reattach a session. If necessary detach and logout remotely first.

       -D -R   Attach here and now. In detail this means: If a session is running, then reattach.
               If  necessary  detach  and logout remotely first.  If it was not running create it
               and notify the user. This is the author's favorite.

       -D -RR  Attach here and now. Whatever that means, just do it.

            Note: It is always a good idea to check the status  of  your  sessions  by  means  of
            "screen -list".

       -e xy
            specifies  the  command  character  to  be  x  and the character generating a literal
            command character to y (when typed after the command character).  The default is  "C-
            a"  and `a', which can be specified as "-e^Aa".  When creating a screen session, this
            option sets the default command character. In a multiuser  session  all  users  added
            will  start off with this command character. But when attaching to an already running
            session, this option changes only the command character of the attaching user.   This
            option is equivalent to either the commands "defescape" or "escape" respectively.

       -f, -fn, and -fa
            turns  flow-control on, off, or "automatic switching mode".  This can also be defined
            through the "defflow" .screenrc command.

       -h num
            Specifies the history scrollback buffer to be num lines high.

       -i   will cause the interrupt key (usually C-c) to interrupt the display immediately  when
            flow-control  is  on.   See  the "defflow" .screenrc command for details.  The use of
            this option is discouraged.

       -l and -ln
            turns login mode on or off (for /var/run/utmp updating).  This can  also  be  defined
            through the "deflogin" .screenrc command.

       -ls and -list
            does  not  start  screen,  but  prints  a  list  of strings and creation
            timestamps identifying your screen  sessions.   Sessions  marked  `detached'  can  be
            resumed  with "screen -r". Those marked `attached' are running and have a controlling
            terminal. If the session runs in multiuser  mode,  it  is  marked  `multi'.  Sessions
            marked  as  `unreachable'  either  live  on  a  different  host  or  are  `dead'.  An
            unreachable session is considered dead, when its name matches either the name of  the
            local  host,  or  the specified parameter, if any.  See the -r flag for a description
            how to construct matches.  Sessions marked as `dead' should be thoroughly checked and
            removed.  Ask your system administrator if you are not sure. Remove sessions with the
            -wipe option.

       -L   tells screen to turn on automatic output logging for the windows.

       -m   causes screen to ignore the $STY environment variable. With "screen -m" creation of a
            new  session  is  enforced,  regardless  whether screen is called from within another
            screen session or not. This flag has a special meaning in connection  with  the  `-d'

       -d -m   Start  screen in "detached" mode. This creates a new session but doesn't attach to
               it. This is useful for system startup scripts.

       -D -m   This also starts screen in "detached" mode, but doesn't fork a  new  process.  The
               command exits if the session terminates.

       -O   selects a more optimal output mode for your terminal rather than true VT100 emulation
            (only affects auto-margin terminals without `LP').  This can  also  be  set  in  your
            .screenrc by specifying `OP' in a "termcap" command.

       -p number_or_name
            Preselect  a window. This is useful when you want to reattach to a specific window or
            you want to send a command via the "-X" option to a specific window. As with screen's
            select  command,  "-"  selects  the blank window. As a special case for reattach, "="
            brings up the windowlist on the blank window.

       -q   Suppress printing of error messages. In combination with "-ls" the exit value  is  as
            follows:  9  indicates  a  directory  without sessions. 10 indicates a directory with
            running but not attachable sessions. 11  (or  more)  indicates  1  (or  more)  usable
            sessions.   In  combination with "-r" the exit value is as follows: 10 indicates that
            there is no session to resume. 12 (or more) indicates that  there  are  2  (or  more)
            sessions  to  resume  and you should specify which one to choose.  In all other cases
            "-q" has no effect.

       -r []
       -r sessionowner/[]
            resumes a detached screen session.  No other options (except combinations with -d/-D)
            may  be  specified,  though  an  optional  prefix  of [pid.] may be needed to
            distinguish between multiple detached screen sessions.  The second form  is  used  to
            connect to another user's screen session which runs in multiuser mode. This indicates
            that screen should look for sessions  in  another  user's  directory.  This  requires

       -R   attempts  to  resume the youngest (in terms of creation time) detached screen session
            it finds.  If successful, all other command-line options are ignored.  If no detached
            session  exists,  starts a new session using the specified options, just as if -R had
            not been specified. The option is set by default if screen is run  as  a  login-shell
            (actually  screen  uses "-xRR" in that case).  For combinations with the -d/-D option
            see there.  Note: Time-based session selection is a Debian addition.

       -s   sets the default shell to  the  program  specified,  instead  of  the  value  in  the
            environment  variable $SHELL (or "/bin/sh" if not defined).  This can also be defined
            through the "shell" .screenrc command.

       -S sessionname
            When creating a new session, this option can be used to specify a meaningful name for
            the  session.  This  name  identifies  the session for "screen -list" and "screen -r"
            actions. It substitutes the default [] suffix.

       -t name
            sets the title (a.k.a.) for the default shell or specified  program.   See  also  the
            "shelltitle" .screenrc command.

       -U   Run  screen  in  UTF-8  mode.  This  option tells screen that your terminal sends and
            understands UTF-8 encoded characters. It also  sets  the  default  encoding  for  new
            windows to `utf8'.

       -v   Print version number.

       -wipe [match]
            does the same as "screen -ls", but removes destroyed sessions instead of marking them
            as `dead'.  An unreachable session is considered dead, when its name  matches  either
            the  name  of  the local host, or the explicitly given parameter, if any.  See the -r
            flag for a description how to construct matches.

       -x   Attach to a not detached screen session. (Multi display  mode).   Screen  refuses  to
            attach  from  within  itself.   But  when  cascading  multiple screens, loops are not
            detected; take care.

       -X   Send the specified command to a running screen session. You can  use  the  -d  or  -r
            option  to  tell  screen  to look only for attached or detached screen sessions. Note
            that this command doesn't work if the session is password protected.


       As mentioned, each screen command consists of a "C-a" followed  by  one  other  character.
       For  your convenience, all commands that are bound to lower-case letters are also bound to
       their control character counterparts (with the exception of "C-a a"; see below), thus, "C-
       a  c" as well as "C-a C-c" can be used to create a window. See section "CUSTOMIZATION" for
       a description of the command.

       The following table shows the default key bindings:

       C-a '       (select)      Prompt for a window name or number to switch to.

       C-a "       (windowlist -b)
                                 Present a list of all windows for selection.

       C-a 0       (select 0)
        ...           ...
       C-a 9       (select 9)
       C-a -       (select -)    Switch to window number 0 - 9, or to the blank window.

       C-a tab     (focus)       Switch the input focus to the  next  region.   See  also  split,
                                 remove, only.

       C-a C-a     (other)       Toggle  to  the  window  displayed  previously.   Note that this
                                 binding defaults to the command character  typed  twice,  unless
                                 overridden.   For  instance,  if you use the option "-e]x", this
                                 command becomes "]]".

       C-a a       (meta)        Send the command character (C-a) to window. See escape command.

       C-a A       (title)       Allow the user to enter a name for the current window.

       C-a b
       C-a C-b     (break)       Send a break to window.

       C-a B       (pow_break)   Reopen the terminal line and send a break.

       C-a c
       C-a C-c     (screen)      Create a new window with a shell and switch to that window.

       C-a C       (clear)       Clear the screen.

       C-a d
       C-a C-d     (detach)      Detach screen from this terminal.

       C-a D D     (pow_detach)  Detach and logout.

       C-a f
       C-a C-f     (flow)        Toggle flow on, off or auto.

       C-a F       (fit)         Resize the window to the current region size.

       C-a C-g     (vbell)       Toggles screen's visual bell mode.

       C-a h       (hardcopy)    Write a hardcopy of the current window to the file "hardcopy.n".

       C-a H       (log)         Begins/ends  logging  of  the  current  window   to   the   file

       C-a i
       C-a C-i     (info)        Show info about this window.

       C-a k
       C-a C-k     (kill)        Destroy current window.

       C-a l
       C-a C-l     (redisplay)   Fully refresh current window.

       C-a L       (login)       Toggle  this  windows  login  slot.  Available only if screen is
                                 configured to update the utmp database.

       C-a m
       C-a C-m     (lastmsg)     Repeat the last message displayed in the message line.

       C-a M       (monitor)     Toggles monitoring of the current window.

       C-a space
       C-a n
       C-a C-n     (next)        Switch to the next window.

       C-a N       (number)      Show the number (and title) of the current window.

       C-a backspace
       C-a h
       C-a p
       C-a C-p     (prev)        Switch to the previous window (opposite of C-a n).

       C-a q
       C-a C-q     (xon)         Send a control-q to the current window.

       C-a Q       (only)        Delete all regions but the current one.  See also split, remove,

       C-a r
       C-a C-r     (wrap)        Toggle  the current window's line-wrap setting (turn the current
                                 window's automatic margins on and off).

       C-a s
       C-a C-s     (xoff)        Send a control-s to the current window.

       C-a S       (split)       Split the current region horizontally into two  new  ones.   See
                                 also only, remove, focus.

       C-a t
       C-a C-t     (time)        Show system information.

       C-a v       (version)     Display the version and compilation date.

       C-a C-v     (digraph)     Enter digraph.

       C-a w
       C-a C-w     (windows)     Show a list of window.

       C-a W       (width)       Toggle 80/132 columns.

       C-a x
       C-a C-x     (lockscreen)  Lock this terminal.

       C-a X       (remove)      Kill the current region.  See also split, only, focus.

       C-a z
       C-a C-z     (suspend)     Suspend screen.  Your system must support BSD-style job-control.

       C-a Z       (reset)       Reset the virtual terminal to its "power-on" values.

       C-a .       (dumptermcap) Write out a ".termcap" file.

       C-a ?       (help)        Show key bindings.

       C-a C-\     (quit)        Kill all windows and terminate screen.

       C-a :       (colon)       Enter command line mode.

       C-a [
       C-a C-[
       C-a esc     (copy)        Enter copy/scrollback mode.

       C-a ]       (paste .)     Write the contents of the paste buffer to the stdin queue of the
                                 current window.

       C-a {
       C-a }       (history)     Copy and paste a previous (command) line.

       C-a >       (writebuf)    Write paste buffer to a file.

       C-a <       (readbuf)     Reads the screen-exchange file into the paste buffer.

       C-a =       (removebuf)   Removes the file used by C-a < and C-a >.

       C-a ,       (license)     Shows where screen comes from, where it went to and why you  can
                                 use it.

       C-a _       (silence)     Start/stop monitoring the current window for inactivity.

       C-a |       (split -v)    Split the current region vertically into two new ones.

       C-a *       (displays)    Show a listing of all currently attached displays.


       The  "socket  directory"  defaults  either  to  $HOME/.screen or simply to /tmp/screens or
       preferably to /var/run/screen chosen at compile-time. If screen is installed  setuid-root,
       then  the  administrator  should  compile screen with an adequate (not NFS mounted) socket
       directory. If screen is not running  setuid-root,  the  user  can  specify  any  mode  700
       directory in the environment variable $SCREENDIR.

       When screen is invoked, it executes initialization commands from the files "/etc/screenrc"
       and ".screenrc" in the user's home directory. These are the "programmer's  defaults"  that
       can  be overridden in the following ways: for the global screenrc file screen searches for
       the environment variable $SYSSCREENRC (this override feature may be disabled  at  compile-
       time).  The  user  specific  screenrc file is searched in $SCREENRC, then $HOME/.screenrc.
       The command line option -c takes precedence over the above user screenrc files.

       Commands in these files  are  used  to  set  options,  bind  functions  to  keys,  and  to
       automatically  establish  one  or  more  windows  at the beginning of your screen session.
       Commands are listed one per line, with empty lines being ignored.  A  command's  arguments
       are  separated by tabs or spaces, and may be surrounded by single or double quotes.  A `#'
       turns the rest of the line into a comment, except in  quotes.   Unintelligible  lines  are
       warned  about  and ignored.  Commands may contain references to environment variables. The
       syntax is the shell-like "$VAR " or "${VAR}". Note that this causes  incompatibility  with
       previous  screen  versions,  as  now  the '$'-character has to be protected with '\' if no
       variable substitution shall be performed. A string in single-quotes is also protected from
       variable substitution.

       Two   configuration   files  are  shipped  as  examples  with  your  screen  distribution:
       "etc/screenrc" and "etc/etcscreenrc". They contain a number of useful examples for various

       Customization  can  also  be  done 'on-line'. To enter the command mode type `C-a :'. Note
       that commands starting with "def" change  default  values,  while  others  change  current

       The following commands are available:

       acladd usernames [crypted-pw]
       addacl usernames

       Enable  users  to  fully  access this screen session. Usernames can be one user or a comma
       separated list of users. This command enables to attach to the screen session and performs
       the  equivalent  of `aclchg usernames +rwx "#?"'.  executed. To add a user with restricted
       access, use the `aclchg' command below.  If an optional second parameter is  supplied,  it
       should  be  a  crypted  password for the named user(s). `Addacl' is a synonym to `acladd'.
       Multi user mode only.

       aclchg usernames permbits list
       chacl usernames permbits list

       Change permissions for a comma separated list of users. Permission bits are represented as
       `r', `w' and `x'. Prefixing `+' grants the permission, `-' removes it. The third parameter
       is a comma separated list of commands  and/or  windows  (specified  either  by  number  or
       title).  The  special  list  `#'  refers to all windows, `?' to all commands. if usernames
       consists of a single `*', all known users are affected.  A command can  be  executed  when
       the  user has the `x' bit for it.  The user can type input to a window when he has its `w'
       bit set and no other user obtains a writelock for this window.  Other bits  are  currently
       ignored.   To  withdraw the writelock from another user in window 2: `aclchg username -w+w
       2'.  To allow read-only access to the session: `aclchg username -w  "#"'.  As  soon  as  a
       user's  name  is  known  to screen he can attach to the session and (per default) has full
       permissions for all command and windows. Execution permission for the acl  commands,  `at'
       and  others  should  also  be  removed or the user may be able to regain write permission.
       Rights of the special username nobody cannot be changed (see the "su"  command).   `Chacl'
       is a synonym to `aclchg'.  Multi user mode only.

       acldel username

       Remove  a  user  from  screen's access control list. If currently attached, all the user's
       displays are detached from the session. He cannot attach again.  Multi user mode only.

       aclgrp username [groupname]

       Creates groups of users that share common access rights. The name  of  the  group  is  the
       username  of  the group leader. Each member of the group inherits the permissions that are
       granted to the group leader. That means, if a user fails an access check, another check is
       made  for the group leader.  A user is removed from all groups the special value "none" is
       used for groupname.  If the second parameter is omitted all groups  the  user  is  in  are

       aclumask [[users]+bits |[users]-bits .... ]
       umask [[users]+bits |[users]-bits .... ]

