Provided by: lilo_23.2-2_amd64 bug


       lilo.conf - configuration file for lilo


       This  file,  by  default  /etc/lilo.conf, is read by the boot loader installer 'lilo' (see

       It might look as follows:

              # /etc/lilo.conf
              #  global options:
              menu-title=" John's Computer "
              ### bootable kernel images ###
              ### other operating systems ###
                   boot-as=0x80    # must be C:
                   boot-as=0x80    # must be C:

       This configuration file specifies that lilo uses the Master Boot Record on /dev/hda.  (For
       a  discussion  of  the  various ways to use lilo, and the interaction with other operating
       systems, see user.pdf from the lilo documentation.)

       When booting, the boot loader will issue its boot: prompt and wait for you  to  enter  the
       label  of  the  kernel  (and  any options) which you wish to boot. At any time you may hit
       [Tab] to see a list of kernel/other labels.  Alternately,  if  the  menu  boot  loader  is
       installed, a menu of boot options will be presented for your selection.  The title of this
       menu is overridden with the menu title specification in this configuration file.   If  you
       enter  nothing,  then  the  default  kernel  image,  the  first mentioned, (in the example
       /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.29-1-i386)  will  be  booted  after  a  timeout  of  15   seconds   (150
       deciseconds).  There  may  be at least 16 images mentioned in lilo.conf. (The exact number
       depends upon compilation options.)

       As can be seen above, a configuration file starts with a number of global options (the top
       9  lines  in the example), followed by descriptions of the options for the various images.
       An option in an image description will override a global option.

       Comment lines may appear anywhere, and begin with the "#" character.


       There are many possible keywords. The description below is almost literally from  user.pdf
       (just slightly abbreviated).

              Specifies  the location where a copy of any modified boot sector will be saved in a
              file. 'backup=' may specify this location in one of three ways: a  directory  where
              the  default  backup  file 'boot.NNNN' will be created; a file pathname template to
              which the '.NNNN' suffix will be added; or  the  full  file  pathname,  which  must
              include  the  correct  '.NNNN'  suffix.  All RAID installations should use only the
              first two alternatives, as multiple backups may be created.  The '.NNNN' suffix  is
              the  hexadecimal representation of the major and minor device numbers of the device
              or partition. If this option is not specified, the  default  name  of  boot  sector
              backups  is  '/boot/boot.NNNN'.  If  a backup already exists, it will be preserved,
              rather than overwritten.  C.f., force-backup= below.

              The option is indicated as yes, no, or unknown.   If  not  specified,  a  value  of
              "unknown"  is  assumed,  unless  additional  information  is  available to the boot
              installer. When "no" is specified, it indicates that the BIOS is known not to  pass
              the  current  boot  device  code  to  the boot loader in the DL register.  Its only
              function at this point is experimental, as certain RAID installations  may  benefit
              from  knowing  that  the  BIOS  is  100%  reliable.   Its  use should be considered

              This option may be specified on the command line with the '-Z' switch: yes=1, no=0.

              Specifies use of a 640x480x16 (VGA BIOS) or 640x480x256 (VGA/VESA BIOS) bitmap file
              as the background on which a boot menu is displayed.  May not be used if 'message='
              is specified.  Use of this option will select a bitmap-capable boot loader,  unless
              overridden with "install=" (see below).

              When a bitmap file is specified as a background screen during the boot process, the
              color selection and layout of the text which overlays the  graphic  image  must  be
              specified in one of two ways.

              One  way  is the use of header information in the bitmap image (*.bmp) file: From a
              text file with all the information about 'bmp-colors', 'bmp-table' and  'bmp-timer'
              options together with the 'bitmap' option are stored in the special LILO  header of
              the bitmap image file by the lilo -E  command.  Another  way  works  without  these
              special header information: All the information about 'bmp-colors', 'bmp-table' and
              'bmp-timer'  options  together  with  the  'bitmap'  option  are  stored   in   the
              configuration  file.   Any  use of the 'bmp-' options within the configuration file
              overrides the options stored in the bitmap file header. If lilo cannot find any  of
              the 'bmp-' options, then default values are used.

              Specifies  the  decimal  values  of the colors to be used for the menu display on a
              'bitmap=' background.  The list consists of 6 entries, 3 for normal  text  followed
              by  3  for  highlighted  text.   The  order  of  each  triple is: foreground color,
              background  color,  shadow  color.   If  background   color   is   not   specified,
              "transparent"  is  assumed.   If  shadow  color  is  not  specified, then "none" is
              assumed.  The list entries are separated by commas, with no spaces.

