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       makedepend - create dependencies in makefiles


       makedepend [ -Dname=def ] [ -Dname ] [ -Iincludedir ] [ -Yincludedir ] [ -a ] [ -fmakefile
       ] [ -include file ] [ -oobjsuffix ] [ -pobjprefix ] [ -sstring ] [ -wwidth ] [ -v ] [ -m ]
       [ -- otheroptions -- ] sourcefile ...


       The  makedepend  program  reads  each  sourcefile  in  sequence  and  parses  it like a C-
       preprocessor, processing all #include, #define,  #undef,  #ifdef,  #ifndef,  #endif,  #if,
       #elif  and #else directives so that it can correctly tell which #include, directives would
       be used in a compilation.  Any #include,  directives  can  reference  files  having  other
       #include directives, and parsing will occur in these files as well.

       Every  file that a sourcefile includes, directly or indirectly, is what makedepend calls a
       dependency.  These dependencies are then written to a makefile in such a way that  make(1)
       will know which object files must be recompiled when a dependency has changed.

       By  default,  makedepend  places  its  output  in  the  file  named makefile if it exists,
       otherwise Makefile.  An alternate makefile may be specified with the -f option.  It  first
       searches the makefile for the line

           # DO NOT DELETE THIS LINE -- make depend depends on it.

       or one provided with the -s option, as a delimiter for the dependency output.  If it finds
       it, it will delete everything following this to the end of the makefile and put the output
       after  this line.  If it doesn't find it, the program will append the string to the end of
       the makefile and place the output following that.  For each sourcefile  appearing  on  the
       command line, makedepend puts lines in the makefile of the form

            sourcefile.o: dfile ...

       Where sourcefile.o is the name from the command line with its suffix replaced with ``.o'',
       and dfile is a dependency discovered in a #include directive while parsing  sourcefile  or
       one of the files it included.


       Normally, makedepend will be used in a makefile target so that typing ``make depend'' will
       bring the dependencies up to date for the makefile.  For example,
           SRCS = file1.c file2.c ...
           CFLAGS = -O -DHACK -I../foobar -xyz
                   makedepend -- $(CFLAGS) -- $(SRCS)


       The program will ignore any option that it does not understand so that  you  may  use  the
       same arguments that you would for cc(1).

       -Dname=def or -Dname
            Define.   This  places  a  definition for name in makedepend's symbol table.  Without
            =def the symbol becomes defined as ``1''.

            Include directory.  This option tells makedepend to prepend includedir to its list of
            directories  to  search  when  it  encounters  a  #include  directive.   By  default,
            makedepend only searches the standard include directories (usually  /usr/include  and
            possibly a compiler-dependent directory).

            Replace  all  of  the  standard include directories with the single specified include
            directory; you can omit the includedir  to  simply  prevent  searching  the  standard
            include directories.

       -a   Append the dependencies to the end of the file instead of replacing them.

            Filename.   This  allows you to specify an alternate makefile in which makedepend can
            place its output.  Specifying ``-'' as the file name (i.e., -f-) sends the output  to
            standard output instead of modifying an existing file.

       -include file
            Process  file  as  input,  and include all the resulting output before processing the
            regular input file. This has the same affect as if the specified file is  an  include
            statement that appears before the very first line of the regular input file.

            Object  file  suffix.   Some  systems may have object files whose suffix is something
            other than ``.o''.  This option allows you to specify another suffix, such as  ``.b''
            with -o.b or ``:obj'' with -o:obj and so forth.

            Object  file prefix.  The prefix is prepended to the name of the object file. This is
            usually used to designate a different directory for the object file.  The default  is
            the empty string.

            Starting string delimiter.  This option permits you to specify a different string for
            makedepend to look for in the makefile.

            Line width.  Normally, makedepend will ensure that every output line that  it  writes
            will be no wider than 78 characters for the sake of readability.  This option enables
            you to change this width.

       -v   Verbose operation.  This option causes makedepend to emit the list of files  included
            by each input file.

       -m   Warn about multiple inclusion.  This option causes makedepend to produce a warning if
            any input file includes another  file  more  than  once.   In  previous  versions  of
            makedepend  this  was  the  default  behavior; the default has been changed to better
            match the behavior of the C compiler, which does not consider multiple  inclusion  to
            be  an  error.   This  option  is  provided for backward compatibility, and to aid in
            debugging problems related to multiple inclusion.

       -- options --
            If makedepend encounters a  double  hyphen  (--)  in  the  argument  list,  then  any
            unrecognized  argument  following it will be silently ignored; a second double hyphen
            terminates this special treatment.  In this way, makedepend can  be  made  to  safely
            ignore  esoteric  compiler  arguments  that  might normally be found in a CFLAGS make
            macro (see the EXAMPLE section above).  All options that  makedepend  recognizes  and
            appear between the pair of double hyphens are processed normally.


       The  approach used in this program enables it to run an order of magnitude faster than any
       other ``dependency generator'' I have ever seen.  Central  to  this  performance  are  two
       assumptions:  that  all  files compiled by a single makefile will be compiled with roughly
       the same -I and -D options; and that most files in a single directory will include largely
       the same files.

       Given  these assumptions, makedepend expects to be called once for each makefile, with all
       source files that are maintained by the makefile appearing on the command line.  It parses
       each  source and include file exactly once, maintaining an internal symbol table for each.
       Thus, the first file on the command line will take an amount of time proportional  to  the
       amount  of  time  that  a  normal  C  preprocessor  takes.  But on subsequent files, if it
       encounters an include file that it has already parsed, it does not parse it again.

       For example, imagine you are compiling two files, file1.c and file2.c, they  each  include
       the  header  file  header.h,  and  the file header.h in turn includes the files def1.h and
       def2.h.  When you run the command

           makedepend file1.c file2.c

       makedepend will parse file1.c and consequently, header.h and then def1.h and  def2.h.   It
       then decides that the dependencies for this file are

           file1.o: header.h def1.h def2.h

       But when the program parses file2.c and discovers that it, too, includes header.h, it does
       not parse the  file,  but  simply  adds  header.h,  def1.h  and  def2.h  to  the  list  of
       dependencies for file2.o.


       cc(1), make(1)


       makedepend  parses,  but  does  not  currently  evaluate,  the SVR4 #predicate(token-list)
       preprocessor expression; such expressions are simply assumed to be true.  This  may  cause
       the wrong #include directives to be evaluated.

       Imagine  you are parsing two files, say file1.c and file2.c, each includes the file def.h.
       The list of files that def.h includes might truly be different when def.h is  included  by
       file1.c  than  when  it  is included by file2.c.  But once makedepend arrives at a list of
       dependencies for a file, it is cast in concrete.


       Todd Brunhoff, Tektronix, Inc. and MIT Project Athena