       This  specifies  the access other users have to windows that will be created by the caller
       of the command.  Users may be no, one or a comma separated list of known usernames. If  no
       users  are  specified,  a  list  of  all  currently  known  users is assumed.  Bits is any
       combination of access control bits allowed defined with the "aclchg" command. The  special
       username  "?" predefines the access that not yet known users will be granted to any window
       initially.  The special username "??" predefines the access that not yet known  users  are
       granted  to any command.  Rights of the special username nobody cannot be changed (see the
       "su" command).  `Umask' is a synonym to `aclumask'.

       activity message

       When any activity occurs in a background window that is being monitored, screen displays a
       notification  in the message line.  The notification message can be re-defined by means of
       the "activity" command.  Each occurrence of `%' in message is replaced by  the  number  of
       the  window in which activity has occurred, and each occurrence of `^G' is replaced by the
       definition for bell in your termcap (usually an audible bell).  The default message is

                   'Activity in window %n'

       Note that monitoring is off for all windows by default, but can be altered by use  of  the
       "monitor" command (C-a M).

       allpartial on|off

       If  set  to  on, only the current cursor line is refreshed on window change.  This affects
       all windows and is useful for slow terminal lines. The previous  setting  of  full/partial
       refresh  for  each  window  is restored with "allpartial off".  This is a global flag that
       immediately takes effect on all windows overriding the "partial"  settings.  It  does  not
       change the default redraw behavior of newly created windows.

       altscreen on|off

       If  set  to  on,  "alternate screen" support is enabled in virtual terminals, just like in
       xterm.  Initial setting is `off'.

       at [identifier][#|*|%] command [args ... ]

       Execute a command at other displays or windows as if it  had  been  entered  there.   "At"
       changes the context (the `current window' or `current display' setting) of the command. If
       the first parameter describes a non-unique context, the command will be executed  multiple
       times.  If  the  first  parameter  is of the form `identifier*' then identifier is matched
       against user names.  The command is  executed  once  for  each  display  of  the  selected
       user(s). If the first parameter is of the form `identifier%' identifier is matched against
       displays. Displays are named after the ttys they attach. The prefix `/dev/' or  `/dev/tty'
       may  be  omitted  from  the identifier.  If identifier has a `#' or nothing appended it is
       matched against window numbers and titles. Omitting an identifier in front of the `#', `*'
       or  `%'-character  selects  all  users,  displays  or  windows  because  a prefix-match is
       performed. Note that on the  affected  display(s)  a  short  message  will  describe  what
       happened.  Permission  is checked for initiator of the "at" command, not for the owners of
       the affected display(s).  Note that the '#' character works as a comment  introducer  when
       it  is  preceded  by  whitespace.  This  can be escaped by prefixing a '\'.  Permission is
       checked for the initiator of the  "at"  command,  not  for  the  owners  of  the  affected
       Caveat:  When  matching against windows, the command is executed at least once per window.
       Commands that change the internal arrangement of windows  (like  "other")  may  be  called
       again.  In  shared windows the command will be repeated for each attached display. Beware,
       when issuing toggle commands like "login"!  Some commands (e.g. "process") require that  a
       display  is  associated  with  the  target windows.  These commands may not work correctly
       under "at" looping over windows.

       attrcolor attrib [attribute/color-modifier]

       This command can be used to highlight attributes by changing the color of the text. If the
       attribute  attrib is in use, the specified attribute/color modifier is also applied. If no
       modifier is given, the current one is deleted. See the "STRING ESCAPES"  chapter  for  the
       syntax  of  the  modifier.  Screen understands two pseudo-attributes, "i" stands for high-
       intensity foreground color and "I" for high-intensity background color.


              attrcolor b "R"

       Change the color to bright red if bold text is to be printed.

              attrcolor u "-u b"

       Use blue text instead of underline.

              attrcolor b ".I"

       Use bright colors for bold text. Most terminal emulators do this already.

              attrcolor i "+b"

       Make bright colored text also bold.

       autodetach on|off

       Sets whether screen will automatically detach upon hangup, which saves  all  your  running
       programs  until  they  are  resumed  with  a screen -r command.  When turned off, a hangup
       signal will terminate screen and all the  processes  it  contains.  Autodetach  is  on  by

       autonuke on|off

       Sets  whether a clear screen sequence should nuke all the output that has not been written
       to the terminal. See also "obuflimit".

       backtick id lifespan autorefresh cmd args...
       backtick id

       Program the backtick command with the numerical id id.  The output of such  a  command  is
       used  for  substitution of the "%`" string escape. The specified lifespan is the number of
       seconds the output is considered valid. After this time, the command is  run  again  if  a
       corresponding  string  escape  is  encountered.   The  autorefresh  parameter  triggers an
       automatic refresh for caption  and  hardstatus  strings  after  the  specified  number  of
       seconds. Only the last line of output is used for substitution.
       If  both  the  lifespan  and  the autorefresh parameters are zero, the backtick program is
       expected to stay in the background and generate output once in a while.  In this case, the
       command  is  executed  right away and screen stores the last line of output. If a new line
       gets printed screen will automatically refresh the hardstatus or the captions.
       The second form of the command deletes the backtick command with the numerical id id.

       bce [on|off]

       Change background-color-erase setting. If "bce" is set to on, all characters cleared by an
       erase/insert/scroll/clear  operation  will  be  displayed in the current background color.
       Otherwise the default background color is used.

       bell_msg [message]

       When a bell character is sent to a background window, screen displays  a  notification  in
       the  message  line.   The  notification  message  can be re-defined by this command.  Each
       occurrence of `%' in message is replaced by the number of the window to which a  bell  has
       been  sent,  and  each  occurrence  of `^G' is replaced by the definition for bell in your
       termcap (usually an audible bell).  The default message is

                   'Bell in window %n'

       An empty message can be supplied to the "bell_msg" command to suppress output of a message
       line (bell_msg "").  Without parameter, the current message is shown.

       bind [-c class] key [command [args]]

       Bind a command to a key.  By default, most of the commands provided by screen are bound to
       one or more keys as indicated in the "DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS" section, e.g. the  command  to
       create a new window is bound to "C-c" and "c".  The "bind" command can be used to redefine
       the key bindings and to define  new  bindings.   The  key  argument  is  either  a  single
       character, a two-character sequence of the form "^x" (meaning "C-x"), a backslash followed
       by an octal number (specifying the ASCII code of the character), or a  backslash  followed
       by  a  second  character,  such  as "\^" or "\\".  The argument can also be quoted, if you
       like.  If no further argument is given, any previously established binding for this key is
       removed.  The command argument can be any command listed in this section.

       If  a  command  class is specified via the "-c" option, the key is bound for the specified
       class. Use the "command" command to activate a class.  Command  classes  can  be  used  to
       create multiple command keys or multi-character bindings.

       Some examples:

                   bind ' ' windows
                   bind ^k
                   bind k
                   bind K kill
                   bind ^f screen telnet foobar
                   bind \033 screen -ln -t root -h 1000 9 su

       would  bind  the  space  key  to  the command that displays a list of windows (so that the
       command usually invoked by "C-a C-w" would also be available as  "C-a  space").  The  next
       three  lines  remove the default kill binding from "C-a C-k" and "C-a k".  "C-a K" is then
       bound to the kill command. Then it binds "C-f" to the command  "create  a  window  with  a
       TELNET  connection  to foobar", and bind "escape" to the command that creates an non-login
       window with a.k.a. "root" in slot #9, with a superuser shell and a  scrollback  buffer  of
       1000 lines.

                   bind -c demo1 0 select 10
                   bind -c demo1 1 select 11
                   bind -c demo1 2 select 12
                   bindkey "^B" command -c demo1

       makes "C-b 0" select window 10, "C-b 1" window 11, etc.

                   bind -c demo2 0 select 10
                   bind -c demo2 1 select 11
                   bind -c demo2 2 select 12
                   bind - command -c demo2

       makes "C-a - 0" select window 10, "C-a - 1" window 11, etc.

       bindkey [-d] [-m] [-a] [[-k|-t] string [cmd args]]

       This  command  manages screen's input translation tables. Every entry in one of the tables
       tells screen how to react if a certain sequence of characters is  encountered.  There  are
       three  tables: one that should contain actions programmed by the user, one for the default
       actions used for terminal emulation and one for screen's copy mode to do cursor  movement.
       See section "INPUT TRANSLATION" for a list of default key bindings.
       If  the  -d  option is given, bindkey modifies the default table, -m changes the copy mode
       table and with neither option the user table is selected.   The  argument  string  is  the
       sequence of characters to which an action is bound. This can either be a fixed string or a
       termcap keyboard capability name (selectable with the -k option).
       Some keys on a VT100 terminal can send a different string if application mode is turned on
       (e.g  the  cursor  keys).   Such  keys  have two entries in the translation table. You can
       select the application mode entry by specifying the -a option.
       The -t option tells screen not to do inter-character  timing.  One  cannot  turn  off  the
       timing if a termcap capability is used.
       Cmd  can  be any of screen's commands with an arbitrary number of args.  If cmd is omitted
       the key-binding is removed from the table.
       Here are some examples of keyboard bindings:

               bindkey -d
       Show all of the default key bindings. The application mode entries are marked with [A].

               bindkey -k k1 select 1
       Make the "F1" key switch to window one.

               bindkey -t foo stuff barfoo
       Make "foo" an abbreviation of the word "barfoo". Timeout is disabled  so  that  users  can
       type slowly.

               bindkey "\024" mapdefault
       This  key-binding  makes  "^T"  an escape character for key-bindings. If you did the above
       "stuff barfoo" binding, you can enter the word "foo" by typing "^Tfoo".  If  you  want  to
       insert a "^T" you have to press the key twice (i.e., escape the escape binding).

               bindkey -k F1 command
       Make the F11 (not F1!) key an alternative screen escape (besides ^A).

       break [duration]

       Send  a  break signal for duration*0.25 seconds to this window.  For non-Posix systems the
       time interval may be rounded up to full seconds.  Most useful if  a  character  device  is
       attached  to the window rather than a shell process (See also chapter "WINDOW TYPES"). The
       maximum duration of a break signal is limited to 15 seconds.


       Activate the screen blanker. First the  screen  is  cleared.  If  no  blanker  program  is
       defined,  the  cursor  is turned off, otherwise, the program is started and it's output is
       written to the screen.  The screen blanker is killed with the first keypress, the read key
       is discarded.
       This command is normally used together with the "idle" command.

       blankerprg [program args]

       Defines a blanker program. Disables the blanker program if no arguments are given.

       breaktype [tcsendbreak|TIOCSBRK |TCSBRK]

       Choose  one  of  the  available methods of generating a break signal for terminal devices.
       This command should affect the current window only.  But it  still  behaves  identical  to
       "defbreaktype". This will be changed in the future.  Calling "breaktype" with no parameter
       displays the break method for the current window.

       bufferfile [exchange-file]

       Change the filename used for reading and writing with the paste buffer.  If  the  optional
       argument  to  the  "bufferfile"  command  is  omitted,  the default setting ("/tmp/screen-
       exchange") is reactivated.  The following example will paste the  system's  password  file
       into the screen window (using the paste buffer, where a copy remains):

                   C-a : bufferfile /etc/passwd
                   C-a < C-a ]
                   C-a : bufferfile

       c1 [on|off]

       Change  c1 code processing. "C1 on" tells screen to treat the input characters between 128
       and 159 as control functions.  Such an 8-bit code is normally the same as ESC followed  by
       the  corresponding  7-bit  code.  The  default  setting  is to process c1 codes and can be
       changed with the "defc1" command.  Users with fonts that have usable characters in the  c1
       positions may want to turn this off.

       caption always|splitonly [string]
       caption string [string]

       This  command controls the display of the window captions. Normally a caption is only used
       if more than one window is shown on the display (split screen mode). But if  the  type  is
       set  to always screen shows a caption even if only one window is displayed. The default is

       The second form changes the text used for the caption. You can use all  escapes  from  the
       "STRING ESCAPES" chapter. Screen uses a default of `%3n %t'.

       You can mix both forms by providing a string as an additional argument.

       charset set

       Change  the  current  character  set slot designation and charset mapping.  The first four
       character of set are treated as charset designators while the fifth  and  sixth  character
       must be in range '0' to '3' and set the GL/GR charset mapping. On every position a '.' may
       be used to indicate that the corresponding charset/mapping should not be changed  (set  is
       padded to six characters internally by appending '.'  chars). New windows have "BBBB02" as
       default charset, unless a "encoding" command is active.
       The current setting can be viewed with the "info" command.

       chdir [directory]

       Change the current directory of screen to the specified directory or, if called without an
       argument,  to  your  home  directory  (the  value of the environment variable $HOME).  All
       windows that are created by means of the "screen" command from within  ".screenrc"  or  by
       means  of  "C-a  :  screen ..." or "C-a c" use this as their default directory.  Without a
       chdir command, this would be the directory from which screen was  invoked.   Hardcopy  and
       log  files are always written to the window's default directory, not the current directory
       of the process running in the window.  You can use this command  multiple  times  in  your
       .screenrc  to  start  various windows in different default directories, but the last chdir
       value will affect all the windows you create interactively.


       Clears the current window and saves its image to the scrollback buffer.

       colon [prefix]

       Allows you to enter ".screenrc" command lines. Useful for on-the-fly modification  of  key
       bindings,  specific  window creation and changing settings. Note that the "set" keyword no
       longer exists! Usually commands affect the current window rather than default settings for
       future windows. Change defaults with commands starting with 'def...'.

       If  you  consider  this as the `Ex command mode' of screen, you may regard "C-a esc" (copy
       mode) as its `Vi command mode'.

       command [-c class]

       This command has the same effect as  typing  the  screen  escape  character  (^A).  It  is
       probably  only useful for key bindings.  If the "-c" option is given, select the specified
       command class.  See also "bind" and "bindkey".

       compacthist [on|off]

       This tells screen whether to suppress trailing blank lines when scrolling up text into the
       history buffer.

       console [on|off]

       Grabs  or  un-grabs  the  machines  console  output  to a window.  Note: Only the owner of
       /dev/console can grab the console output.  This command is only available if  the  machine
       supports the ioctl TIOCCONS.


       Enter  copy/scrollback  mode. This allows you to copy text from the current window and its
       history into the paste buffer. In this mode a vi-like `full screen editor' is active:
       Movement keys:
         h, j, k, l move the cursor line by line or column by column.
         0, ^ and $ move to the leftmost column, to the first or last non-whitespace character on
           the line.
         H,  M  and L move the cursor to the leftmost column of the top, center or bottom line of
           the window.
         + and - positions one line up and down.
         G moves to the specified absolute line (default: end of buffer).
         | moves to the specified absolute column.
         w, b, e move the cursor word by word.
         B, E move the cursor WORD by WORD (as in vi).
         C-u and C-d scroll the display up/down by the specified amount of lines while preserving
           the cursor position. (Default: half screen-full).
         C-b and C-f scroll the display up/down a full screen.
         g moves to the beginning of the buffer.
         % jumps to the specified percentage of the buffer.