              Option applies to all 'image=' and 'other=' sections.  (See COMMON OPTIONS, below.)

              Specifies the location and layout of the menu table.  <x>,<y> specify the  starting
              x- and y-position of the upper left corner of the table in character coordinates: x
              in [1..80], y in [1..30]. <ncol> is the number of columns in the menu  (1..5);  and
              <nrow>  is the number of rows (entries) in each column.  If more than one column is
              specified, then <xsep> is the number of  character  columns  between  the  leftmost
              characters  in  each  column: (18..40), and <spill> is the number of entries in one
              column which must be filled before entries spill into the next column. <spill> must
              be  .le. <nrow>. If pixel addressing is used, instead of character addressing, then
              any of <x>, <y>, or <xsep> may be specified with a 'p' suffix on the decimal value.

              Optional specification of the 'timeout=' countdown timer.   <x>,<y>  specifies  the
              character  (or  pixel)  coordinate  of  the location of the timer the same as 'bmp-
              table=' above; and the color triple specifies the character  color  attributes  the
              same  as  'bmp-colors=' above, with the exception that the background color must be
              specified.  If used to override the timer specification in a bitmap file, then  the
              form  'bmp-timer  =  none'  is  acceptable.   This  will  disable the timer display

              Sets the name of the device (e.g. hard disk or partition) that  contains  the  boot
              sector  and where the new boot sector should be written to. Notice: The boot-device
              should be the device with the currently mounted root partition.

              A raid installation is initiated by specifying a RAID1 device as the  boot  device;
              e.g., "boot=/dev/md0".

              On  newer  systems  you  need  an unique ID for the boot device. If the boot sector
              should write to a partition you can use its UUID in the same manner is for the root

              If  your  boot  device  is a hard disk you need a special ID, which is supported by
              udev. You find the right ID in the directory /dev/disks/by-id, i. e.:

                  boot = /dev/disk/by-id/ata-SAMSUNG_SV1604N_S01FJ10X999999

              Defines boot-time changes to partition type numbers (`hiding').


              The above excerpt from a configuration file specifies that all default change-rules
              are  removed  ("reset"),  and  the  change-rules  for  three  partition  types  are
              specified.  Without the reset, the three types specified would have been  added  to
              the  existing  default  change-rules.   Normally, the default rules are sufficient.
              The strings which define the partition types are used  in  a  change  section  (see
              below),  with the suffixes "_normal" or "_hidden" appended.  See section "Partition
              type change rules" of user.pdf for more details.

              Tries to merge read requests for adjacent sectors into a single read request.  This
              drastically  reduces  load  time and keeps the map file smaller. Using `compact' is
              especially recommended when booting using a map file on a floppy disk.

              Uses the specified image as the default boot image. If `default'  is  omitted,  the
              image appearing first in the configuration file is used. See also, vmdefault below.

              Specifies  the  number  of  tenths  of  a second the boot loader should wait before
              automatically booting a locked command line, a command  line  pre-stored  by  "lilo
              -R",  or  the  default  `image='  or  `other='.  When `delay' is non-zero, the boot
              loader will wait for an interrupt for the specified interval. If  an  interrupt  is
              received,  or  is  already  waiting,  the  boot:  prompt  will be be issued, and no
              automatic boot will take place. The setting of CAPS LOCK or SCROLL LOCK, or any  of
              the keys ALT, CTRL, or SHIFT, when held down, are taken as interrupts.

              This action is modified by specifying `prompt' (see below).

              Defines  non-standard  parameters  for  the  specified  disk.   See  section  "Disk
              geometry" of user.pdf for details.  For versions of LILO prior to 22.5, the `bios='
              parameter  is quite useful for specifying how the BIOS has assigned device codes to
              your disks.  For example,


              would say that your SCSI disk is the first BIOS disk  (0x80),  that  your  (primary
              master)  IDE  disk  is  the second BIOS disk (0x81), and that your second SCSI disk
              (perhaps a USB device) receives no device code, and is  therefore  inaccessible  at
              boot time.

              NOTE:  Use  of  the  'bios=' option is largely obsolete beginning with LILO version
              22.5, as the boot loader now identifies disks by 32-bit Volume-ID, and defers  BIOS
              device code determination until boot time.

              Other options include the specification of disk geometry; e.g.,


              probably  only useful for floppy disks and loopback devices, because for hard disks
              the lba32 disk addressing option ignores disk geometry.

              Developers who have implemented a disk driver for a new block storage  device  will
              have  to  indicate to LILO the maximum number of partitions on the device.  This is
              in addition to making all of the necessary entries for the  device  in  the  "/dev"
              directory (with 'mknod').  The maximum number of partitions must be one of 63 (like
              an IDE disk), 31 (uncommon), 15 (like SCSI disks -- most common value), or 7  (like
              one array controller). An example specification would be:


              In  cases  where  there  is  no  kernel partition information available, such as on
              loopback  devices,  the  'disk='  specification  may   include   paritition   start
              information; viz.,

                          bios=0x80              # use this BIOS code
                          max-partitions=7       # declare partitionable
                               start=63          # offset from sector 0
                               start=102400      # offset from sector 0

              Specifies  the  name  of  the  disk  parameter  table.  The map installer looks for
              /etc/disktab if `disktab' is omitted. The use of disktabs is discouraged.

              Flag second stage loader to terminate disk emulation when booting from an El Torito
              Bootable CD. This option is used by the mkrescue utility when the "--iso" switch is

              This allows lilo to adjust 3D addresses in partition tables. Each  partition  entry
              contains a 3D (cylinder/head/sector) and a linear address of the first and the last
              sector of the partition. If a partition is not track-aligned and if  certain  other
              operating  systems (e.g. PC/MS-DOS) are using the same disk, they may change the 3D
              address. lilo can store its boot sector only on partitions where both address types
              correspond. lilo re-adjusts incorrect 3D start addresses if `fix-table' is set.

              WARNING:  This  does  not guarantee that other operating systems may not attempt to
              reset the address later. It is also possible that this change has other, unexpected
              side-effects. The correct fix is to re-partition the drive with a program that does
              align partitions to tracks. Also, with some disks (e.g. some large EIDE disks  with
              address  translation enabled), under some circumstances, it may even be unavoidable
              to have conflicting partition table entries.

              Operation is identical  to  backup=  above,  except  an  existing  backup  file  is
              unconditionally overwritten if it exists.

              Force  disk  addressing which is compatible with older versions of LILO.  Geometric
              addressing uses cylinder/head/sector addresses, and is limited to disk cylinders up
              to  1023.   If inaccessible cylinders are referenced, diagnostics will be issued at
              boot-install time, rather than boot-time.  With a newer BIOS,  use  of  'lba32'  is

              tells lilo to ignore corrupt partition tables.

              Selects  the  user interface which will be seen at boot time.  One of the following
              three options may be specified:  text, menu, or bmp. The traditional LILO interface
              is  `text';  but  `menu' is now the default, unless the configuration file contains
              the `bitmap='  specification.   The  text  interface  is  strictly  a  command-line
              interface  as  though  the  console  were a dumb terminal.  The menu interface is a
              text-based screen of the boot choices, with the option to enter additional  command
              line  parameters.   And  the  bmp  interface  is a menu presented against a graphic
              screen, specified as a 640x480 BitMaP file of 16 or 256 colors.  (See the 'lilo -E'
              switch for editing options).

              (Prior  to  LILO version 22.3, `install=' specified the user interface as a file in
              the `/boot' directory.)

              Normally any initial ramdisk (initrd) loaded with a kernel is  loaded  as  high  in
              memory  as  possible,  but  never  above 15Mb.  This is due to a BIOS limitation on
              older systems.  On newer systems, this option enables using memory above  15Mb  (up
              to a kernel imposed limit, around 768Mb) for passing the initrd to the kernel.  The
              presence of this option merely indicates that your system does  not  have  the  old
              BIOS limitation.

              This  switch  (or its absence) is not passed to the kernel, and does not in any way
              affect the  amount  of  physical  memory  which  it  will  use.   (See  the  kernel
              documentation  for the kernel command line parameter "mem=" for limiting the memory
              used by the kernel.)

       lba32  Generate 32-bit Logical Block Addresses instead of cylinder/head/sector  addresses.
              If  the  BIOS  supports packet addressing, then packet calls will be used to access
              the disk. This allows booting from any partition  on  disks  with  more  than  1024
              cylinders.   If the BIOS does not support packet addressing, then 'lba32' addresses
              are translated to cylinder/head/sector ('geometric'), just as  for  'linear'.   All
              floppy  disk  references are retained in C:H:S form.  Use of 'lba32' is recommended
              on all post-1998 systems.  Beginning with LILO version 22, 'lba32' is  the  default
              disk addressing scheme.