           Emacs  style  movement  keys can be customized by a .screenrc command.  (E.g. markkeys
           "h=^B:l=^F:$=^E") There is no simple method for a full  emacs-style  keymap,  as  this
           involves multi-character codes.

           The copy range is specified by setting two marks. The text between these marks will be
           highlighted. Press
         space to set the first or second mark respectively.
         Y and y used to mark one whole line or to mark from start of line.
         W marks exactly one word.
       Repeat count:
           Any of these commands can be prefixed with a repeat count number by pressing digits
         0..9 which is taken as a repeat count.
           Example: "C-a C-[ H 10 j 5 Y" will copy lines 11 to 15 into the paste buffer.
         / Vi-like search forward.
         ? Vi-like search backward.
         C-a s Emacs style incremental search forward.
         C-r Emacs style reverse i-search.
           There are however some keys that act differently than in vi.  Vi does not allow one to
           yank rectangular blocks of text, but screen does. Press
         c  or  C to set the left or right margin respectively. If no repeat count is given, both
           default to the current cursor position.
           Example: Try this on a rather full text screen: "C-a [ M 20 l SPACE  c  10  l  5  j  C

           This  moves  one to the middle line of the screen, moves in 20 columns left, marks the
           beginning of the paste buffer, sets the left column, moves 5 columns  down,  sets  the
           right column, and then marks the end of the paste buffer. Now try:
           "C-a [ M 20 l SPACE 10 l 5 j SPACE"

           and notice the difference in the amount of text copied.
         J joins lines. It toggles between 4 modes: lines separated by a newline character (012),
           lines glued seamless, lines separated by  a  single  whitespace  and  comma  separated
           lines.  Note  that  you  can  prepend  the  newline  character  with a carriage return
           character, by issuing a "crlf on".
         v is for all the vi users with ":set numbers" -  it  toggles  the  left  margin  between
           column 9 and 1. Press
         a  before  the  final space key to toggle in append mode. Thus the contents of the paste
           buffer will not be overwritten, but is appended to.
         A toggles in append mode and sets a (second) mark.
         > sets the (second) mark and writes the contents of the  paste  buffer  to  the  screen-
           exchange file (/tmp/screen-exchange per default) once copy-mode is finished.
           This example demonstrates how to dump the whole scrollback buffer to that file: "C-A [
           g SPACE G $ >".
         C-g gives information about the current line and column.
         x exchanges the first mark and the current cursor position. You can use this  to  adjust
           an already placed mark.
         @ does nothing. Does not even exit copy mode.
         All keys not described here exit copy mode.

       copy_reg [key]

       No longer exists, use "readreg" instead.

       crlf [on|off]

       This  affects  the copying of text regions with the `C-a [' command. If it is set to `on',
       lines will be separated by the two character sequence `CR' -  `LF'.   Otherwise  (default)
       only `LF' is used.  When no parameter is given, the state is toggled.

       debug on|off

       Turns  runtime  debugging  on  or  off.  If  screen  has been compiled with option -DDEBUG
       debugging available and is turned on per default. Note  that  this  command  only  affects
       debugging  output  from  the  main  "SCREEN" process correctly. Debug output from attacher
       processes can only be turned off once and forever.

       defc1 on|off

       Same as the c1 command except that the default setting for new windows is changed. Initial
       setting is `on'.

       defautonuke on|off

       Same  as the autonuke command except that the default setting for new displays is changed.
       Initial setting is `off'.  Note that you can use the special `AN' terminal  capability  if
       you want to have a dependency on the terminal type.

       defbce on|off

       Same  as  the  bce  command  except  that  the default setting for new windows is changed.
       Initial setting is `off'.

       defbreaktype [tcsendbreak|TIOCSBRK |TCSBRK]

       Choose one of the available methods of generating a break signal for terminal devices. The
       preferred  methods  are  tcsendbreak and TIOCSBRK.  The third, TCSBRK, blocks the complete
       screen session for the duration of the break, but it may be the only way to generate  long
       breaks.   Tcsendbreak  and TIOCSBRK may or may not produce long breaks with spikes (e.g. 4
       per second). This is not only system-dependent, this also  differs  between  serial  board
       drivers.  Calling "defbreaktype" with no parameter displays the current setting.

       defcharset [set]

       Like the charset command except that the default setting for new windows is changed. Shows
       current default if called without argument.

       defescape xy

       Set the default command characters. This is equivalent to the "escape" except that  it  is
       useful  multiuser  sessions  only.  In  a  multiuser  session "escape" changes the command
       character of the calling user, where "defescape" changes the  default  command  characters
       for users that will be added later.

       defflow on|off|auto [interrupt]

       Same  as  the  flow  command  except  that the default setting for new windows is changed.
       Initial setting is `auto'.  Specifying  "defflow  auto  interrupt"  is  the  same  as  the
       command-line options -fa and -i.

       defgr on|off

       Same as the gr command except that the default setting for new windows is changed. Initial
       setting is `off'.

       defhstatus [status]

       The hardstatus line that all new windows will get is  set  to  status.   This  command  is
       useful  to  make  the hardstatus of every window display the window number or title or the
       like.  Status may contain the same directives as in the window messages, but the directive
       escape  character  is  '^E'  (octal  005)  instead  of  '%'.   This  was  done  to  make a
       misinterpretation of program generated hardstatus  lines  impossible.   If  the  parameter
       status  is  omitted,  the current default string is displayed.  Per default the hardstatus
       line of new windows is empty.

       defencoding enc

       Same as the encoding command except that the default setting for new windows  is  changed.
       Initial setting is the encoding taken from the terminal.

       deflog on|off

       Same  as  the  log  command  except  that  the default setting for new windows is changed.
       Initial setting is `off'.

       deflogin on|off

       Same as the login command except that the default setting for new windows is changed. This
       is initialized with `on' as distributed (see

       defmode mode

       The  mode  of  each  newly  allocated pseudo-tty is set to mode.  Mode is an octal number.
       When no "defmode" command is given, mode 0622 is used.

       defmonitor on|off

       Same as the monitor command except that the default setting for new  windows  is  changed.
       Initial setting is `off'.

       defnonblock on|off|numsecs

       Same  as  the  nonblock  command  except that the default setting for displays is changed.
       Initial setting is `off'.

       defobuflimit limit

       Same as the obuflimit command except that the default setting for new displays is changed.
       Initial  setting is 256 bytes.  Note that you can use the special 'OL' terminal capability
       if you want to have a dependency on the terminal type.

       defscrollback num

       Same as the scrollback command except that the default setting for new windows is changed.
       Initial setting is 100.

       defshell command

       Synonym to the shell command. See there.

       defsilence on|off

       Same  as  the  silence command except that the default setting for new windows is changed.
       Initial setting is `off'.

       defslowpaste msec"

       Same as the slowpaste command except that the default setting for new windows is  changed.
       Initial setting is 0 milliseconds, meaning `off'.

       defutf8 on|off

       Same  as  the  utf8  command  except  that the default setting for new windows is changed.
       Initial setting is `on' if screen was started with "-U", otherwise `off'.

       defwrap on|off

       Same as the wrap command except that the default  setting  for  new  windows  is  changed.
       Initially line-wrap is on and can be toggled with the "wrap" command ("C-a r") or by means
       of "C-a : wrap on|off".

       defwritelock on|off|auto

       Same as the writelock command except that the default setting for new windows is  changed.
       Initially writelocks will off.

       defzombie [keys]

       Synonym to the zombie command. Both currently change the default.  See there.

       detach [-h]

       Detach  the  screen  session  (disconnect  it  from  the  terminal  and  put  it  into the
       background).  This returns you to the shell where you invoked screen.  A  detached  screen
       can  be  resumed  by  invoking  screen  with the -r option (see also section "COMMAND-LINE
       OPTIONS"). The -h option tells screen to immediately close the connection to the  terminal


       Show  what screen thinks about your terminal. Useful if you want to know why features like
       color or the alternate charset don't work.


       Shows a tabular listing of all currently connected user front-ends  (displays).   This  is
       most useful for multiuser sessions.

       digraph [preset]

       This  command  prompts  the user for a digraph sequence. The next two characters typed are
       looked up in a builtin table and the resulting character is inserted in the input  stream.
       For example, if the user enters 'a"', an a-umlaut will be inserted. If the first character
       entered is a 0 (zero), screen will treat the following characters  (up  to  three)  as  an
       octal number instead.  The optional argument preset is treated as user input, thus one can
       create an "umlaut" key.  For example the command "bindkey ^K digraph '"'" enables the user
       to generate an a-umlaut by typing CTRL-K a.


       Write the termcap entry for the virtual terminal optimized for the currently active window
       to the file ".termcap" in the user's "$HOME/.screen" directory (or wherever screen  stores
       its sockets. See the "FILES" section below).  This termcap entry is identical to the value
       of the environment variable $TERMCAP that is  set  up  by  screen  for  each  window.  For
       terminfo  based  systems  you will need to run a converter like captoinfo and then compile
       the entry with tic.

       echo [-n] message

       The echo command may be used to annoy screen users with a 'message of the day'.  Typically
       installed  in  a  global  /etc/screenrc.  The option "-n" may be used to suppress the line
       feed.  See also  "sleep".   Echo  is  also  useful  for  online  checking  of  environment

       encoding enc [enc]

       Tell screen how to interpret the input/output. The first argument sets the encoding of the
       current window. Each  window  can  emulate  a  different  encoding.  The  optional  second
       parameter  overwrites the encoding of the connected terminal. It should never be needed as
       screen uses the locale setting to detect the encoding.  There is also a way  to  select  a
       terminal encoding depending on the terminal type by using the "KJ" termcap entry.

       Supported  encodings  are  eucJP,  SJIS,  eucKR,  eucCN, Big5, GBK, KOI8-R, CP1251, UTF-8,
       ISO8859-2, ISO8859-3, ISO8859-4, ISO8859-5, ISO8859-6,  ISO8859-7,  ISO8859-8,  ISO8859-9,
       ISO8859-10, ISO8859-15, jis.

       See also "defencoding", which changes the default setting of a new window.

       escape xy

       Set  the  command  character to x and the character generating a literal command character
       (by triggering the "meta" command) to y (similar to the  -e  option).   Each  argument  is
       either  a  single  character, a two-character sequence of the form "^x" (meaning "C-x"), a
       backslash followed by an octal number (specifying the ASCII code of the character),  or  a
       backslash followed by a second character, such as "\^" or "\\".  The default is "^Aa".

       eval command1 [command2 ...]

       Parses and executes each argument as separate command.

       exec [[fdpat] newcommand [args ...]]

       Run  a  unix  subprocess  (specified  by  an  executable  path newcommand and its optional
       arguments)   in   the   current   window.   The   flow   of   data   between   newcommands
       stdin/stdout/stderr,  the  process  originally  started  in  the  window  (let  us call it
       "application-process") and screen itself (window) is controlled  by  the  file  descriptor
       pattern  fdpat.   This pattern is basically a three character sequence representing stdin,
       stdout and stderr of newcommand. A dot (.) connects the file  descriptor  to  screen.   An
       exclamation  mark  (!)  causes  the  file  descriptor  to be connected to the application-
       process. A colon (:) combines both.  User input will go to  newcommand  unless  newcommand
       receives  the application-process' output (fdpats first character is `!' or `:') or a pipe
       symbol (|) is added (as a fourth character) to the end of fdpat.
       Invoking `exec' without arguments shows  name  and  arguments  of  the  currently  running
       subprocess in this window. Only one subprocess a time can be running in each window.
       When  a  subprocess  is  running  the `kill' command will affect it instead of the windows
       Refer to the postscript file  `doc/'  for  a  confusing  illustration  of  all  21
       possible  combinations.  Each  drawing  shows the digits 2,1,0 representing the three file
       descriptors of newcommand. The box marked `W' is the usual pty that has  the  application-
       process on its slave side.  The box marked `P' is the secondary pty that now has screen at
       its master side.

       Whitespace between the word `exec' and fdpat and the command can be omitted. Trailing dots
       and  a  fdpat  consisting  only of dots can be omitted. A simple `|' is synonymous for the
       pattern `!..|'; the word exec can be omitted here and can always be replaced by `!'.


              exec ... /bin/sh
              exec /bin/sh

       Creates another shell in the same window, while  the  original  shell  is  still  running.
       Output of both shells is displayed and user input is sent to the new /bin/sh.

              exec !.. stty 19200
              exec ! stty 19200
              !!stty 19200

       Set  the  speed  of  the  window's  tty. If your stty command operates on stdout, then add
       another `!'.

              exec !..| less

       This adds a pager to the window output. The special character `|' is needed  to  give  the
       user  control  over  the  pager although it gets its input from the window's process. This
       works, because less listens on stderr (a behavior that screen would not expect without the
       `|')  when its stdin is not a tty.  Less versions newer than 177 fail miserably here; good
       old pg still works.

              !:sed -n s/.*Error.*/\007/p

       Sends window output to both, the user and the sed command. The sed inserts  an  additional
       bell  character  (oct. 007) to the window output seen by screen.  This will cause "Bell in
       window x" messages, whenever the string "Error" appears in the window.


       Change the window size to the size of the current region. This command is  needed  because
       screen  doesn't  adapt  the window size automatically if the window is displayed more than

       flow [on|off|auto]

       Sets the flow-control mode for this window.  Without  parameters  it  cycles  the  current
       window's  flow-control  setting  from "automatic" to "on" to "off".  See the discussion on
       "FLOW-CONTROL" later on in this document for full details and note, that this  is  subject
       to change in future releases.  Default is set by `defflow'.

       focus [up|down|top|bottom]

       Move  the  input  focus  to  the next region. This is done in a cyclic way so that the top
       region is selected after the bottom one. If no subcommand is given it defaults to  `down'.
       `up'  cycles  in  the  opposite  order, `top' and `bottom' go to the top and bottom region
       respectively. Useful bindings are (j and k as in vi)
           bind j focus down
           bind k focus up
           bind t focus top
           bind b focus bottom
       Note that k is traditionally bound to the kill command.

       gr [on|off]

       Turn GR charset switching on/off. Whenever screen sees an input character with the 8th bit
       set,  it  will  use the charset stored in the GR slot and print the character with the 8th
       bit stripped. The default (see also "defgr")  is  not  to  process  GR  switching  because
       otherwise the ISO88591 charset would not work.

       hardcopy [-h] [file]

       Writes  out  the  currently  displayed  image  to  the  file  file,  or, if no filename is
       specified, to hardcopy.n in the default directory, where n is the number  of  the  current
       window.   This  either  appends  or  overwrites  the file if it exists. See below.  If the
       option -h is specified, dump also the contents of the scrollback buffer.

       hardcopy_append on|off

       If set to "on", screen will append to the "hardcopy.n" files created by the  command  "C-a
       h", otherwise these files are overwritten each time.  Default is `off'.

       hardcopydir directory

       Defines a directory where hardcopy files will be placed. If unset, hardcopys are dumped in
       screen's current working directory.

       hardstatus [on|off]
       hardstatus [always]lastline|message|ignore [string]
       hardstatus string [string]

       This command configures the use and emulation of the terminal's hardstatus line. The first
       form  toggles whether screen will use the hardware status line to display messages. If the
       flag is set to `off', these messages are overlaid in reverse video  mode  at  the  display
       line. The default setting is `on'.