       linear Generate 24-bit linear sector addresses instead of cylinder/head/sector (geometric)
              addresses. Linear addresses are translated at run time to geometric addresses,  and
              are  limited to cylinders <= 1023. When using `linear' with large disks, /sbin/lilo
              may generate references to inaccessible disk  cylinders.  'lba32'  avoids  many  of
              these  pitfalls  with  its  use  of  packet  addressing, but requires a recent BIOS
              (post-1998).  The 'linear' option is considered obsolete, and its use  is  strongly

       lock   Enables automatic recording of boot command lines as the defaults for the following
              boots. This way, lilo "locks" on a choice until it is manually overridden.

              The per-image password option `mandatory' (see below) applies to all images.

              Specifies the location of the map file. If `map' is omitted, the file /boot/map  is

              On  machines  with  a  pre-1998 BIOS, the EDD bios extensions which are required to
              support "lba32" disk sector addressing may not be present. In this case, the  boot-
              loader  will  fall  back  automatically  to  "geometric" addressing; this fall back
              situation, or the specific use of "geometric" or "linear" addressing, will  require
              the  map file to be located within the first 1024 cylinders of the disk drive. This
              BIOS limitation is not present on post-1998 systems,  most  of  which  support  the
              newer EDD disk BIOS calls.

              Specifies  the  title  line  (up  to  37  characters) for the boot menu. This title
              replaces the default "LILO Boot Menu" title string. If menu is not installed as the
              boot loader (see install= option), then this line has no effect.

              The  default  color scheme of the boot menu may be overridden on VGA displays using
              this option. (The color scheme of MDA displays is fixed.)  The general color-scheme
              string is of the form:


              where  each  entry  is  two  characters  which  specify  a  foreground  color and a
              background color. Only the first entry is required. The default  highlight  is  the
              reverse  of  the  text  color; and the default border and title colors are the text
              color.  Colors are specified using the characters kbgcrmyw, for blacK, Blue, Green,
              Cyan, Red, Magenta, Yellow, and White: upper case for intense (fg only), lower case
              for dim.  Legal color-scheme strings would be

                  menu-scheme=Wm     intense white on magenta
                  menu-scheme=wr:bw:wr:Yr    the LILO default
                  menu-scheme=Yk:kw    bright yellow on black

              If menu is not installed as the boot loader, then this line has no effect.

              specifies a file containing a message that is displayed before the boot prompt.  No
              message  is  displayed  while waiting for a shifting key after printing "LILO ". In
              the message, the  FF  character  ([Ctrl  L])  clears  the  local  screen.  This  is
              undesirable  when  the menu boot loader is installed.  The size of the message file
              is limited to 65535 bytes. The map file has to be rebuilt if the  message  file  is
              changed or moved.  'message=' and 'bitmap=' are mutually exclusive.

              (22.8)  Disables  pre-loading of the internal device cache. May be needed for Linux
              distributions which use non-standard device  naming  conventions;  e.g.,  when  the
              first IDE disk is not `/dev/hda'.

              (22.7.2)  The  named  descriptor is taken to be the default boot image if no IBM-PC
              keyboard is present. If no  serial  interface  ("serial=")  is  in  use,  then  any
              "prompt"  keyword  and  "timeout" value are bypassed, and default booting occurs as
              specified by "delay=".  The keyboard detection codes cannot detect the presence  or
              absence of a newer USB keyboard.

       noraid Disables  the automatic marking of disk volumes which are components of RAID arrays
              as  inaccessible.   This  allows  the  user  to  edit  the  disk=  /   inaccessible
              declarations  into  the  configuration  file  himself.   Without such declarations,
              duplicate Volume IDs will be overwritten, leading to confusing situations at  boot-
              time,  and  possible  failure  to  boot.   The use of this keyword is generally not

       nowarn Disables warnings about possible future dangers.

              The per-image option `optional' (see below) applies to all images.

              The per-image option `password=...' (see below) applies to all images. This  option
              may  prevent  unattended  booting, if the default image is `password=' protected at
              the default level `mandatory', which is a level higher than `restricted'.

       prompt Automatic booting (see `delay' above) will not take place unless a locked  or  pre-
              stored ("lilo -R") command line is present. Instead, the boot loader will issue the
              boot: prompt and wait  for  user  input  before  proceeding  (see  timeout  below).
              Unattended default image reboots are impossible if `prompt' is set and `timeout' is
              not,  or  the  default  image  is  password  protected  at  a  higher  level   than

              This  option  only  has  meaning  for  RAID1  installations.   The  <option> may be
              specified as none, auto, mbr, mbr-only, or a comma-separated list of devices; e.g.,
              "/dev/hda,/dev/hdc6".  Starting with LILO version 22.0, the boot record is normally
              written to the first sector of the RAID1 partition.   On  PARALLEL  raid  sets,  no
              other  boot records are needed.  The default action is auto, meaning, automatically
              generate auxiliary boot records as needed on SKEWED raid sets.  none means suppress
              generation of all auxiliary boot records.  mbr-only suppresses generation of a boot
              record on the raid device, and forces compatibility with versions of  LILO  earlier
              than  version 22.0 by writing boot records to all Master Boot Records (MBRs) of all
              disks which have partitions in the raid set. mbr is like mbr-only except  the  boot
              record  on  the  RAID  partition  is  not  suppressed.   Use of an explicit list of
              devices, forces writing of auxiliary boot records only on those devices enumerated,
              in  addition  to  the  boot  record on the RAID1 device. Since the version 22 RAID1
              codes will never automatically write a boot record on the MBR of  device  0x80,  if
              such  a  boot  record is desired, this is one way to have it written. Use of mbr is
              the other way to force writing to the MBR of device 0x80.

              The per-image password option `restricted' (see below) applies to all images.

              enables control from a serial line. The specified serial port  is  initialized  and
              the  boot  loader  is accepting input from it and from the PC's keyboard. Sending a
              break on the serial line corresponds to pressing a shift  key  on  the  console  in
              order  to  get  the  boot  loader's attention.  All boot images should be password-
              protected if the serial access is less secure than access to the console,  e.g.  if
              the line is connected to a modem. The parameter string has the following syntax:


              <port>:   the  number  of  the serial port, zero-based. 0 corresponds to COM1 alias
              /dev/ttyS0, etc. All four ports can be used (if present).

              <bps>:  the baud rate of the serial port. The following baud rates  are  supported:
              110, 150, 300, 600, 1200, 2400(default), 4800, 9600, plus the extended rates 19200,
              38400, and 57600(56000).  115200 is allowed, but may not work with  all  COMx  port

              <parity>:  the parity used on the serial line. The boot loader ignores input parity
              and strips the 8th bit. The following (upper or lower case) characters are used  to
              describe  the  parity:   "n"  for  no  parity,  "e" for even parity and "o" for odd

              <bits>:  the number of bits in a character.  Only  7  and  8  bits  are  supported.
              Default is 8 if parity is "none", 7 if parity is "even" or "odd".

              If `serial' is set, the value of `delay' is automatically raised to 20.

              Example: "serial=0,2400n8" initializes COM1 with the default parameters.

              This  option specifies that boot images or 'other's are to be selected and launched
              with a single keystroke.  Selection is based upon the first character of each name,
              which  must be unique.  This option should not be used with the menu or bitmap user
              interface ("install=").

              Causes the operation of the boot installer and boot loader to  bypass  the  use  of
              Volume-ID  information,  and  to  revert to a mode of operation of versions of LILO
              from 22.4 backward.  With Volume-ID booting (22.5 and later),  the  BIOS  codes  of
              disks  are  determined  at  boot time, not install time; hence they may be switched
              around, either by adding or removing disk(s) from the hardware configuration, or by
              using a BIOS menu to select the boot device.

              With  the  use  of  this option, BIOS codes of disks MUST be correctly specified at
              install time; either guessed correctly by LILO (which often fails on mixed IDE/SCSI
              systems),  or  explicitly specified with 'disk=/dev/XXX bios=0xYY' statements.  The
              use of this option precludes any activity which may switch around  the  BIOS  codes
              assigned to particular disk devices, as noted above.

              In general, this option should never be used, except as a bug workaround.

              This  global  option  suppresses the boot-time real mode collection of BIOS data on
              systems which hang on certain BIOS calls.  It is equivalent to using the  boot-time
              switch 'nobd'.