       The  second  form  tells  screen what to do if the terminal doesn't have a hardstatus line
       (i.e. the termcap/terminfo capabilities "hs", "ts", "fs" and "ds" are  not  set).  If  the
       type  "lastline"  is  used,  screen  will  reserve  the  last  line of the display for the
       hardstatus. "message" uses screen's message mechanism and "ignore" tells screen  never  to
       display   the   hardstatus.   If  you  prepend  the  word  "always"  to  the  type  (e.g.,
       "alwayslastline"), screen will use the type even if the terminal supports a hardstatus.

       The third form specifies the contents of the hardstatus line.  '%h'  is  used  as  default
       string, i.e., the stored hardstatus of the current window (settable via "ESC]0;<string>^G"
       or "ESC_<string>ESC\") is displayed.  You can  customize  this  to  any  string  you  like
       including  the  escapes  from  the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter. If you leave out the argument
       string, the current string is displayed.

       You can mix the second and third form by providing the string as additional argument.

       height [-w|-d] [lines [cols]]

       Set the display height to a specified number of  lines.  When  no  argument  is  given  it
       toggles  between  24  and  42  lines  display. You can also specify a width if you want to
       change both values.  The -w option tells screen to leave the display  size  unchanged  and
       just set the window size, -d vice versa.

       help [-c class]

       Not  really  a  online  help, but displays a help screen showing you all the key bindings.
       The first pages list all  the  internal  commands  followed  by  their  current  bindings.
       Subsequent  pages will display the custom commands, one command per key.  Press space when
       you're done reading each page, or return to exit early.  All other characters are ignored.
       If  the  "-c" option is given, display all bound commands for the specified command class.
       See also "DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS" section.


       Usually users work with a shell that allows easy access to previous commands.  For example
       csh has the command "!!" to repeat the last command executed.  Screen allows you to have a
       primitive way of re-calling "the command that started ...": You just type the first letter
       of  that  command,  then hit `C-a {' and screen tries to find a previous line that matches
       with the `prompt character' to the left of the cursor.  This  line  is  pasted  into  this
       window's  input  queue.   Thus  you  have  a crude command history (made up by the visible
       window and its scrollback buffer).

       hstatus status

       Change the window's hardstatus line to the string status.

       idle [timeout [cmd args]]

       Sets a command that is run after the specified number of seconds  inactivity  is  reached.
       This command will normally be the "blanker" command to create a screen blanker, but it can
       be any screen command.  If no command is specified, only the timeout is set. A timeout  of
       zero  (ot  the  special  timeout  off) disables the timer.  If no arguments are given, the
       current settings are displayed.

       ignorecase [on|off]

       Tell screen to ignore the case of characters in searches. Default is `off'.


       Uses the message line to display some information about the  current  window:  the  cursor
       position  in  the form "(column,row)" starting with "(1,1)", the terminal width and height
       plus the size of the scrollback buffer in lines, like in "(80,24)+50", the  current  state
       of window XON/XOFF flow control is shown like this (See also section FLOW CONTROL):

         +flow     automatic flow control, currently on.
         -flow     automatic flow control, currently off.
         +(+)flow  flow control enabled. Agrees with automatic control.
         -(+)flow  flow control disabled. Disagrees with automatic control.
         +(-)flow  flow control enabled. Disagrees with automatic control.
         -(-)flow  flow control disabled. Agrees with automatic control.

       The  current line wrap setting (`+wrap' indicates enabled, `-wrap' not) is also shown. The
       flags `ins', `org', `app', `log', `mon' or `nored' are displayed when  the  window  is  in
       insert mode, origin mode, application-keypad mode, has output logging, activity monitoring
       or partial redraw enabled.

       The currently active character set (G0, G1, G2, or G3) and in square brackets the terminal
       character  sets  that are currently designated as G0 through G3 is shown. If the window is
       in UTF-8 mode, the string "UTF-8" is shown instead.

       Additional modes depending on the type of the window are  displayed  at  the  end  of  the
       status line (See also chapter "WINDOW TYPES").
       If  the state machine of the terminal emulator is in a non-default state, the info line is
       started with a string identifying the current state.
       For system information use the "time" command.

       ins_reg [key]

       No longer exists, use "paste" instead.


       Kill current window.
       If there is an `exec' command running then it is killed.  Otherwise  the  process  (shell)
       running  in  the  window  receives a HANGUP condition, the window structure is removed and
       screen (your display) switches to another window.  When  the  last  window  is  destroyed,
       screen exits.  After a kill screen switches to the previously displayed window.
       Note:  Emacs  users  should  keep  this  command  in  mind,  when  killing  a line.  It is
       recommended not to use "C-a" as the screen escape key or to rebind kill to "C-a K".


       Redisplay the last contents of the message/status line.  Useful if you're  typing  when  a
       message appears, because  the message goes away when you press a key (unless your terminal
       has a hardware status line).  Refer to the commands "msgwait" and  "msgminwait"  for  fine


       Display  the  disclaimer  page.  This  is done whenever screen is started without options,
       which should be often enough. See also the "startup_message" command.


       Lock this display.  Call a  screenlock  program  (/local/bin/lck  or  /usr/bin/lock  or  a
       builtin  if  no  other  is  available). Screen does not accept any command keys until this
       program terminates. Meanwhile processes in the windows may continue, as the windows are in
       the  `detached'  state.  The  screenlock  program  may  be changed through the environment
       variable $LOCKPRG (which must be set in the shell from which screen  is  started)  and  is
       executed with the user's uid and gid.
       Warning:  When you leave other shells unlocked and you have no password set on screen, the
       lock is void: One could easily re-attach from  an  unlocked  shell.  This  feature  should
       rather be called `lockterminal'.

       log [on|off]

       Start/stop  writing  output  of the current window to a file "screenlog.n" in the window's
       default directory, where n is the number of the  current  window.  This  filename  can  be
       changed  with  the  `logfile'  command.  If no parameter is given, the state of logging is
       toggled. The session log is appended to the previous contents of the file  if  it  already
       exists.  The  current contents and the contents of the scrollback history are not included
       in the session log.  Default is `off'.

       logfile filename
       logfile flush secs

       Defines the name the log files will get. The default is "screenlog.%n".  The  second  form
       changes  the  number of seconds screen will wait before flushing the logfile buffer to the
       file-system. The default value is 10 seconds.

       login [on|off]

       Adds or removes the entry in the utmp database file for the current window.  This controls
       if  the  window is `logged in'.  When no parameter is given, the login state of the window
       is toggled.  Additionally to that toggle, it is convenient having a `log in'  and  a  `log
       out'  key.  E.g.  `bind I login on' and `bind O login off' will map these keys to be C-a I
       and C-a O.  The default setting (in should be "on" for  a  screen  that  runs
       under  suid-root.   Use  the  "deflogin" command to change the default login state for new
       windows. Both commands are only present when screen has been compiled with utmp support.

       logtstamp [on|off]
       logtstamp after [secs]
       logtstamp string [string]

       This command controls logfile time-stamp mechanism of screen.  If time-stamps  are  turned
       "on", screen adds a string containing the current time to the logfile after two minutes of
       inactivity.  When output continues and more than another two minutes have passed, a second
       time-stamp  is  added  to  document the restart of the output. You can change this timeout
       with the second form of the command. The third form is used for customizing the time-stamp
       string (`-- %n:%t -- time-stamp -- %M/%d/%y %c:%s --\n' by default).


       Tell  screen that the next input character should only be looked up in the default bindkey
       table. See also "bindkey".


       Like mapdefault, but don't even look in the default bindkey table.

       maptimeout [timo]

       Set the inter-character timer for input sequence detection to a timeout of  timo  ms.  The
       default  timeout  is  300ms.  Maptimeout with no arguments shows the current setting.  See
       also "bindkey".

       markkeys string

       This is a method of changing the keymap used for copy/history mode.  The string is made up
       of  oldchar=newchar pairs which are separated by `:'. Example: The string "B=^B:F=^F" will
       change the keys `C-b' and `C-f' to the vi style binding (scroll up/down fill page).   This
       happens  to be the default binding for `B' and `F'.  The command "markkeys h=^B:l=^F:$=^E"
       would set the mode for an emacs-style binding.  If your terminal  sends  characters,  that
       cause you to abort copy mode, then this command may help by binding these characters to do
       nothing.  The no-op character is `@' and is used like this: "markkeys @=L=H" if you do not
       want  to  use the `H' or `L' commands any longer.  As shown in this example, multiple keys
       can be assigned to one function in a single statement.

       maxwin num

       Set the maximum window number screen will create. Doesn't affect already existing windows.
       The number may only be decreased.


       Insert the command character (C-a) in the current window's input stream.

       monitor [on|off]

       Toggles  activity  monitoring  of  windows.   When monitoring is turned on and an affected
       window is switched into the background, you will receive the activity notification message
       in  the status line at the first sign of output and the window will also be marked with an
       `@' in the window-status display.  Monitoring is initially off for all windows.

       msgminwait sec

       Defines the time screen delays a new message when one message is currently displayed.  The
       default is 1 second.

       msgwait sec

       Defines  the time a message is displayed if screen is not disturbed by other activity. The
       default is 5 seconds.

       multiuser on|off

       Switch between singleuser and multiuser mode. Standard screen operation is singleuser.  In
       multiuser  mode  the  commands  `acladd',  `aclchg',  `aclgrp' and `acldel' can be used to
       enable (and disable) other users accessing this screen session.

       nethack on|off

       Changes the kind of error messages used by screen.  When you are familiar  with  the  game
       "nethack",  you  may  enjoy  the  nethack-style messages which will often blur the facts a
       little, but are much funnier to read. Anyway, standard messages often tend to  be  unclear
       as well.
       This  option  is  only available if screen was compiled with the NETHACK flag defined. The
       default  setting  is  then  determined  by  the  presence  of  the  environment   variable
       $NETHACKOPTIONS and the file ~/.nethackrc - if either one is present, the default is on.


       Switch  to the next window.  This command can be used repeatedly to cycle through the list
       of windows.

       nonblock [on|off|numsecs]

       Tell screen how to deal with user interfaces (displays) that cease to accept output.  This
       can  happen  if  a  user  presses  ^S  or a TCP/modem connection gets cut but no hangup is
       received. If nonblock is off (this is the default) screen waits until the display restarts
       to  accept the output. If nonblock is on, screen waits until the timeout is reached (on is
       treated as 1s). If the display still doesn't receive characters, screen will  consider  it
       "blocked"  and  stop  sending  characters  to  it.  If  at some time it restarts to accept
       characters, screen will unblock the display and redisplay the updated window contents.

       number [n]

       Change the current windows number. If the given  number  n  is  already  used  by  another
       window,  both  windows  exchange  their  numbers. If no argument is specified, the current
       window number (and title) is shown.

       obuflimit [limit]

       If the output buffer contains more bytes than the specified limit, no more  data  will  be
       read  from the windows. The default value is 256. If you have a fast display (like xterm),
       you can set it to some higher value. If no argument is specified, the current  setting  is


       Kill all regions but the current one.


       Switch  to the window displayed previously. If this window does no longer exist, other has
       the same effect as next.

       partial on|off

       Defines whether the display should be refreshed (as with redisplay) after switching to the
       current  window.  This command only affects the current window.  To immediately affect all
       windows use the allpartial command.  Default is `off', of course.  This default is  fixed,
       as there is currently no defpartial command.

       password [crypted_pw]

       Present  a  crypted password in your ".screenrc" file and screen will ask for it, whenever
       someone attempts to resume a detached. This is useful  if  you  have  privileged  programs
       running  under  screen  and  you  want  to  protect your session from reattach attempts by
       another user masquerading as your uid (i.e. any superuser.)  If  no  crypted  password  is
       specified,  screen  prompts  twice  for typing a password and places its encryption in the
       paste buffer.  Default is `none', this disables password checking.

       paste [registers [dest_reg]]

       Write the (concatenated) contents of the specified registers to the  stdin  queue  of  the
       current  window. The register '.' is treated as the paste buffer. If no parameter is given
       the user is prompted for a single register to paste.  The paste buffer can be filled  with
       the  copy, history and readbuf commands.  Other registers can be filled with the register,
       readreg and paste commands.  If paste is called with a second argument,  the  contents  of
       the  specified  registers  is  pasted  into the named destination register rather than the
       window. If '.' is  used  as  the  second  argument,  the  displays  paste  buffer  is  the
       destination.   Note,  that  "paste"  uses  a  wide variety of resources: Whenever a second
       argument is specified no current window is needed.  When  the  source  specification  only
       contains  registers  (not  the  paste  buffer)  then  there  need not be a current display
       (terminal attached), as the registers are a global resource. The paste buffer exists  once
       for every user.

       pastefont [on|off]

       Tell  screen to include font information in the paste buffer. The default is not to do so.
       This command is especially useful for multi character fonts like kanji.


       Reopen the window's terminal line and send a break condition. See `break'.


       Power detach.  Mainly the same as detach, but also sends a HANGUP  signal  to  the  parent
       process  of  screen.   CAUTION: This will result in a logout, when screen was started from
       your login shell.

       pow_detach_msg [message]

       The message specified here is output whenever a `Power detach' was performed.  It  may  be
       used as a replacement for a logout message or to reset baud rate, etc.  Without parameter,
       the current message is shown.


       Switch to the window with the next lower number.  This command can be used  repeatedly  to
       cycle through the list of windows.

       printcmd [cmd]

       If cmd is not an empty string, screen will not use the terminal capabilities "po/pf" if it
       detects an ansi print sequence ESC [ 5 i, but pipe  the  output  into  cmd.   This  should
       normally  be  a command like "lpr" or "'cat > /tmp/scrprint'".  printcmd without a command
       displays the current setting.  The ansi sequence ESC \ ends printing and closes the pipe.
       Warning: Be careful with this command! If other user have write access to  your  terminal,
       they will be able to fire off print commands.

       process [key]

       Stuff  the contents of the specified register into screen's input queue. If no argument is
       given you are prompted for a register name. The text is parsed as if it had been typed  in
       from  the  user's  keyboard. This command can be used to bind multiple actions to a single


       Kill all windows and terminate screen.  Note that on VT100-style terminals  the  keys  C-4
       and  C-\ are identical.  This makes the default bindings dangerous: Be careful not to type
       C-a C-4 when selecting window no. 4.  Use the empty bind command (as in  "bind  '^\'")  to
       remove a key binding.

       readbuf [-e encoding] [filename]

       Reads  the  contents of the specified file into the paste buffer.  You can tell screen the
       encoding of the file via the -e option.  If no  file  is  specified,  the  screen-exchange
       filename is used.  See also "bufferfile" command.

       readreg [-e encoding] [register [filename]]

       Does one of two things, dependent on number of arguments: with zero or one arguments it it
       duplicates the paste buffer contents into the register specified or entered at the prompt.
       With  two  arguments  it  reads  the contents of the named file into the register, just as
       readbuf reads the screen-exchange file into the paste buffer.  You  can  tell  screen  the
       encoding  of  the  file  via the -e option.  The following example will paste the system's
       password file into the screen window (using register p, where a copy remains):

                   C-a : readreg p /etc/passwd
                   C-a : paste p


       Redisplay the current window. Needed to get a full redisplay when in partial redraw mode.

       register [-e encoding] key string

       Save the specified string to the  register  key.   The  encoding  of  the  string  can  be
       specified via the -e option.  See also the "paste" command.


       Kill the current region. This is a no-op if there is only one region.


       Unlinks the screen-exchange file used by the commands "writebuf" and "readbuf".


       Reset  the  virtual  terminal to its "power-on" values. Useful when strange settings (like
       scroll regions or graphics character set) are left over from an application.


       Resize the current region. The space will be removed from or added to the region below  or
       if there's not enough space from the region above.

              resize +N   increase current region height by N

              resize -N   decrease current region height by N

              resize  N   set current region height to N

              resize  =   make all windows equally high

              resize  max maximize current region height

              resize  min minimize current region height

       screen [-opts] [n] [cmd [args]]

       Establish a new window.  The flow-control options (-f, -fn and -fa), title (a.k.a.) option
       (-t), login options (-l and -ln) , terminal type option (-T <term>),  the  all-capability-
       flag (-a) and scrollback option (-h <num>) may be specified with each command.  The option
       (-M) turns monitoring on for this window.  The option (-L) turns  output  logging  on  for
       this window.  If an optional number n in the range 0..MAXWIN-1 is given, the window number
       n is assigned to the newly created window (or, if this number is already in-use, the  next
       available number).  If a command is specified after "screen", this command (with the given
       arguments) is started in the window;  otherwise,  a  shell  is  created.   Thus,  if  your
       ".screenrc" contains the lines

                   # example for .screenrc:
                   screen 1
                   screen -fn -t foobar -L 2 telnet foobar

       screen  creates a shell window (in window #1) and a window with a TELNET connection to the
       machine foobar (with no flow-control using the title "foobar" in window #2) and will write
       a  logfile  ("screenlog.2") of the telnet session.  Note, that unlike previous versions of
       screen no additional default window is created when "screen" commands are included in your
       ".screenrc" file. When the initialization is completed, screen switches to the last window
       specified in your .screenrc file or, if none, opens a default window #0.
       Screen has built in some functionality of "cu" and "telnet".   See  also  chapter  "WINDOW

       scrollback num

       Set  the  size  of the scrollback buffer for the current windows to num lines. The default
       scrollback is 100 lines.  See also the "defscrollback" command and use "C-a i" to view the
       current setting.

       select [WindowID]

       Switch  to  the  window  identified  by  WindowID.  This can be a prefix of a window title
       (alphanumeric window name) or a window number.  The parameter is optional and if  omitted,
       you get prompted for an identifier.  When a new window is established, the first available
       number is assigned to this window.  Thus, the first window can be activated by "select 0".
       The  number  of  windows  is limited at compile-time by the MAXWIN configuration parameter
       (which defaults to 40 in Debian).  There  are  two  special  WindowIDs,  "-"  selects  the
       internal  blank  window  and  "." selects the current window. The latter is useful if used
       with screen's "-X" option.

       sessionname [name]

       Rename the current session. Note, that for "screen -list"  the  name  shows  up  with  the
       process-id  prepended.  If  the  argument  "name"  is omitted, the name of this session is
       displayed. Caution: Among other problems, the $STY environment variable still reflects the
       old name.  Use of this command is strongly discouraged. Use the "-S" commandline option if
       you need this feature.  The default is constructed from the tty and host names.

       setenv [var [string]]

       Set the environment variable var to value string.  If only var is specified, the user will
       be  prompted  to enter a value.  If no parameters are specified, the user will be prompted
       for both variable and value. The environment  is  inherited  by  all  subsequently  forked

       setsid [on|off]

       Normally  screen  uses different sessions and process groups for the windows. If setsid is
       turned off, this is not done anymore and all windows will be in the same process group  as
       the  screen  backend process. This also breaks job-control, so be careful.  The default is
       on, of course. This command is probably useful only in rare circumstances.

       shell command

       Set the command to be used to create a  new  shell.   This  overrides  the  value  of  the
       environment  variable $SHELL.  This is useful if you'd like to run a tty-enhancer which is
       expecting to execute the program specified in $SHELL. If the command  begins  with  a  '-'
       character, the shell will be started as a login-shell.

       shelltitle title

       Set  the  title  for  all  shells  created  during startup or by the C-A C-c command.  For
       details about what a title is, see the discussion entitled "TITLES (naming windows)".

       silence [on|off|sec]

       Toggles silence monitoring of windows.  When silence is turned on and an  affected  window
       is  switched into the background, you will receive the silence notification message in the
       status line after a specified period of inactivity (silence). The default timeout  can  be
       changed  with  the  `silencewait'  command or by specifying a number of seconds instead of
       `on' or `off'.  Silence is initially off for all windows.

       silencewait sec

       Define the time that all windows monitored for silence should  wait  before  displaying  a
       message. Default 30 seconds.

       sleep num

       This  command  will  pause  the  execution  of a .screenrc file for num seconds.  Keyboard
       activity will end the sleep.  It may be used to give users a chance to read  the  messages
       output by "echo".

       slowpaste msec

       Define  the speed at which text is inserted into the current window by the paste ("C-a ]")
       command.  If the slowpaste value is  nonzero  text  is  written  character  by  character.
       screen  will  make a pause of msec milliseconds after each single character write to allow
       the application to process its input. Only use slowpaste if your underlying system exposes
       flow control problems while pasting large amounts of text.

       source file

       Read  and  execute  commands  from  file  file. Source commands may be nested to a maximum
       recursion level of ten. If file is not an absolute path and screen is already processing a
       source  command, the parent directory of the running source command file is used to search
       for the new command file before screen's current directory.

       Note that termcap/terminfo/termcapinfo commands only work at startup and reattach time, so
       they must be reached via the default screenrc files to have an effect.

       sorendition [attr [color]]

       Change  the  way screen does highlighting for text marking and printing messages.  See the
       "STRING ESCAPES" chapter for the syntax of the modifiers.  The default  is  currently  "=s
       dd" (standout, default colors).

       split [-v]

       Split the current region into two new ones. All regions on the display are resized to make
       room for the new region. The blank window is displayed on the new region. Splits are  made
       horizontally  unless -v is used. Use the "remove" or the "only" command to delete regions.
       Use "focus" to toggle between regions.

       startup_message on|off

       Select whether you want to see the copyright notice during startup.  Default is  `on',  as
       you probably noticed.

       stuff string

       Stuff  the  string  string  in  the  input buffer of the current window.  This is like the
       "paste" command but with much less overhead.  You cannot  paste  large  buffers  with  the
       "stuff" command. It is most useful for key bindings. See also "bindkey".

       su [username [password [password2]]

       Substitute the user of a display. The command prompts for all parameters that are omitted.
       If passwords are specified as parameters, they have to be specified un-crypted. The  first
       password  is  matched  against the systems passwd database, the second password is matched
       against the screen password as set with the commands "acladd" or "password".  "Su" may  be
       useful  for  the  screen  administrator to test multiuser setups.  When the identification
       fails, the user has access to the commands available for user nobody.  These are "detach",
       "license", "version", "help" and "displays".


       Suspend  screen.  The windows are in the `detached' state, while screen is suspended. This
       feature relies on the shell being able to do job control.

       term term

       In each window's environment screen opens, the  $TERM  variable  is  set  to  "screen"  by
       default.   But  when  no  description  for  "screen"  is installed in the local termcap or
       terminfo data base, you set $TERM to - say - "vt100". This won't do much harm,  as  screen
       is  VT100/ANSI  compatible.   The use of the "term" command is discouraged for non-default
       purpose.  That is, one may want to specify special $TERM settings  (e.g.  vt100)  for  the
       next  "screen  rlogin  othermachine"  command.  Use  the  command  "screen -T vt100 rlogin
       othermachine" rather than setting and resetting the default.

       termcap term terminal-tweaks [window-tweaks]
       terminfo term terminal-tweaks [window-tweaks]
       termcapinfo term terminal-tweaks [window-tweaks]

       Use this command to modify your terminal's termcap entry without  going  through  all  the
       hassles  involved  in creating a custom termcap entry.  Plus, you can optionally customize
       the termcap generated for the windows.  You have to place these commands  in  one  of  the
       screenrc startup files, as they are meaningless once the terminal emulator is booted.
       If  your  system  works  uses  the  terminfo  database  rather  than  termcap, screen will
       understand the `terminfo' command, which has the same effects as  the  `termcap'  command.
       Two  separate  commands are provided, as there are subtle syntactic differences, e.g. when
       parameter  interpolation  (using  `%')  is  required.  Note  that  termcap  names  of  the
       capabilities have to be used with the `terminfo' command.
       In  many cases, where the arguments are valid in both terminfo and termcap syntax, you can
       use the command `termcapinfo', which is just a shorthand  for  a  pair  of  `termcap'  and
       `terminfo' commands with identical arguments.

       The first argument specifies which terminal(s) should be affected by this definition.  You
       can specify multiple terminal names by separating them with `|'s.  Use `*'  to  match  all
       terminals and `vt*' to match all terminals that begin with "vt".

       Each  tweak  argument  contains  one  or  more  termcap  defines (separated by `:'s) to be
       inserted at the start of  the  appropriate  termcap  entry,  enhancing  it  or  overriding
       existing  values.   The  first  tweak  modifies  your  terminal's  termcap,  and  contains
       definitions that your terminal uses to perform certain functions.  Specify a  null  string
       to  leave  this  unchanged (e.g. '').  The second (optional) tweak modifies all the window
       termcaps, and should  contain  definitions  that  screen  understands  (see  the  "VIRTUAL
       TERMINAL" section).

       Some examples:

              termcap xterm*  LP:hs@

       Informs  screen  that  all  terminals  that begin with `xterm' have firm auto-margins that
       allow the last position on the screen to be updated (LP), but they  don't  really  have  a
       status  line (no 'hs' - append `@' to turn entries off).  Note that we assume `LP' for all
       terminal names that start with "vt", but only if you don't specify a termcap  command  for
       that terminal.

              termcap vt*  LP
              termcap vt102|vt220  Z0=\E[?3h:Z1=\E[?3l

       Specifies  the  firm-margined  `LP' capability for all terminals that begin with `vt', and
       the second line will also add the escape-sequences to switch into (Z0)  and  back  out  of
       (Z1) 132-character-per-line mode if this is a VT102 or VT220.  (You must specify Z0 and Z1
       in your termcap to use the width-changing commands.)

              termcap vt100  ""  l0=PF1:l1=PF2:l2=PF3:l3=PF4

       This leaves your vt100 termcap alone and adds the function key  labels  to  each  window's
       termcap entry.

              termcap h19|z19  am@:im=\E@:ei=\EO  dc=\E[P

       Takes  a  h19  or z19 termcap and turns off auto-margins (am@) and enables the insert mode
       (im) and end-insert (ei) capabilities (the `@' in the `im' string is after the `=', so  it
       is  part  of  the  string).  Having the `im' and `ei' definitions put into your terminal's
       termcap will cause screen to automatically advertise the  character-insert  capability  in
       each  window's  termcap.   Each  window will also get the delete-character capability (dc)
       added to its termcap, which screen will translate into  a  line-update  for  the  terminal
       (we're pretending it doesn't support character deletion).

       If you would like to fully specify each window's termcap entry, you should instead set the
       $SCREENCAP variable prior to running screen.  See the discussion on the "VIRTUAL TERMINAL"
       in this manual, and the termcap(5) man page for more information on termcap definitions.

       time [string]

       Uses  the  message  line  to display the time of day, the host name, and the load averages
       over 1, 5, and 15 minutes (if this is available on  your  system).   For  window  specific
       information use "info".

       If a string is specified, it changes the format of the time report like it is described in
       the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter. Screen uses a default of "%c:%s %M %d %H%? %l%?".

       title [windowtitle]

       Set the name of the current window to windowtitle. If no name is specified, screen prompts
       for one. This command was known as `aka' in previous releases.

       unsetenv var

       Unset an environment variable.

       utf8 [on|off [on|off]]

       Change  the  encoding  used in the current window. If utf8 is enabled, the strings sent to
       the window will be UTF-8 encoded and  vice  versa.  Omitting  the  parameter  toggles  the
       setting.  If  a  second  parameter  is given, the display's encoding is also changed (this
       should rather be done with screen's "-U" option).  See also "defutf8", which  changes  the
       default setting of a new window.

       vbell [on|off]

       Sets  the visual bell setting for this window. Omitting the parameter toggles the setting.
       If vbell is switched on, but your terminal does not  support  a  visual  bell,  a  `vbell-
       message' is displayed in the status line when the bell character (^G) is received.  Visual
       bell support of a terminal is defined by the termcap variable `vb' (terminfo: 'flash').
       Per default, vbell is off, thus the audible bell is used.  See also `bell_msg'.

       vbell_msg [message]

       Sets the visual bell message. message is printed to the status line if the window receives
       a  bell  character  (^G), vbell is set to "on", but the terminal does not support a visual
       bell.  The default message is "Wuff, Wuff!!".  Without parameter, the current  message  is

       vbellwait sec

       Define  a delay in seconds after each display of screen's visual bell message. The default
       is 1 second.

       verbose [on|off]

       If verbose is switched on, the command name is echoed, whenever a window  is  created  (or
       resurrected from zombie state). Default is off.  Without parameter, the current setting is


       Print the current version and the compile date in the status line.

       wall message

       Write a message to all displays. The message will appear in the terminal's status line.

       width [-w|-d] [cols [lines]]

       Toggle the window width between 80 and 132 columns  or  set  it  to  cols  columns  if  an
       argument  is specified.  This requires a capable terminal and the termcap entries "Z0" and
       "Z1".  See the "termcap" command for more information. You can also specify a  new  height
       if  you  want to change both values.  The -w option tells screen to leave the display size
       unchanged and just set the window size, -d vice versa.

       windowlist [-b] [-m]
       windowlist string [string]
       windowlist title [title]

       Display all windows in a table for visual window selection.  The  desired  window  can  be
       selected  via  the  standard  movement keys (see the "copy" command) and activated via the
       return key.  If the -b option is given, screen will switch  to  the  blank  window  before
       presenting the list, so that the current window is also selectable.  The -m option changes
       the order of the windows, instead of sorting by window numbers screen  uses  its  internal
       most-recently-used list.