              This  option  defeats  the  disk  volume recognition and BIOS device code detection
              features of LILO on systems with more than one disk. Thus the use  of  this  option
              will produce a strong cautionary message, which cannot be suppressed.

              sets  a  timeout  (in  tenths  of a second) for keyboard input at the boot: prompt.
              "timeout" only has meaning if "prompt" is mentioned.  If no key is pressed for  the
              specified  time,  the default image is automatically booted. The default timeout is

              (22.6) Alters the operation of the "timeout" parameter in a manner which is  useful
              on  noisy  serial  lines.   Each  typed (or noise) character restarts the "timeout"
              timer and a timeout  will  always  boot  the  default  descriptor,  even  if  noise
              characters have appeared on the input line.

              Turns  on  lots  of progress reporting. Higher numbers give more verbose output. If
              -v  is additionally specified on the lilo command  line,  the  level  is  increased
              accordingly. The maximum verbosity level is 5.

              The  named boot image is used as the default boot if booting in "virtual" mode with
              a virtual monitor, such as VMware(tm).  Thus a real mode boot and  a  virtual  mode
              boot can be made to have different default boot images.

       Additionally,  the kernel configuration parameters append, ramdisk, read-only, read-write,
       root and vga can be set in the global options section. They are used as defaults  if  they
       aren't specified in the configuration sections of the respective kernel images.


       A per-image section starts with either a line


       to indicate a file or device containing the boot image of a Linux kernel, or a line


       to indicate an arbitrary system to boot.

       In  the  former  case,  if  an image line specifies booting from a device, then one has to
       indicate the range of sectors to be mapped using


       In the third case, 'nsec=1' is assumed.


       If the booted image is a Linux kernel, then one may pass command line parameters  to  this

              The  kernel  parameters of this string are concatenated to the parameter(s) from an
              append= option (see below).  The string of addappend must be enclosed within double
              quotes.  Usually, the previous append= will set parameters common to all kernels by
              appearing in the global section of the configuration file and  addappend=  will  be
              used to add local parameter(s) to an individual image.  The addappend option may be
              used only once per "image=" section.

              If the string is a very long line, this line can be divided in more lines using "\"
              as last character of a line, e.g.

                  addappend="noapic acpi=off pci=usepirqmask \
                          pnpbios=off pnpacpi=off noisapnp"

              Appends  the options specified to the parameter line passed to the kernel.  This is
              typically used to specify hardware parameters that can't be entirely  auto-detected
              or  for which probing may be dangerous. Multiple kernel parameters are separated by
              a blank space, and the string must be enclosed in double quotes.  A  local  append=
              appearing  withing  an image= section overrides any global append= appearing in the
              global section of the configuration file.  The append option may be used only  once
              per "image=" section. To concatenate parameter strings, use "addappend=". Example:

                   append="mem=96M hd=576,64,32 console=ttyS1,9600"

              If the string is a very long line, this line can be divided in more lines using "\"
              as last character of a line. See example of addappend option.

              Specifies the initial ramdisk image to be loaded with the kernel.  The  image  will
              contain  modules  needed  at  boot  time, such as network and scsi drivers. See man
              pages for mkinitrd(8).

              Like `append', but removes all other options (e.g. setting  of  the  root  device).
              'literal'  overrides  all  'append' and 'addappend' options.  Because vital options
              can be removed unintentionally with `literal', this option cannot  be  set  in  the
              global options section.

              This  specifies  the size (e.g., "4096k") of the optional RAM disk. A value of zero
              indicates that no RAM disk should be created. If this variable is omitted, the  RAM
              disk size configured into the boot image is used.

              This  specifies  that  the root file system should be mounted read-only.  It may be
              specified as a global option.  Typically, the system  startup  procedure  re-mounts
              the root file system read-write later (e.g. after fsck'ing it).

              This  specifies  that the root file system should be mounted read-write.  It may be
              specified as a global option.

              This specifies the device that should be mounted as root.  It may be specified as a
              global  option.  If the special name current is used, the root device is set to the
              device on which the root file system is currently mounted. If  the  root  has  been
              changed  with   -r  ,  the  respective  device  is  used. If the variable `root' is
              omitted, the root device setting contained in the running  kernel  image  is  used.
              Warning: This can induce to an unbootable system!

              The  root  filesystem  may  also be specified by a LABEL= or UUID= directive, as in
              '/etc/fstab'.  In this case, the argument to root= must be  enclosed  in  quotation
              marks, to avoid a syntax error on the second equal sign, e.g.:


              Note:    The   command   line  root=  parameter  passed  to  the  kernel  will  be:
              'root=LABEL=MyDisk'; i.e., without the quotation marks. If the root=  parameter  is
              passed  from  the  boot time boot: prompt, no quotes are used.  The quotes are only
              there to satisfy the requirements of the boot-installer  parser,  which  treats  an
              equal  sign  as  an operator.  The kernel command line parser is very much simpler,
              and must not see any quotation marks.  Simply stated, only use the quotation  marks
              within /etc/lilo.conf.