       The  table  format can be changed with the string and title option, the title is displayed
       as table heading, while the lines are made  by  using  the  string  setting.  The  default
       setting  is  "Num  Name%=Flags"  for  the  title  and "%3n %t%=%f" for the lines.  See the
       "STRING ESCAPES" chapter for more codes (e.g. color settings).


       Uses the message line to display a list of all the windows.   Each  window  is  listed  by
       number  with  the  name of process that has been started in the window (or its title); the
       current window is marked with a `*'; the previous window is marked with  a  `-';  all  the
       windows  that are "logged in" are marked with a `$'; a background window that has received
       a bell is marked with a `!'; a background window that  is  being  monitored  and  has  had
       activity  occur  is  marked  with  an  `@'; a window which has output logging turned on is
       marked with `(L)'; windows occupied by other users are marked with  `&';  windows  in  the
       zombie  state  are  marked  with  `Z'.   If this list is too long to fit on the terminal's
       status line only the portion around the current window is displayed.

       wrap [on|off]

       Sets the line-wrap setting for the current window.   When  line-wrap  is  on,  the  second
       consecutive printable character output at the last column of a line will wrap to the start
       of the following line.  As an added feature, backspace (^H) will  also  wrap  through  the
       left margin to the previous line.  Default is `on'.

       writebuf [-e encoding] [filename]

       Writes  the  contents  of the paste buffer to the specified file, or the public accessible
       screen-exchange file if no filename is given. This is thought of as a primitive  means  of
       communication between screen users on the same host. If an encoding is specified the paste
       buffer is recoded on the fly to match the encoding.  The filename  can  be  set  with  the
       bufferfile command and defaults to "/tmp/screen-exchange".

       writelock [on|off|auto]

       In addition to access control lists, not all users may be able to write to the same window
       at once. Per default, writelock is in `auto' mode and grants exclusive input permission to
       the  user  who is the first to switch to the particular window. When he leaves the window,
       other users may obtain the writelock (automatically). The writelock of the current  window
       is  disabled by the command "writelock off". If the user issues the command "writelock on"
       he keeps the exclusive write permission while switching to other windows.


       Insert a CTRL-s / CTRL-q character to the stdin queue of the current window.

       zmodem [off|auto|catch|pass]
       zmodem sendcmd [string]
       zmodem recvcmd [string]

       Define zmodem support for screen. Screen understands two different modes when it detects a
       zmodem  request:  "pass" and "catch".  If the mode is set to "pass", screen will relay all
       data to the attacher until the end of the transmission is reached.  In "catch" mode screen
       acts  as a zmodem endpoint and starts the corresponding rz/sz commands. If the mode is set
       to "auto", screen will use "catch" if the window is a tty (e.g. a serial line),  otherwise
       it will use "pass".
       You  can  define  the  templates  screen uses in "catch" mode via the second and the third
       Note also that this is an experimental feature.

       zombie [keys[onerror]]
       defzombie [keys]

       Per default screen windows are removed from the window list as soon as the windows process
       (e.g.  shell)  exits. When a string of two keys is specified to the zombie command, `dead'
       windows will remain in the list.  The kill command may be used to remove  such  a  window.
       Pressing  the  first  key in the dead window has the same effect. When pressing the second
       key, screen will attempt to resurrect the window. The process that was  initially  running
       in  the  window  will  be launched again. Calling zombie without parameters will clear the
       zombie setting, thus making windows disappear when their process exits.

       As the zombie-setting is manipulated globally for all windows, this command should only be
       called  defzombie.  Until  we  need  this as a per window setting, the commands zombie and
       defzombie are synonymous.

       Optionally you can put the word "onerror" after  the  keys.  This  will  cause  screen  to
       monitor  exit status of the process running in the window. If it exits normally ('0'), the
       window disappears. Any other exit value causes the window to become a zombie.


       Screen displays informational messages and other diagnostics in  a  message  line.   While
       this  line  is  distributed  to  appear  at the bottom of the screen, it can be defined to
       appear at the top of the screen during compilation.  If your terminal has  a  status  line
       defined in its termcap, screen will use this for displaying its messages, otherwise a line
       of the current screen will be temporarily  overwritten  and  output  will  be  momentarily
       interrupted.  The  message line is automatically removed after a few seconds delay, but it
       can also be removed early (on terminals without a status line) by beginning to type.

       The message line facility can be used by an application running in the current  window  by
       means  of the ANSI Privacy message control sequence.  For instance, from within the shell,
       try something like:

              echo '<esc>^Hello world from window '$WINDOW'<esc>\\'

       where '<esc>' is an escape, '^' is a literal  up-arrow,  and  '\\'  turns  into  a  single


       Screen provides three different window types. New windows are created with screen's screen
       command (see also the entry in chapter "CUSTOMIZATION"). The first parameter to the screen
       command  defines  which  type  of  window  is  created. The different window types are all
       special cases of the normal type. They have been added in order to allow screen to be used
       efficiently as a console multiplexer with 100 or more windows.

       ·  The  normal  window  contains  a shell (default, if no parameter is given) or any other
          system command that could be executed from a shell (e.g.  slogin, etc...)

       ·  If a tty (character special device) name (e.g. "/dev/ttya") is specified as  the  first
          parameter,  then  the window is directly connected to this device.  This window type is
          similar to "screen cu -l /dev/ttya".  Read and write access is required on  the  device
          node,  an  exclusive open is attempted on the node to mark the connection line as busy.
          An optional parameter is allowed consisting of a comma separated list of flags  in  the
          notation used by stty(1):

                 Usually  300,  1200, 9600 or 19200. This affects transmission as well as receive

          cs8 or cs7
                 Specify the transmission of eight (or seven) bits per byte.

          ixon or -ixon
                 Enables (or disables) software flow-control (CTRL-S/CTRL-Q) for sending data.

          ixoff or -ixoff
                 Enables (or disables) software flow-control for receiving data.

          istrip or -istrip
                 Clear (or keep) the eight bit in each received byte.

          You may want to specify as many of these options  as  applicable.  Unspecified  options
          cause  the  terminal  driver  to make up the parameter values of the connection.  These
          values are system dependent and may be in defaults or  values  saved  from  a  previous

          For  tty  windows, the info command shows some of the modem control lines in the status
          line. These may include `RTS', `CTS', 'DTR', `DSR', `CD' and more.  This depends on the
          available ioctl()'s and system header files as well as the on the physical capabilities
          of the serial board.  Signals that are logical low (inactive) have their name  preceded
          by an exclamation mark (!), otherwise the signal is logical high (active).  Signals not
          supported by the hardware but available to the ioctl() interface are usually shown low.
          When the CLOCAL status bit is true, the whole set of modem  signals  is  placed  inside
          curly  braces ({ and }).  When the CRTSCTS or TIOCSOFTCAR bit is set, the signals `CTS'
          or `CD' are shown in parenthesis, respectively.

          For tty windows, the command break causes the Data transmission line (TxD)  to  go  low
          for  a  specified period of time. This is expected to be interpreted as break signal on
          the other side.  No data is sent and no modem control line is changed when a  break  is

       ·  If  the  first  parameter  is "//telnet", the second parameter is expected to be a host
          name, and an optional third parameter may specify a TCP port  number  (default  decimal
          23).   Screen  will connect to a server listening on the remote host and use the telnet
          protocol to communicate with that server.
          For telnet windows, the command info shows  details  about  the  connection  in  square
          brackets ([ and ]) at the end of the status line.

          b      BINARY. The connection is in binary mode.

          e      ECHO. Local echo is disabled.

          c      SGA. The connection is in `character mode' (default: `line mode').

          t      TTYPE.  The  terminal  type has been requested by the remote host.  Screen sends
                 the name "screen" unless instructed otherwise (see also the command `term').

          w      NAWS. The remote site is notified about window size changes.

          f      LFLOW. The remote host will send flow  control  information.   (Ignored  at  the

          Additional flags for debugging are x, t and n (XDISPLOC, TSPEED and NEWENV).

          For  telnet windows, the command break sends the telnet code IAC BREAK (decimal 243) to
          the remote host.

          This window type is only available if  screen  was  compiled  with  the  BUILTIN_TELNET
          option defined.


       Screen  provides  an  escape  mechanism  to  insert information like the current time into
       messages or file names. The escape character is  '%'  with  one  exception:  inside  of  a
       window's hardstatus '^%' ('^E') is used instead.

       Here is the full list of supported escapes:

       %      the escape character itself

       a      either 'am' or 'pm'

       A      either 'AM' or 'PM'

       c      current time HH:MM in 24h format

       C      current time HH:MM in 12h format

       d      day number

       D      weekday name

       f      flags of the window

       F      sets %? to true if the window has the focus

       h      hardstatus of the window

       H      hostname of the system

       l      current load of the system

       m      month number

       M      month name

       n      window number

       s      seconds

       t      window title

       u      all other users on this window

       w      all  window  numbers  and names. With '-' qualifier: up to the current window; with
              '+' qualifier: starting with the window after the current one.

       W      all window numbers and names except the current one

       y      last two digits of the year number

       Y      full year number

       ?      the part to the next '%?' is displayed only if a '%' escape inside the part expands
              to a non-empty string

       :      else part of '%?'

       =      pad the string to the display's width (like TeX's hfill). If a number is specified,
              pad to the percentage of the window's width.  A '0' qualifier tells screen to treat
              the  number  as  absolute  position.   You  can specify to pad relative to the last
              absolute pad position by adding a '+' qualifier or to pad  relative  to  the  right
              margin  by  using  '-'.  The padding truncates the string if the specified position
              lies before the current position. Add the 'L' qualifier to change this.

       <      same as '%=' but just do truncation, do not fill with spaces

       >      mark the current text position for the next truncation. When  screen  needs  to  do
              truncation,  it  tries to do it in a way that the marked position gets moved to the
              specified percentage of the output area. (The area starts from  the  last  absolute
              pad  position and ends with the position specified by the truncation operator.) The
              'L' qualifier tells screen to mark the truncated parts with '...'.

       {      attribute/color modifier string terminated by the next "}"

       `      Substitute with the output of a 'backtick' command. The length qualifier is misused
              to identify one of the commands.

       The  'c'  and  'C'  escape  may be qualified with a '0' to make screen use zero instead of
       space as fill character. The  '0'  qualifier  also  makes  the  '='  escape  use  absolute
       positions. The 'n' and '=' escapes understand a length qualifier (e.g. '%3n'), 'D' and 'M'
       can be prefixed with 'L' to generate long names, 'w' and 'W' also show the window flags if
       'L' is given.

       An attribute/color modifier is is used to change the attributes or the color settings. Its
       format is "[attribute modifier] [color  description]".  The  attribute  modifier  must  be
       prefixed  by  a  change type indicator if it can be confused with a color description. The
       following change types are known:

       +      add the specified set to the current attributes

       -      remove the set from the current attributes

       !      invert the set in the current attributes

       =      change the current attributes to the specified set

       The attribute set can either be specified as a hexadecimal number or a combination of  the
       following letters:

       d      dim
       u      underline
       b      bold
       r      reverse
       s      standout
       B      blinking

       Colors  are  coded  either  as  a hexadecimal number or two letters specifying the desired
       background and foreground color (in that order). The following colors are known:

       k      black
       r      red
       g      green
       y      yellow
       b      blue
       m      magenta
       c      cyan
       w      white
       d      default color
       .      leave color unchanged

       The capitalized versions of the letter specify bright colors. You can also use the pseudo-
       color 'i' to set just the brightness and leave the color unchanged.
       A  one  digit/letter  color  description  is  treated  as  foreground  or background color
       dependent on the current attributes: if reverse mode  is  set,  the  background  color  is
       changed  instead of the foreground color.  If you don't like this, prefix the color with a
       ".". If you want the same behavior for two-letter color  descriptions,  also  prefix  them
       with a ".".
       As a special case, "%{-}" restores the attributes and colors that were set before the last
       change was made (i.e., pops one level of the color-change stack).


       "G"    set color to bright green

       "+b r" use bold red

       "= yd" clear all attributes, write in default color on yellow background.

       %-Lw%{= BW}%50>%n%f* %t%{-}%+Lw%<
              The available windows centered at the current window and truncated to the available
              width.  The  current  window  is  displayed  white  on blue.  This can be used with
              "hardstatus alwayslastline".

       %?%F%{.R.}%?%3n %t%? [%h]%?
              The window number and title and the window's hardstatus, if one is set.  Also use a
              red background if this is the active focus. Useful for "caption string".


       Each  window  has a flow-control setting that determines how screen deals with the XON and
       XOFF characters (and perhaps the interrupt character).  When flow-control is  turned  off,
       screen  ignores  the  XON  and  XOFF characters, which allows the user to send them to the
       current program by simply typing them (useful for the emacs editor,  for  instance).   The
       trade-off  is  that  it  will  take  longer for output from a "normal" program to pause in
       response to an XOFF.  With flow-control turned on, XON and XOFF  characters  are  used  to
       immediately  pause  the output of the current window.  You can still send these characters
       to the current program, but you must use the  appropriate  two-character  screen  commands
       (typically  "C-a  q" (xon) and "C-a s" (xoff)).  The xon/xoff commands are also useful for
       typing C-s and C-q past a terminal that intercepts these characters.

       Each window has an initial flow-control value  set  with  either  the  -f  option  or  the
       "defflow"  .screenrc command. Per default the windows are set to automatic flow-switching.
       It can then be toggled between the three states 'fixed on', 'fixed  off'  and  'automatic'
       interactively with the "flow" command bound to "C-a f".

       The  automatic  flow-switching  mode  deals with flow control using the TIOCPKT mode (like
       "rlogin" does). If the tty driver does not support TIOCPKT, screen tries to find  out  the
       right  mode  based  on the current setting of the application keypad - when it is enabled,
       flow-control is turned off and visa versa.  Of course,  you  can  still  manipulate  flow-
       control manually when needed.

       If  you're  running  with  flow-control  enabled  and find that pressing the interrupt key
       (usually C-c) does not interrupt the display until another 6-8 lines have scrolled by, try
       running screen with the "interrupt" option (add the "interrupt" flag to the "flow" command
       in your .screenrc, or use the -i command-line option).  This causes the output that screen
       has  accumulated from the interrupted program to be flushed.  One disadvantage is that the
       virtual terminal's memory contains the non-flushed version of the output,  which  in  rare
       cases  can cause minor inaccuracies in the output.  For example, if you switch screens and
       return, or update the screen with "C-a l" you would see the  version  of  the  output  you
       would  have  gotten  without "interrupt" being on.  Also, you might need to turn off flow-
       control (or use auto-flow mode to turn it off automatically) when running a  program  that
       expects  you  to type the interrupt character as input, as it is possible to interrupt the
       output of the virtual terminal to your physical terminal when flow-control is enabled.  If
       this happens, a simple refresh of the screen with "C-a l" will restore it.  Give each mode
       a try, and use whichever mode you find more comfortable.

TITLES (naming windows)

       You can customize each window's name in the window  display  (viewed  with  the  "windows"
       command  (C-a  w))  by  setting  it  with  one  of  the title commands.  Normally the name
       displayed is the actual command name of the program created in the window.  However, it is
       sometimes  useful  to  distinguish various programs of the same name or to change the name
       on-the-fly to reflect the current state of the window.

       The default name for all shell windows can be set with the  "shelltitle"  command  in  the
       .screenrc  file,  while all other windows are created with a "screen" command and thus can
       have their name set with the -t option.  Interactively, there is the title-string  escape-
       sequence  (<esc>kname<esc>\)  and  the  "title" command (C-a A).  The former can be output
       from an application to control the window's name under software control,  and  the  latter
       will  prompt  for a name when typed.  You can also bind pre-defined names to keys with the
       "title" command to set things quickly without prompting.

       Finally, screen has a shell-specific heuristic that is enabled  by  setting  the  window's
       name  to "search|name" and arranging to have a null title escape-sequence output as a part
       of your prompt.  The search portion specifies an end-of-prompt search  string,  while  the
       name  portion  specifies the default shell name for the window.  If the name ends in a `:'
       screen will add what it believes to be the current command running in the  window  to  the
       end  of  the  window's  shell  name (e.g. "name:cmd").  Otherwise the current command name
       supersedes the shell name while it is running.

       Here's how it works:  you must modify your shell prompt to  output  a  null  title-escape-
       sequence  (<esc>k<esc>\)  as  a part of your prompt.  The last part of your prompt must be
       the same as the string you specified for the search portion of the title.   Once  this  is
       set  up,  screen will use the title-escape-sequence to clear the previous command name and
       get ready for the next command.  Then, when a newline is received from the shell, a search
       is  made  for  the  end  of  the  prompt.  If found, it will grab the first word after the
       matched string and use it as the command name.  If the command  name  begins  with  either
       '!',  '%',  or  '^'  screen  will  use  the first word on the following line (if found) in
       preference to the just-found name.  This helps csh users get  better  command  names  when
       using job control or history recall commands.

       Here's some .screenrc examples:

              screen -t top 2 nice top

       Adding  this  line  to your .screenrc would start a nice-d version of the "top" command in
       window 2 named "top" rather than "nice".

                   shelltitle '> |csh'
                   screen 1

       These commands would start a shell with the given shelltitle.  The title specified  is  an
       auto-title  that  would expect the prompt and the typed command to look something like the

              /usr/joe/src/dir> trn

       (it looks after the '> ' for the command name).  The window status  would  show  the  name
       "trn" while the command was running, and revert to "csh" upon completion.

              bind R screen -t '% |root:' su

       Having  this  command  in  your  .screenrc would bind the key sequence "C-a R" to the "su"
       command and give it an auto-title name of "root:".   For  this  auto-title  to  work,  the
       screen could look something like this:

                   % !em
                   emacs file.c

       Here the user typed the csh history command "!em" which ran the previously entered "emacs"
       command.  The window status would show "root:emacs" during the execution of  the  command,
       and revert to simply "root:" at its completion.

                   bind o title
                   bind E title ""
                   bind u title (unknown)

       The first binding doesn't have any arguments, so it would prompt you for a title. when you
       type "C-a o".  The second binding would clear an auto-title's  current  setting  (C-a  E).
       The third binding would set the current window's title to "(unknown)" (C-a u).

       One  thing to keep in mind when adding a null title-escape-sequence to your prompt is that
       some shells (like the csh) count all the non-control characters as part  of  the  prompt's
       length.   If these invisible characters aren't a multiple of 8 then backspacing over a tab
       will result in an incorrect display.  One way to get around this is to use a  prompt  like

              set prompt='^[[0000m^[k^[\% '

       The  escape-sequence  "<esc>[0000m"  not only normalizes the character attributes, but all
       the zeros round the length of the invisible characters up to 8.  Bash users will  probably
       want to echo the escape sequence in the PROMPT_COMMAND:

              PROMPT_COMMAND='echo -n -e "\033k\033\134"'

       (I used "134" to output a `\' because of a bug in bash v1.04).


       Each  window  in  a  screen  session  emulates a VT100 terminal, with some extra functions
       added. The VT100 emulator is hard-coded, no other terminal types can be emulated.
       Usually screen tries to emulate as much of the VT100/ANSI standard  as  possible.  But  if
       your  terminal  lacks  certain  capabilities,  the emulation may not be complete. In these
       cases screen has to tell the applications that some of the features are missing.  This  is
       no  problem  on  machines  using  termcap, because screen can use the $TERMCAP variable to
       customize the standard screen termcap.

       But if you do a rlogin on another machine or your  machine  supports  only  terminfo  this
       method  fails. Because of this, screen offers a way to deal with these cases.  Here is how
       it works:

       When screen tries to figure out a terminal name for itself, it first looks  for  an  entry
       named  "screen.<term>",  where  <term> is the contents of your $TERM variable.  If no such
       entry exists, screen tries "screen" (or "screen-w" if the terminal is wide  (132  cols  or
       more)).  If even this entry cannot be found, "vt100" is used as a substitute.

       The  idea  is that if you have a terminal which doesn't support an important feature (e.g.
       delete char or clear to EOS) you can build a new termcap/terminfo entry for screen  (named
       "screen.<dumbterm>")  in  which  this  capability  has  been  disabled.  If  this entry is
       installed on your machines you are able  to  do  a  rlogin  and  still  keep  the  correct
       termcap/terminfo  entry.   The  terminal  name  is  put  in  the $TERM variable of all new
       windows.  Screen also sets the  $TERMCAP  variable  reflecting  the  capabilities  of  the
       virtual  terminal  emulated. Notice that, however, on machines using the terminfo database
       this variable has no effect.  Furthermore, the variable  $WINDOW  is  set  to  the  window
       number of each window.

       The  actual  set  of  capabilities  supported  by  the  virtual  terminal  depends  on the
       capabilities supported by the physical terminal.  If, for instance, the physical  terminal
       does  not support underscore mode, screen does not put the `us' and `ue' capabilities into
       the window's $TERMCAP variable, accordingly.  However, a minimum  number  of  capabilities
       must  be  supported  by a terminal in order to run screen; namely scrolling, clear screen,
       and direct cursor addressing (in addition, screen does not run on hardcopy terminals or on
       terminals that over-strike).

       Also, you can customize the $TERMCAP value used by screen by using the "termcap" .screenrc
       command, or by defining the variable $SCREENCAP prior to  startup.   When  the  is  latter
       defined, its value will be copied verbatim into each window's $TERMCAP variable.  This can
       either be the full terminal definition, or a filename where the terminal "screen"  (and/or
       "screen-w") is defined.

       Note  that  screen honors the "terminfo" .screenrc command if the system uses the terminfo
       database rather than termcap.

       When the boolean `G0' capability is present in the termcap entry for the terminal on which
       screen has been called, the terminal emulation of screen supports multiple character sets.
       This allows an application to make use of, for instance, the VT100 graphics character  set
       or  national character sets.  The following control functions from ISO 2022 are supported:
       lock shift G0 (SI), lock shift G1 (SO), lock shift G2, lock shift G3, single shift G2, and
       single  shift G3.  When a virtual terminal is created or reset, the ASCII character set is
       designated as G0 through G3.  When the `G0' capability is present,  screen  evaluates  the
       capabilities  `S0',  `E0',  and `C0' if present. `S0' is the sequence the terminal uses to
       enable and start the graphics character set rather than SI.   `E0'  is  the  corresponding
       replacement  for  SO.  `C0' gives a character by character translation string that is used
       during semi-graphics mode. This string is built like the `acsc' terminfo capability.

       When the `po'  and  `pf'  capabilities  are  present  in  the  terminal's  termcap  entry,
       applications  running  in  a  screen  window  can  send  output to the printer port of the
       terminal.  This allows a user to have an application in one window  sending  output  to  a
       printer  connected  to the terminal, while all other windows are still active (the printer
       port is enabled and disabled again for each chunk of output).  As a side-effect,  programs
       running  in different windows can send output to the printer simultaneously.  Data sent to
       the printer is not displayed in the window.  The info command  displays  a  line  starting
       `PRIN' while the printer is active.

       Screen  maintains  a  hardstatus  line  for  every  window. If a window gets selected, the
       display's hardstatus will be updated to match the window's hardstatus line. If the display
       has no hardstatus the line will be displayed as a standard screen message.  The hardstatus
       line can be changed with the ANSI Application Program Command  (APC):  "ESC_<string>ESC\".
       As a convenience for xterm users the sequence "ESC]0..2;<string>^G" is also accepted.

       Some  capabilities are only put into the $TERMCAP variable of the virtual terminal if they
       can be efficiently implemented by the physical terminal.  For instance, `dl' (delete line)
       is  only put into the $TERMCAP variable if the terminal supports either delete line itself
       or scrolling regions. Note that this may provoke confusion, when the session is reattached
       on a different terminal, as the value of $TERMCAP cannot be modified by parent processes.

       The  "alternate screen" capability is not enabled by default.  Set the altscreen .screenrc
       command to enable it.

       The following is a list of control  sequences  recognized  by  screen.   "(V)"  and  "(A)"
       indicate VT100-specific and ANSI- or ISO-specific functions, respectively.

       ESC E                      Next Line

       ESC D                      Index

       ESC M                      Reverse Index

       ESC H                      Horizontal Tab Set

       ESC Z                      Send VT100 Identification String

       ESC 7                 (V)  Save Cursor and Attributes

       ESC 8                 (V)  Restore Cursor and Attributes

       ESC [s                (A)  Save Cursor and Attributes

       ESC [u                (A)  Restore Cursor and Attributes

       ESC c                      Reset to Initial State

       ESC g                      Visual Bell

       ESC Pn p                   Cursor Visibility (97801)

           Pn = 6                 Invisible

                7                 Visible

       ESC =                 (V)  Application Keypad Mode

       ESC >                 (V)  Numeric Keypad Mode

       ESC # 8               (V)  Fill Screen with E's

       ESC \                 (A)  String Terminator

       ESC ^                 (A)  Privacy Message String (Message Line)

       ESC !                      Global Message String (Message Line)

       ESC k                      A.k.a. Definition String

       ESC P                 (A)  Device  Control  String.  Outputs a string directly to the host
                                  terminal without interpretation.

       ESC _                 (A)  Application Program Command (Hardstatus)

       ESC ] 0 ; string ^G   (A)  Operating System Command (Hardstatus, xterm title hack)

       ESC ] 83 ; cmd ^G     (A)  Execute screen command. This only works if  multi-user  support
                                  is  compiled into screen. The pseudo-user ":window:" is used to
                                  check the access control list. Use "addacl :window: -rwx #?" to
                                  create  a  user  with  no  rights  and  allow  only  the needed

       Control-N             (A)  Lock Shift G1 (SO)

       Control-O             (A)  Lock Shift G0 (SI)

       ESC n                 (A)  Lock Shift G2

       ESC o                 (A)  Lock Shift G3

       ESC N                 (A)  Single Shift G2

       ESC O                 (A)  Single Shift G3

       ESC ( Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G0

       ESC ) Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G1

       ESC * Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G2

       ESC + Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G3

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn H            Direct Cursor Addressing

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn f            same as above

       ESC [ Pn J                 Erase in Display

             Pn = None or 0       From Cursor to End of Screen

                  1               From Beginning of Screen to Cursor

                  2               Entire Screen

       ESC [ Pn K                 Erase in Line

             Pn = None or 0       From Cursor to End of Line

                  1               From Beginning of Line to Cursor

                  2               Entire Line

       ESC [ Pn X                 Erase character

       ESC [ Pn A                 Cursor Up

       ESC [ Pn B                 Cursor Down

       ESC [ Pn C                 Cursor Right

       ESC [ Pn D                 Cursor Left

       ESC [ Pn E                 Cursor next line

       ESC [ Pn F                 Cursor previous line

       ESC [ Pn G                 Cursor horizontal position

       ESC [ Pn `                 same as above

       ESC [ Pn d                 Cursor vertical position

       ESC [ Ps ;...; Ps m        Select Graphic Rendition

             Ps = None or 0       Default Rendition

                  1               Bold

                  2          (A)  Faint

                  3          (A)  Standout Mode (ANSI: Italicized)

                  4               Underlined

                  5               Blinking

                  7               Negative Image

                  22         (A)  Normal Intensity

                  23         (A)  Standout Mode off (ANSI: Italicized off)

                  24         (A)  Not Underlined

                  25         (A)  Not Blinking

                  27         (A)  Positive Image

                  30         (A)  Foreground Black

                  31         (A)  Foreground Red

                  32         (A)  Foreground Green

                  33         (A)  Foreground Yellow

                  34         (A)  Foreground Blue

                  35         (A)  Foreground Magenta

                  36         (A)  Foreground Cyan

                  37         (A)  Foreground White

                  39         (A)  Foreground Default

                  40         (A)  Background Black

                  ...             ...