              This  specifies  the VGA text mode that should be selected when booting.  It may be
              specified as a global  option.   The  following  values  are  recognized  (case  is

              normal: select normal 80x25 text mode.

              extended (or ext): select 80x50 text mode.

              ask: stop and ask for user input (at boot time).

              <number>:  use the corresponding text mode (can specify the number in decimal or in
              hex with the usual '0x' convention).  A list of available modes can be obtained  by
              booting with vga=ask and pressing [Enter].

              If  this variable is omitted, the VGA mode setting contained in the kernel image is
              used. (And that is set at compile time using the SVGA_MODE variable in  the  kernel
              Makefile, and can later be changed with the rdev(8) program.)


       Used to load systems other than Linux. The `other = <device>' specifies the boot sector of
       an alternate system  contained  on  a  device  or  disk  partition;  e.g.,  DOS  on,  say,
       `/dev/hda2',  or  a floppy on `/dev/fd0'.  In the case of booting another system there are
       these options:

              This specifies the chain loader that should be used.  It may also be specified as a
              global  option.   By default chain is used.  This chain loader passes partition and
              drive information in the boot sector it loads  only  to  DOS  on  FAT12  or  FAT16,
              Windows on FAT16 or FAT32. (see also table=<letter> below).

              This  specifies the device that contains the partition table.  The boot loader will
              pass default partition information to the booted operating system if this  variable
              is  omitted.  (Some  operating  systems  have  other  means to determine from which
              partition they have been booted.  E.g., MS-DOS usually stores the geometry  of  the
              boot disk or partition in its boot sector.)  Note that /sbin/lilo must be re-run if
              a partition table mapped referenced with `table' is modified.

              This option is obsolete. It were used in the special case with the  obsolete  os2_d
              chain loader.

       change This  keyword  starts  a  section  which  describes  how  primary partition IDs are
              changed, and how primary partitions are activated and deactivated.   If  change  is
              omitted, change rules are generated as though the automatic keyword were specified.
              The keyword change alone, without any  rules  following,  will  suppress  automatic
              change-rules.  For example,


              specifies  that  when primary partition /dev/hda2 is booted, automatic change-rules
              will be in effect; plus, partition 1, a DOS12 partition, will be  set  hidden,  and
              deactivated.   In  addition,  partition  2,  will  be  set  normal,  and activated.
              Activation sets the boot-flag in the partition table.  The  automatic  keyword  may
              conflict with default change rules, so the set= lines above may be redundant.

              This  option  (LILO  version  22.5.1)  indicates the BIOS device code which must be
              assigned to the specified drive in order for the "other=" operating system to boot.
              If the chain loader detects that another BIOS device code is assigned to this disk,
              then it will dynamically swap the assigned device code with  the  specified  device

              This  option  is easier to specify than "map-drive=" and more general than "master-
              boot" in  that  any  device  code  may  be  specified.   Unlike  "map-drive=",  the
              determination  whether to swap device codes is made at boot time, not install time.
              This is advantageous on systems where the BIOS presents a boot menu of devices, and
              will  map  disks  to  devices  in  different  ways,  depending  upon  the BIOS boot

              This option may be specified as a global option, in which case it  applies  to  all
              "other="  sections  unless overridden with a specific "master-boot" option.  If one
              of "boot-as=" or "master-boot" is specified as a global option,  it  is  better  to
              specify  "master-boot"  as  the global option, as it will not interfere with floppy
              disk BIOS device codes; "boot-as=" is then used  as  a  local  option  to  override
              "master-boot" as necessary.

              This  flag  (LILO  version 22.5) indicates a DOS/Windows or other system which will
              only boot from BIOS device 0x80, the "C:" drive, or BIOS device 0,  the  A:  drive.
              When this flag is specified, if this drive is not assigned device code 0x80 or 0 by
              the BIOS, then the chain loader will dynamically  swap  the  device  code  actually
              assigned  with device code 0x80 or 0 to make this drive appear to be the first hard
              or floppy drive, "C:" or "A:".