                  49         (A)  Background Default

       ESC [ Pn g                 Tab Clear

             Pn = None or 0       Clear Tab at Current Position

                  3               Clear All Tabs

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn r       (V)  Set Scrolling Region

       ESC [ Pn I            (A)  Horizontal Tab

       ESC [ Pn Z            (A)  Backward Tab

       ESC [ Pn L            (A)  Insert Line

       ESC [ Pn M            (A)  Delete Line

       ESC [ Pn @            (A)  Insert Character

       ESC [ Pn P            (A)  Delete Character

       ESC [ Pn S                 Scroll Scrolling Region Up

       ESC [ Pn T                 Scroll Scrolling Region Down

       ESC [ Pn ^                 same as above

       ESC [ Ps ;...; Ps h        Set Mode

       ESC [ Ps ;...; Ps l        Reset Mode

             Ps = 4          (A)  Insert Mode

                  20         (A)  Automatic Linefeed Mode

                  34              Normal Cursor Visibility

                  ?1         (V)  Application Cursor Keys

                  ?3         (V)  Change Terminal Width to 132 columns

                  ?5         (V)  Reverse Video

                  ?6         (V)  Origin Mode

                  ?7         (V)  Wrap Mode

                  ?9              X10 mouse tracking

                  ?25        (V)  Visible Cursor

                  ?47             Alternate Screen (old xterm code)

                  ?1000      (V)  VT200 mouse tracking

                  ?1047           Alternate Screen (new xterm code)

                  ?1049           Alternate Screen (new xterm code)

       ESC [ 5 i             (A)  Start relay to printer (ANSI Media Copy)

       ESC [ 4 i             (A)  Stop relay to printer (ANSI Media Copy)

       ESC [ 8 ; Ph ; Pw t        Resize the window to  `Ph'  lines  and  `Pw'  columns  (SunView

       ESC [ c                    Send VT100 Identification String

       ESC [ x                    Send Terminal Parameter Report

       ESC [ > c                  Send VT220 Secondary Device Attributes String

       ESC [ 6 n                  Send Cursor Position Report


       In  order  to do a full VT100 emulation screen has to detect that a sequence of characters
       in the input stream was generated by a keypress on the  user's  keyboard  and  insert  the
       VT100  style  escape  sequence.  Screen has a very flexible way of doing this by making it
       possible to map arbitrary commands on arbitrary  sequences  of  characters.  For  standard
       VT100  emulation the command will always insert a string in the input buffer of the window
       (see also command stuff in the command table).   Because  the  sequences  generated  by  a
       keypress  can  change  after  a reattach from a different terminal type, it is possible to
       bind commands to the termcap name of the keys.  Screen will  insert  the  correct  binding
       after  each  reattach.  See  the  bindkey  command  for  further details on the syntax and

       Here is the table of the default key bindings. (A) means that the command is  executed  if
       the keyboard is switched into application mode.

       Key name          Termcap name    Command
       Cursor up             ku          stuff \033[A
                                         stuff \033OA    (A)
       Cursor down           kd          stuff \033[B
                                         stuff \033OB    (A)
       Cursor right          kr          stuff \033[C
                                         stuff \033OC    (A)
       Cursor left           kl          stuff \033[D
                                         stuff \033OD    (A)
       Function key 0        k0          stuff \033[10~
       Function key 1        k1          stuff \033OP
       Function key 2        k2          stuff \033OQ
       Function key 3        k3          stuff \033OR
       Function key 4        k4          stuff \033OS
       Function key 5        k5          stuff \033[15~
       Function key 6        k6          stuff \033[17~
       Function key 7        k7          stuff \033[18~
       Function key 8        k8          stuff \033[19~
       Function key 9        k9          stuff \033[20~
       Function key 10       k;          stuff \033[21~
       Function key 11       F1          stuff \033[23~
       Function key 12       F2          stuff \033[24~
       Home                  kh          stuff \033[1~
       End                   kH          stuff \033[4~
       Insert                kI          stuff \033[2~
       Delete                kD          stuff \033[3~
       Page up               kP          stuff \033[5~
       Page down             kN          stuff \033[6~
       Keypad 0              f0          stuff 0
                                         stuff \033Op    (A)
       Keypad 1              f1          stuff 1
                                         stuff \033Oq    (A)
       Keypad 2              f2          stuff 2
                                         stuff \033Or    (A)
       Keypad 3              f3          stuff 3
                                         stuff \033Os    (A)
       Keypad 4              f4          stuff 4
                                         stuff \033Ot    (A)
       Keypad 5              f5          stuff 5
                                         stuff \033Ou    (A)
       Keypad 6              f6          stuff 6
                                         stuff \033Ov    (A)
       Keypad 7              f7          stuff 7
                                         stuff \033Ow    (A)
       Keypad 8              f8          stuff 8
                                         stuff \033Ox    (A)
       Keypad 9              f9          stuff 9
                                         stuff \033Oy    (A)
       Keypad +              f+          stuff +
                                         stuff \033Ok    (A)
       Keypad -              f-          stuff -
                                         stuff \033Om    (A)
       Keypad *              f*          stuff *
                                         stuff \033Oj    (A)
       Keypad /              f/          stuff /
                                         stuff \033Oo    (A)
       Keypad =              fq          stuff =
                                         stuff \033OX    (A)
       Keypad .              f.          stuff .
                                         stuff \033On    (A)
       Keypad ,              f,          stuff ,
                                         stuff \033Ol    (A)
       Keypad enter          fe          stuff \015
                                         stuff \033OM    (A)


       The  following table describes all terminal capabilities that are recognized by screen and
       are not in the termcap(5) manual.  You  can  place  these  capabilities  in  your  termcap
       entries  (in  `/etc/termcap')  or  use  them  with  the commands `termcap', `terminfo' and
       `termcapinfo' in your screenrc files. It is often not possible to place these capabilities
       in the terminfo database.

       LP   (bool)  Terminal has VT100 style margins (`magic margins'). Note that this capability
                    is obsolete because screen uses the standard 'xn' instead.

       Z0   (str)   Change width to 132 columns.

       Z1   (str)   Change width to 80 columns.

       WS   (str)   Resize  display.  This  capability  has  the  desired  width  and  height  as
                    arguments. SunView(tm) example: '\E[8;%d;%dt'.

       NF   (bool)  Terminal doesn't need flow control. Send ^S and ^Q direct to the application.
                    Same as 'flow off'. The opposite of this capability is 'nx'.

       G0   (bool)  Terminal can deal with ISO 2022 font selection sequences.

       S0   (str)   Switch charset 'G0' to the specified charset. Default is '\E(%.'.

       E0   (str)   Switch charset 'G0' back to standard charset. Default is '\E(B'.

       C0   (str)   Use the string as a conversion table for font '0'. See  the  'ac'  capability
                    for more details.

       CS   (str)   Switch cursor-keys to application mode.

       CE   (str)   Switch cursor-keys back to normal mode.

       AN   (bool)  Turn on autonuke. See the 'autonuke' command for more details.

       OL   (num)   Set the output buffer limit. See the 'obuflimit' command for more details.

       KJ   (str)   Set  the  encoding  of  the  terminal.  See  the 'encoding' command for valid

       AF   (str)   Change character foreground color in an ANSI  conform  way.  This  capability
                    will almost always be set to '\E[3%dm' ('\E[3%p1%dm' on terminfo machines).

       AB   (str)   Same as 'AF', but change background color.

       AX   (bool)  Does understand ANSI set default fg/bg color (\E[39m / \E[49m).

       XC   (str)   Describe  a  translation  of  characters  to strings depending on the current
                    font. More details follow in the next section.

       XT   (bool)  Terminal understands special xterm sequences (OSC, mouse tracking).

       C8   (bool)  Terminal needs bold to display high-intensity colors (e.g. Eterm).

       TF   (bool)  Add missing capabilities to the termcap/info entry. (Set by default).


       Screen has a powerful mechanism to translate characters to arbitrary strings depending  on
       the  current  font  and terminal type.  Use this feature if you want to work with a common
       standard character set (say ISO8851-latin1)  even  on  terminals  that  scatter  the  more
       unusual characters over several national language font pages.

           <charset-mapping> := <designator><template>{,<mapping>}
           <mapping> := <char-to-be-mapped><template-arg>

       The things in braces may be repeated any number of times.

       A  <charset-mapping>  tells screen how to map characters in font <designator> ('B': Ascii,
       'A': UK, 'K': German, etc.)  to strings. Every <mapping> describes to what string a single
       character  will be translated. A template mechanism is used, as most of the time the codes
       have a lot in common (for example strings to switch to and  from  another  charset).  Each
       occurrence  of  '%'  in  <template>  gets  substituted  with  the <template-arg> specified
       together with the character. If your strings are not similar at all, then  use  '%'  as  a
       template  and  place  the  full string in <template-arg>. A quoting mechanism was added to
       make it possible to use a real '%'. The '\' character quotes the special  characters  '\',
       '%', and ','.

       Here is an example:

           termcap hp700 'XC=B\E(K%\E(B,\304[,\326\\\\,\334]'

       This tells screen how to translate ISOlatin1 (charset 'B') upper case umlaut characters on
       a hp700 terminal that has a German charset. '\304' gets translated to '\E(K[\E(B'  and  so
       on.   Note  that  this  line gets parsed *three* times before the internal lookup table is
       built, therefore a lot of quoting is needed to create a single '\'.

       Another extension was added to allow more emulation: If a mapping translates the  unquoted
       '%'  char,  it  will be sent to the terminal whenever screen switches to the corresponding
       <designator>. In this special case the template is assumed to  be  just  '%'  because  the
       charset switch sequence and the character mappings normally haven't much in common.

       This example shows one use of the extension:

           termcap xterm 'XC=K%,%\E(B,[\304,\\\\\326,]\334'

       Here, a part of the German ('K') charset is emulated on an xterm.  If screen has to change
       to the 'K' charset, '\E(B' will be sent to the terminal, i.e. the ASCII  charset  is  used
       instead.  The  template is just '%', so the mapping is straightforward: '[' to '\304', '\'
       to '\326', and ']' to '\334'.


       COLUMNS        Number of columns on the terminal (overrides termcap entry).
       HOME           Directory in which to look for .screenrc.
       LINES          Number of lines on the terminal (overrides termcap entry).
       LOCKPRG        Screen lock program.
       NETHACKOPTIONS Turns on nethack option.
       PATH           Used for locating programs to run.
       SCREENCAP      For customizing a terminal's TERMCAP value.
       SCREENDIR      Alternate socket directory.
       SCREENRC       Alternate user screenrc file.
       SHELL          Default shell program for opening windows (default "/bin/sh").
       STY            Alternate socket name.
       SYSSCREENRC    Alternate system screenrc file.
       TERM           Terminal name.
       TERMCAP        Terminal description.
       WINDOW         Window number of a window (at creation time).


       .../screen-4.?.??/etc/etcscreenrc Examples in the screen distribution package for  private
                                         and global initialization files.
       /etc/screenrc                     screen initialization commands
       $HOME/.screenrc                   Read in after /etc/screenrc
       /var/run/screen/S-<login>         Socket directories (default)
       /usr/tmp/screens/S-<login>        Alternate socket directories.
       <socket directory>/.termcap       Written by the "termcap" output function
       /usr/tmp/screens/screen-exchange  or
       /tmp/screen-exchange              screen `interprocess communication buffer'
       hardcopy.[0-9]                    Screen images created by the hardcopy function
       screenlog.[0-9]                   Output log files created by the log function
       /usr/lib/terminfo/?/*             or
       /etc/termcap                      Terminal capability databases
       /var/run/utmp                     Login records
       $LOCKPRG                          Program that locks a terminal.


       termcap(5), utmp(5), vi(1), captoinfo(1), tic(1)


       Originally  created  by Oliver Laumann, this latest version was produced by Wayne Davison,
       Juergen Weigert and Michael Schroeder.


       Copyright (C) 1993-2003
            Juergen Weigert (
            Michael Schroeder (
       Copyright (C) 1987 Oliver Laumann
       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of
       the  GNU  General  Public  License  as  published  by the Free Software Foundation; either
       version 2, or (at your option) any later version.
       This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY  WARRANTY;
       without  even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
       See the GNU General Public License for more details.
       You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this  program
       (see  the  file  COPYING);  if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple
       Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307, USA


       Ken Beal (,
       Rudolf Koenig (,
       Toerless Eckert (,
       Wayne Davison (,
       Patrick Wolfe (, kailand!pat),
       Bart Schaefer (,
       Nathan Glasser (,
       Larry W. Virden (,
       Howard Chu (,
       Tim MacKenzie (,
       Markku Jarvinen (mta@{cc,cs,ee},
       Marc Boucher (marc@CAM.ORG),
       Doug Siebert (,
       Ken Stillson (,
       Ian Frechett (frechett@spot.Colorado.EDU),
       Brian Koehmstedt (,
       Don Smith (,
       Frank van der Linden (,
       Martin Schweikert (,
       David Vrona (,
       E. Tye McQueen (,
       Matthew Green (,
       Christopher Williams (,
       Matt Mosley (,
       Gregory Neil Shapiro (gshapiro@wpi.WPI.EDU),
       Johannes Zellner (,
       Pablo Averbuj (


       This is version 4.0.2. Its roots are a merge of a custom version 2.3PR7 by  Wayne  Davison
       and  several enhancements to Oliver Laumann's version 2.0. Note that all versions numbered
       2.x are copyright by Oliver Laumann.


       The latest official release of screen available via anonymous  ftp  from,  or  any  other  GNU  distribution  site. The home site of screen is ftp.uni-, in the directory pub/utilities/screen. The  subdirectory  `private'  contains
       the  latest  beta  testing  release.  If  you  want  to  help,  send a note to screen@uni-


       ·  `dm' (delete mode) and `xs' are not handled  correctly  (they  are  ignored).  `xn'  is
          treated as a magic-margin indicator.

       ·  Screen  has  no clue about double-high or double-wide characters.  But this is the only
          area where vttest is allowed to fail.

       ·  It is not possible to change the environment variable $TERMCAP when reattaching under a
          different terminal type.

       ·  The  support  of  terminfo  based systems is very limited. Adding extra capabilities to
          $TERMCAP may not have any effects.

       ·  Screen does not make use of hardware tabs.

       ·  Screen must be installed as set-uid with owner root on most systems in order to be able
          to  correctly  change  the  owner  of  the  tty  device  file for each window.  Special
          permission may also be required to write the file "/var/run/utmp".

       ·  Entries in "/var/run/utmp" are not removed when screen is killed  with  SIGKILL.   This
          will cause some programs (like "w" or "rwho") to advertise that a user is logged on who
          really isn't.

       ·  Screen may give a strange warning when your tty has no utmp entry.

       ·  When the modem line was hung up, screen may not automatically detach (or  quit)  unless
          the  device  driver  is configured to send a HANGUP signal.  To detach a screen session
          use the -D or -d command line option.

       ·  If a password is set, the command line options -d and -D still detach a session without

       ·  Both  "breaktype"  and  "defbreaktype"  change  the break generating method used by all
          terminal devices. The first should change a window specific setting, where  the  latter
          should change only the default for new windows.

       ·  When  attaching  to a multiuser session, the user's .screenrc file is not sourced. Each
          user's personal settings have to be included in  the  .screenrc  file  from  which  the
          session is booted, or have to be changed manually.

       ·  A weird imagination is most useful to gain full advantage of all the features.

       ·  Send  bug-reports,  fixes,  enhancements,  t-shirts, money, beer & pizza to screen@uni-