              This flag is easier to use than "map-drive=" (see  below),  and  is  preferred,  if
              simple  forcing  of  device  code  0x80  is  all  that is required. It is also more
              general, in that the necessity to swap BIOS device codes is determined  dynamically
              at  boot-time, not at boot install-time, as with "map-drive=".  It is slightly more
              powerful than "boot-as=", in that the device code which is assigned, 0 or 0x80,  is
              determined dynamically.

              This  option  may  be specified as a global option, in which case it applies to all
              "other=" sections unless overridden with a specific "boot-as=" option.

              Maps BIOS calls for the specified drive to the device code specified  on  the  next
              line  as  to=<num>.   This mapping is useful for booting operating systems, such as
              DOS, from the second hard drive.  The following, swaps the C: and D: drives,


              This option is largely  rendered  obsolete  by  "boot-as=",  introduced  with  LILO
              version 22.5.

       unsafe Do  not  access  the  boot  sector  at map creation time. This disables some sanity
              checks, including a partition table check. If the boot sector is on a  fixed-format
              floppy  disk  device,  using UNSAFE avoids the need to put a readable disk into the
              drive when running the map installer. If the boot sector is on a  hard  drive,  the
              BIOS  device  code  of  the  drive  will  have  to  be  specified  explicitly  with
              "disk=/dev/XXXX bios=0x8X inaccessible" in the configuration  file.   `unsafe'  and
              `table' (explicit or implicit) are mutually incompatible.


       In both the image= and other= cases, the following options apply.

       bypass No  password  is  required  to  boot  this  image. Used to indicate that the global
              password does not apply to this `image=' or `other='.  See 'password=' below.

              The boot loader  uses  the  main  file  name  (without  its  path)  of  each  image
              specification  to identify that image.  A different name can be used by setting the
              variable `label'.

              A second name for the same entry can be used by specifying an alias.

              The bitmap graphic (install=bmp) is retained when control is passed to  the  loaded
              kernel image, or other= bootloader; i.e., the screen is not blanked to alphanumeric
              mode before starting the kernel.  This  feature  is  considered  EXPERIMENTAL,  for
              those users working with startup splash screens.

              Specifies  a string that is stored as the default command line if the current image
              is booted. This is useful when experimenting with kernels which  may  crash  before
              allowing interaction with the system. If using the fallback option, the next reboot
              (e.g.  triggered by a manual reset or by a watchdog timer) will  load  a  different
              (supposedly  stable)  kernel.  The command line stored by the fallback mechanism is
              cleared by removing or changing the default command line with the -R option,  which
              should be a part of the boot startup scripts.

       lock   (See above.)

              Omit the image if it is not available at map creation time.  It may be specified as
              a global option.  This is useful to  specify  test  kernels  that  are  not  always

              Protect  the  `image='  or  `other='  with  a  password (or passphrase).  It may be
              specified as a global option.  The interpretation of  the  `password='  setting  is
              modified by the words `mandatory', `restricted', and `bypass' (see below).
              The  password  may  be specified in the config-file (less secure) or entered at the
              time the boot loader is installed. To request interactive entry of the password, it
              should be specified: password="".  Passwords entered interactively are not required
              to be entered again if the boot installer is re-run. They  are  cached,  in  hashed
              form,  in a companion file to the config-file, default name: /etc/lilo.conf.crc. If
              the config-file is updated, a warning message will be issued telling you to  re-run
              lilo -p to force re-creation of the password cache file.

              A  password  is  required to boot this image. This is the default. May be used on a
              single `image=' or `other=' to override a different global setting.

              (22.7.2) The specified descriptor is not bootable if the  IBM-PC  keyboard  is  not
              present.   This  option  is really only useful if the "serial=" boot terminal is in
              use.  With no  keyboard  (and  no  serial  terminal)  attached,  selecting  a  boot
              descriptor other than the default is impossible.  See nokbdefault above.

              A password is only required to boot the image if kernel parameters are specified on
              the command line (e.g. 'single').  May be used on a single `image=' or `other='  to
              override a different global setting.

       vmwarn If  booting  under  a virtual monitor such as VMware(tm), the image with this label
              will cause a cautionary warning to be issued at boot time,  and  user  intervention
              will be required to continue or to abort the boot process.

              If booting under a virtual monitor, the image with this label will not be displayed
              as a boot option.  The image is only bootable in real mode.  See vmdefault above.


       lilo(8), mkinitrd(8), mknod(1), mkrescue(8), rdev(8).

                                            April 2011                               LILO.CONF(5)